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历年英语四级阅读真题全解析(2002-2008)

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发表于 2016-7-12 11:29:59 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Three
          Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
          New technology links the world as never before. Our planet has shrunk. It’s now a “global village” where countries are only seconds away by fax or phone or satellite link. And, of course, our ability to benefit from this high-tech communications equipment is greatly enhanced by foreign language skills.
          Deeply involved with this new technology is a breed of modern businesspeople who have a growing respect for the economic value of doing business abroad. In modern markets, success overseas often helps support domestic business efforts.
          Overseas assignments are becoming increasingly important to advancement within executive ranks. The executive stationed in another country no longer need fear being “out of sight and out of mind.” He or she can be sure that the overseas effort is central to the company’s plan for success, and that promotions often follow or accompany an assignment abroad. If an employee can succeed in a difficult assignment overseas, superiors will have greater confidence in his or her ability to cope back in the United States where cross-cultural considerations and foreign language issues are becoming more and more prevalent (普遍的).
          Thanks to a variety of relatively inexpensive communications devices with business applications, even small businesses in the United States are able to get into international markets.
          English is still the international language of business. But there is an ever-growing need for people who can speak another language. A second language isn’t generally required to get a job in business, but having language skills gives a candidate the edge when other qualifications appear to be equal
          The employee posted abroad who speaks the country’s principal language has an opportunity to fast-forward certain negotiations, and cam have the cultural insight to know when it is better to move more slowly. The employee at the home office who can communicate well with foreign clients over the telephone or by fax machine is an obvious asset to the firm.
          21. What is the author’s attitude toward high-tech communications equipment?
          A) Critical.
          B) Prejudiced.
          C) Indifferent.
          D) Positive.(D)
          22. With the increased use of high-tech communications equipment, businesspeople ________.
          A) have to get familiar with modern technology
          B) are gaining more economic benefits from domestic operations
          C) are attaching more importance to their overseas business
          D) are eager to work overseas(C)
          23. In this passage, “out of sight and out of mind” (Lines 2-3, Para. 3) probably means ________.
          A) being unable to think properly for lack of insight
          B) being totally out of touch with business at home
          C) missing opportunities for promotion when abroad
          D) leaving all care and worry behind(C)
          24. According to the passage, what is an important consideration of international corporations in employing people today?
          A) Connections with businesses overseas.
          B) Ability to speak the client’s language.
          C) Technical know-how.
          D) Business experience.(B)
          25. The advantage of employees having foreign language skills is that they can ________.
          A) better control the whole negotiation process
          B) easily find new approaches to meet market needs
          C) fast-forward their proposals to headquarters
          D) easily make friends with businesspeople abroad(A)
          这篇材料的核心内容应该是外语能力在国际商业中的作用,不过因为出题篇幅有限,出题者只选取了原材料的六个段落,在这些段落中,对“外语能力在国际商业中的 作用”的论述并没有完全展开,论述的重心落在了中心论题的前提条件——如国际商业的重要性和易行性上,仅仅在最后两段提到了外语能力的作用。
          文章第一段是一个概括性的段落,先是概述中心论题的条件:新技术所带来的交流方式如传真、电话、卫星等使地球变小(countries are only seconds away by fax or phone or satellite link);而后简单点出了论点:外语能力使我们更加受益于高技术(is greatly enhanced by foreign language skills)。
          第一段没有说明外语能力为什么会使我们更加受益于高技术,或者说使我们在哪些方面受益,二、三、四段回答了这个问题。
          第二段指出,一些现代商业人士与这些新技术密 切相关,他们对跨国商业的经济价值十分看重。现代市场中,海外市场的成功往往会对国内业务起到很好的支撑作用。这一段没有提到新技术,与外语能力也无关 系,但恰好就是这二者间的联系点,也就是外语能力在什么情况下受益于高技术。下一段对此进行了详细的论述。
          海外项目对经理们升职的重要性越来越强(advancement within executive ranks,表面意思是在执行职位头衔中的前进,也就是从低层经理职位向高层上升的意思)。驻外经理们已经没有后顾之忧(out of sight,应该指的是不入高层管理人士的法眼、进而得到升职机会的意思),海外业务往往成为公司成功机会的核心,某位经理若被分配了海外业务,那么可能就直接意味着升职机会(that promotions often follow or accompany an assignment abroad)。而如果这位经理成功地完成一项难度很高的海外业务,那么高层人士对他或她必然另眼相看,对其成功处理美国国内业务的能力信心大增(superiors will have greater confidence)。Where引导的从句实际上是海外业务成功所必备的素质:跨文化思考问题的能力和外语能力。这就把外语能力和海外业务联系起来了。
          下一段则开始把海外业务也和新技术联系起来。因为用于商业的信息交流设备的廉价,商业企业可以普遍地进入国际市场(even small businesses in the United States are able to get into international markets)。
          三方关系终于理顺,接下来就可以正式论述外语能力的重要性了。英语依然是国际商业通用语言,但讲外语的需求正在增长。外语能力并不是商业领域求职必备的能力,但在各个求职者水平相当的情况下就会显现出优势(edge通常是“边缘”,在这里是“优势”的意思)。
          上一段讲的是求职,那么对于在职者有何好处呢?国外驻职者(employee posted abroad):加速谈判进程,并知道何时应该减慢速度。国内工作者(employee at the home office):能与国外客户通过电话、传真交流,这对公司来说是一笔财富。
          21. D
          这道题问作者对高技术交流设备采取何种态度。
          A,批评的态度。
          B,持有偏见。
          C,无所谓。
          D,积极的态度。
          这道题比较简单,从文中的叙述来看,没有出现对高技术交流设备的反面论述,基本全部论述其积极影响,如开头的our ability to benefit from this high-tech communications equipment,这里所用的benefit已经直接表明我们会从这种设备中受益。二三四段讲的是较高的外语能力使我们如何受益于高技术,依然是受益。所以,本文作者对高技术交流设备的态度是积极肯定的。四个选项中前三个都具有否定意义,D的说法最为准确。
          22. C
          本题问随着高技术交流设备更多地得到使用,商业人士……
          A,必须熟悉现代技术。
          B,通过国内业务赚取更多的经济利益。
          C,更加重视海外业务。
          D,渴望到海外工作。
          文章首次提到business people是在第二段,称他们have a growing respect for the economic value of doing business abroad,意思是对海外业务的经济价值的认可正在增加。
          第三段的内容中心依然和business people有关,大意是海外业务对business people的升职非常有利。此后的内容与business people的关系就不再紧密了,可以认为本题的答案就在第二和第三段中。
          A的说法有一定道理,但在文中没有直接提到,所以不能算最贴切,还应该继续看BCD有无更为贴切的说法。B的说法与文章的论述正好相反,应该是海外业务正给他们带来更多收益。
          C的说法最为合理,因为第二段已经说明business people认可了海外业务的经济价值,第三段认可了海外业务所能带来的仕途价值,这两点共同说明business people对海外业务的重视。
          D的说法也有一定道理,但和A一样,该说法在文中没有直接的落脚点,相对C来说还不够贴切。
          23. C
          题目问文章中out of sight and out of mind一句很可能是什么意思。
          A,因缺少洞察力而不能正确地思考。
          B,与国内业务完全无关。
          C,任职国外时失去升职的机会。
          D,完全置之度外。
          这种考查短语或单词意思的题需要结合上下文思考,需要参考的上下文一般前后各一两句即可。前一句是Overseas assignments are becoming increasingly important to advancement within executive ranks,句意较好理解,意思是海外职务对于管理人员的升职越来越重要了。这一句是第三段的首句,可能具有总领全句的作用,所以初步判断本题所问可能和升职有关。该短语所在句的意思是驻守外国的管理人员无需再担心out of sight and out of mind。之后的一句是He or she can be sure that the overseas effort is central to the company’s plan for success, and that promotions often follow or accompany an assignment abroad,大意是海外业务对公司的成功是至关重要的,而海外任职往往意味着一次升职机会。
          从上下文大意来看,确实是在讲述海外任职和职位升迁的关系。文中的观点是海外任职有助于职位提升,那么out of sight可能就是指自己的业绩不入领导的视野,out of mind就是指有了升职机会时,海外高管从来不在领导的考虑之列。符合这个意思的是C。
          24. B
          题目问根据文中所述,如今的跨国公司在雇佣员工时把什么条件作为一项重要的考虑。
          A,与海外业务的联系。
          B,会讲客户的语言。
          C,技术知识。
          D,商务经验。
          纵观这四个选项,似乎都有些道理,不过只能有一个是和原文联系紧密的。因为上一题已经考查过第三段,所以与本题相关的内容必定在第三段之后。
          第四段讲的是便宜的通讯设备降低了国际业务的门槛,使小企业也能参与国际业务。这里没有讲述任何有关员工的问题,所以答案不在第四段。
          第五段开头先讲到英语作为国际通用语的重要作用,但马上话锋一转,指出会讲客户的语言越来越受到重视。此后则直截了当地表示语言技能会增加应聘者被聘用的机会:having language skills gives a candidate the edge when other qualifications appear to be equal,这里的edge就是指的优势。
          看到这里应该可以为本题做出解答了,B是正确选项。
          25. A
          题目问具备外语技能的员工具有一定的优势,这些优势是指什么。
          A,能够更好地控制整个谈判的进程。
          B,容易发现满足市场需求的新途径。
          C,能使他们的建议很快地送达总部。
          D,容易和国外商务人士结交朋友。
          全文还有最后一段没有考查,从四个题支来看,本题不是考查对全篇的理解,则必然在考查最后一段。
          最后一段共两句话,第二句是对具备外语能力的员工的价值的评述:asset
          to the firm(非常有用的资产),这一句应该和本题无关。解答本题关键要看第一句话。这句话的主语非常长:The employee posted abroad who speaks the country’s principal language,意思是能够说当地语言的海外员工。下文对这样的员工有两点描述,一是有机会把某些谈判快速推进(has an opportunity to fast-forward certain negotiations),二是具有文化洞察力,知道何时该把谈判放慢(can have the cultural insight to know when it is better to move more slowly)。这两点都是和谈判有关,一快一慢,也就是如何把握谈判的节奏。
          四个选项中A的意思与此最为接近。C有一点迷惑性,因为原文中也出现了fast-forward一词,不过原文宾语是“谈判”,说海外雇员和总部谈判显然是不对的。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 11:41:39 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Four
          Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
          In recent years, Israeli consumers have grown more demanding as they’ve become wealthier and more worldly-wise. Foreign travel is a national passion; this summer alone, one in 10 citizens will go abroad. Exposed to higher standards of service elsewhere, Israelis are returning home expecting the same. American firms have also begun arriving in large numbers. Chains such as KFC, McDonald’s and Pizza Hut are setting a new standard of customer service, using strict employee training and constant monitoring to ensure the friendliness of frontline staff. Even the American habit of telling departing customers to “Have a nice day” has caught on all over Israel. “Nobody wakes up in the morning and says, ‘Let’s be nicer,’” says Itsik Cohen, director of a consulting firm. “Nothing happens without competition.”
          Privatization, or the threat of it, is a motivation as well. Monopolies (垄断者) that until recently have been free to take their customers for granted now fear what Michael Perry, a marketing professor, calls “the revengeful (报复的) consumer.” When the government opened up competition with Bezaq, the phone company, its international branch lost 40% of its market share, even while offering competitive rates. Says Perry, “People wanted revenge for all the years of bad service.” The electric company, whose monopoly may be short-lived, has suddenly mopped requiring users to wait half a day for a repairman. Now, appointments are scheduled to the half-hour. The graceless El Al Airlines, which is already at auction (拍卖), has retrained its employees to emphasize service and is boasting about the results in an ad campaign with the slogan, “You can feel the change in the air.” For the first time, praise outnumbers complaints on customer survey sheets.
          26. It may be inferred from the passage that ________.
          A) customer service in Israel is now improving
          B) wealthy Israeli customers are hard to please
          C) the tourist industry has brought chain stores to Israel
          D) Israeli customers prefer foreign products to domestic ones(A)
          27. In the author’s view, higher service standards are impossible in Israel ________.
          A) if customer complaints go unnoticed by the management
          B) unless foreign companies are introduced in greater numbers
          C) if there’s no competition among companies
          D) without strict routine training of employees(C)
          28. If someone in Israel today needs a repairman in case of a power failure, ________.
          A) they can have it fixed in no time
          B) it’s no longer necessary to make an appointment
          C) the appointment takes only half a day to make
          D) they only have to wait half an hour at most(D)
          29. The example of El A1 Airlines shows that ________.
          A) revengeful customers are a threat to the monopoly of enterprises
          B) an ad campaign is a way out for enterprises in financial difficulty
          C) a good slogan has great potential for improving service
          D) staff retraining is essential for better service(D)
          30. Why did Bezaq’s international branch lose 40% of its market share?
          A) Because the rates it offered were not competitive enough.
          B) Because customers were dissatisfied with its past service.
          C) Because the service offered by its competitors was far better.
          D) Because it no longer received any support from the government.(B)
          这两段材料所要论述的核心是竞争使服务改善。虽然只是两个大段,但分工比较明确。第一大段主要从以色列人的服务体验的角度来说明竞争改善服务的第一种情形。第二段则提出第二点情形:私人化。
          第一段讲以色列人所体验的服务改善。改善总有缘由,开头讲到以色列人因为比从前更加有钱(become wealthier),见过的世面也更广(more worldly-wise),所以出游的次数很多(one in 10 citizens will go abroad,十分之一的人出国旅游)。出国旅游的结果是体验到了国外优质的服务,回国之后当然期望国内的服务也具有同样的质量(Exposed to higher standards of service elsewhere, Israelis are returning home expecting the same)。这是第一个缘由。与此同时,美国公司大批进入以色列。所谓外来的和尚会念经,美国公司给以色列人带来了优质的服务体验。他们带来了新的客户服务标准,实施严格的员工培训,时刻监控待客员工对客户是否友好。结果是,整个以色列的服务都开始改善,典型的例子就是美国式的Have a nice day问候语在以色列流行开来。这一段最后一句揭示了现象下面的本质:Nothing happens without competition,这一切都是竞争所带来的。
          第二段讲的是私人化。第一句就开门见山指出私人化是带来竞争从而使服务改善的原因。作者随后的论述不是从正面论述,而是从私人化的反面——垄断说起。这里的垄断Monopolies应该指的是国有企业的垄断。垄断会造成服务质量下降,这是不争的事实,而低劣的服务会给消费者造成伤害,最终引发消费者的报复(the revengeful consumer)。文中举了一个例子来说明这种报复的强度。政府允许一家私人公司Bezaq参与电信竞争,结果政府企业的国际分部马上丧失了40%的市场份额,这是在它的费率比Bezaq还要低的情况下发生的。随后,作者从正面说明私人化所带来的竞争效果。首先是电力公司把派送维修人员的时间期限从半天缩短到了半小时。而一家航空公司在严格要求乘务人员提供优质服务,并提出了要改变服务的口号。最终的效果是消费者的好评如潮(praise outnumbers complaints on customer survey sheets)。
          26. A
          题目问从文中可以推断出什么。因为这是第一题,一般情况下应该结合第一段的内容排除错误的选项。
          A,以色列的客户服务正在改善。文中没有直接提到以色列的客户服务的改善,但从个别句子可以做出推断。第一段前半部分在讲以色列人因为经常旅游、接触到了国外高质量的服务后,回到国内对服务质量的要求也增高了。后半部分讲的是国外企业进入以色列后,带来了一套新的标准(setting a new standard of customer service),并暗示竞争使服务变好。文中Let’s be nicer应该指的就是服务变好。由此可见,A的说法是合理的。
          B,富有的以色列消费者很难取悦。这句话考查对Israeli consumers have grown more demanding as they’ve become wealthier and more worldly-wise一句的理解。首先,这里的wealthier使用了比较级,即指比以前富有了的以色列人,富有是相对的,并不指的就是富人,从这一点就可以排除B。More demanding含有要求更高的意思,“要求更高”和“很难取悦”在程度上应该还是存在一定距离的。
          C,旅游业已经为以色列带来了连锁企业。根据文意,连锁企业并不是旅游业带来的。根据对选项A的分析可知,旅游业带来的是国民对服务更高的要求,而不是连锁企业。
          D,相对于国内产品,以色列消费者更青睐国外产品。文中提到了KFC等国外企业的涌入,其结果是竞争促进了服务质量的提高。至于消费者更加青睐哪一方,文中并没有相关描述。
          27.C
          题目问在作者看来,在以色列不可能实现更高的服务标准(条件是)……
          A,如果管理层无视顾客的抱怨之声。
          B,除非外国公司更大数量地引入国内。
          C,如果公司之间没有竞争。
          D,如果不对员工严格进行常规培训。
          这道题应该说比较简单,因为第一段文末已经给出直接的答案Nothing happens without competition,Nothing happens应该指的就是不能实现更高的服务标准,条件是without competition(没有竞争)。应该选择C。
          第一段没有提到管理层或者是客户的抱怨,因此可以排除A。
          根据文意,外国公司进入以色列已经带来了竞争,而竞争已经使服务质量上升,文章没有强调非更多引入外国公司不可的意思。因此可以排除B。
          这里也没有提到员工培训问题,D的说法是子虚乌有,可以排除。
          28. D
          题目问如今在以色列如果有人需要维修人员来解决停电问题,那么……
          A,立即就会得到修理。
          B,已经没有必要预约。
          C,预约只需半天时间。
          D,他们最多只需等待半小时。
          这道题考查对这两句话的理解:The electric company, whose monopoly may be short-lived, has suddenly mopped requiring users to wait half a day for a repairman. Now, appointments are scheduled to the half-hour.
          第一句是说电力公司曾经让用户等待半天时间,第二句则说现在只需要半小时。题目问的是现在(today)的情况,所以应该是半小时,选择D。
          29. D
          题目问El A1航空公司的例子说明了什么。
          A,含有报复心态的消费者对垄断巨头来说是一个威胁。
          B,做广告是身处财政困境企业的一条出路。
          C,对于服务改善来说,一条好的口号具有很大的潜力。
          D,员工再培训对于提高服务来说是至关重要的。
          文中叙述这家航空公司采取了两项措施来解决危机,一是对员工进行服务方面的再培训(has retrained its employees to emphasize service),二是做广告,以口号来宣传自己(在服务上)已经今非昔比 (is boasting about the results in an ad campaign with the slogan,“You can feel the change in the air.”),而后作者指出这些措施的成效:好评第一次超过了抱怨( For the first time, praise outnumbers complaints on customer survey sheets)。
          A指的是电力公司的例子,可以排除。
          B讲的是文中的第二条措施:广告宣传。但文中的广告是指宣传自己的服务正在改善,服务是本质,而不是泛泛地做企业广告。因此B的说法不准确。
          C的说法颠倒了服务和口号的关系。在文中,航空公司首先进行服务改善,而后使用口号来宣传服务。而C的意思是依靠口号来进行服务改善,显然是错误的。
          D的说法恰好是航空公司第一条措施的内容,是正确的。
          30. B
          题目问Bezaq的国际分部为什么会失去其40%的市场份额。
          A,因为它报收的费用还不够具有竞争力。
          B,因为客户们对其过去的服务不满。
          C,因为它的竞争对手所提供的服务远好于它。
          D,因为它不再受到政府的任何支持。
          这道题考查对这一句的理解:When the government opened up competition with Bezaq, the phone company, its international branch lost 40% of its market share, even while offering competitive rates. Says Perry, “People wanted revenge for all the years of bad service.”
          第一句说的是政府开放了Bezaq的竞争,也就是为该行业引入竞争对手,这当然并没有说不再受到政府的任何支持,D不对。
          之后说的是题干所讲的该公司失去了40%份额的事实,此后是while引导的一个条件,意思是“即便在提供具有竞争力费率的情况下”。这说明Bezaq的费率比竞争对手还要低,因此A不对。
          至于这其中的原因,最后一句话给出了解释:人们要对该公司过去的恶劣服务进行报复。符合这个意思的是B,C虽然也提到了服务,但文中没有论述现在Bezaq的服务如何,所以并不正确。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 12:50:24 | 显示全部楼层
2003.6
          Passage One
          Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
          On average, American kids ages 3 to 12 spent 29 hours a week in school, eight hours more that they did in 1981. They also did more household work and participated in more of such organized activities as soccer and ballet (芭蕾舞). Involvement in sports, in particular, rose almost 50% from 1981 to 1997: boys now spend an average of four hours a week playing sports; girls log hall that time. All in all, however, children’s leisure time dropped from 40% of the day in 1981 to 25%
          “Children are affected by the same time crunch (危机) that affects their parents,” says Sandra Hofferth, who headed the recent study of children’s timetable. A chief reason, she says, is that more mothers are working outside the home. (Nevertheless, children in both double-income and “male breadwinner” households spent comparable amounts of time interacting with their parents 19 hours and 22 hours respectively. In contrast, children spent only 9 hours with their single mothers.)
          All work and no play could make for some very messed-up kids. “Play is the most powerful way a child explores the world and learns about himself,” says T. Berry Brazelton, professor at Harvard Medical School Unstructured play encourages independent thinking and allows the young to negotiate their relationships with their peers, but kids ages 3 to 12 spent only 12 hours a week engaged in it.
          The children sampled spent a quarter of their rapidly decreasing “free time” watching television. But that, believe it or not, was one of the findings parents might regard as good news. If they’re spending less time in front of the TV set, however, kids aren’t replacing it with reading. Despite efforts to get kids more interested in books, the children spent just over an hour a week reading. Let’s face it, who’s got the time?
          21. By mentioning “the same time crunch” (Line 1, Para. 2) Sandra Hofferth means ________.
          A) children have little time to play with their parents
          B) children are not taken good care of by their working parents
          C) both parents and children suffer from lack of leisure time
          D) both parents and children have trouble managing their time(D)
          22. According to the author, the reason given by Sandra Hofferth for the time crunch is ________.
          A) quite convincing
          B) partially true
          C) totally groundless
          D) rather confusing(B)
          23. According to the author a child develops better if ________.
          A) he has plenty of time reading and studying
          B) he is left to play with his peers in his own way
          C) he has more time participating in school activities
          D) he is free to interact with his working parents(D)
          24. The author is concerned about the fact that American kids ________.
          A) are engaged in more and more structured activities
          B) are increasingly neglected by their working mothers
          C) are spending more and more time watching TV
          D) are involved less and less in household work(A)
          25. We can infer from the passage that ________.
          A) extracurricular activities promote children’s intelligence
          B) most children will turn to reading with TV sets switched off
          C) efforts to get kids interested in reading have been fruitful
          D) most parents believe reading to be beneficial to children(C)
          这四段材料讲述的是当今美国儿童生活时间分配上的变化,是按照陈述现象、探究原因和阐释后果的顺序进行论述的。
          第一段告诉我们要讨论的问题是什么。第一句话先是指明儿童年龄是3-12岁,而后是这些儿童在各类活动中花去的时间,并将现在的数据与1981年进行对比。首先是每周在校时间,29小时,比1981长8小时(29 hours a week in school, eight hours more that they did in 1981);在家务劳动和足球、芭蕾舞等集体活动中所花的时间也多于过去,尤其是在体育运动方面,已经增长了一半的时间(sports, in particular, rose almost 50%)。与此相反,儿童的休闲时间却从1981年的40%降到了现在的25%(leisure time dropped from 40% of the day in 1981 to 25%)。
          现象陈述完毕,是什么原因造成了这种时间分配上的变化呢?第二段中间部分有直接的说明:A chief reason is that more mothers are working outside the home,一个主要原因是母亲们更多地在外工作。括号内的内容是不同家庭结构下孩子与父母们交流的时间,双亲同时工作的(double-income)为19小时,父亲一人工作的为22小时,而单身母亲(single mother)家庭只有9小时。
          玩耍时间过少会有什么后果呢?make for some very messed-up kids,make for词组表示“导致”。作者引用权威人士的话强调了玩耍的重要性:玩耍是孩子接触与学习世界的最有效的方式(Play is the most powerful way a child explores the world and learns about himself),玩耍可以激发独立思考能力(independent thinking),同时能帮助孩子发展与别的儿童的关系。
          更为严重的是,下降到如此程度的休闲时间,却依然要从中分出四分之一用来看电视(spent a quarter of their rapidly decreasing “free time” watching television),而父母们竟然把这一现象当作是好事。减少看电视时间的好处是,孩子们可以用更多的时间来读书(kids aren’t replacing it with reading)。孩子们实际花在阅读上的时间仅是每周一个多小时。
          21. C
          这道题问Sandra Hofferth 所说的the same time crunch是什么意思。
          A,孩子们很少有时间和父母玩耍。
          B,忙于工作的父母没有给予孩子很好的照料。
          C,父母和孩子都受害于空闲时间的缺乏。
          D,父母和孩子都存在时间分配的问题。
          判断短句意思这种题要在上下文中寻找答案。首先看这个短语所在句子的意思:Children are affected by the same time crunch (危机) that affects their parents,直译为孩子们被同样影响他们父母的时间危机所影响。其次要看前后段落的意思。
          第一段讲的是孩子们在时间分配上的变化,作者最后的结论是children’s leisure time dropped from 40% of the day in 1981 to 25%,即孩子们的休闲时间从40%降到了25%。而下文讲的是造成孩子们面临这一时间危机的原因:更多的母亲在外工作。
          从第一段我们可以得到这样的信息:作者最后一句的用词,首先是使用了带有总结性质的all in all,而后是转折性质的however,这两处用词说明作者写作这一整段的内容,其目的都是为了最后强调一个重点,也就是孩子们休闲时间的减少。
          从下文可以得到这样的信息:更多母亲在外工作的反面是母亲们待在家中;待在家中的好处是什么?是有更多的时间和孩子们在一起。和孩子们待在一起的时间也可以称为上班后的母亲们的休闲时间了。
          前后文的信息都指向了一点:休闲时间的减少。
          观察四个选项,其实都是有道理的,没有哪一个选项明显错误。A所说的孩子们少有时间和父母玩耍是第三段着重论述的中心,不过休闲时间里不见得就是指的玩耍,比如还有最后一段所说的读书。
          B所说的上班的父母没有给孩子很好的照料也是事实,不过这和time crunch(时间危机)的联系稍有距离。
          D所说的时间分配问题是从孩子和父母为出发点,那么一个孩子如何获得了管理自己时间的能力呢?孩子的时间分配应该是由大人来管理的,所以他们不具备managing的能力,D的说法是错误的。
          22. B
          这道题问根据作者说法,Sandra Hofferth就时间危机给出的原因如何如何。
          A,非常具有说服力。
          B,部分正确。
          C,完全没有根据。
          D,难以理解。
          Sandra Hofferth给出的原因是more mothers are working outside the home(更多的母亲在外工作),在原因的后面跟了一对括号对这一原因进行了补充说明,括号内的内容应该就是本文作者的观点。
          作者评述的第一个词就是Nevertheless,意思是“不过、但是”,表转折含义,这至少说明了作者是对Sandra Hofferth的说法不是完全支持的。后面的内容是对不同家庭结构下孩子与父母相处时间的差异:双亲同时工作的(double-income)为19小时,父亲一人工作的为22小时,而单身母亲(single mother)家庭只有9小时。作者罗列三种情况旨在说明Sandra Hofferth的说法有一刀切的嫌疑,需要具体问题具体分析;不过从单身母亲和双亲工作家庭时间明显少于父亲一人工作的家庭来看,Sandra Hofferth的说法在大方向上是对的。所以,可以认为B的说法正确。
          23. B
          题目问根据作者的说法,一个孩子在什么情况下会更好地成长。
          A,如果他拥有充足的时间用来读书和学习。
          B,如果让他和同伴们自由玩耍。
          C,如果他有更多的时间参加学校活动。
          D,如果他有自由的时间和工作的父母交流。
          这个问题看似有些空泛,好像涉及到全文内容。不过按照四六级阅读题的出题规律,既然第二段在上一题已经考查过了,按照顺序,这道题的答案应该去直接第三段寻找。
          第一句话是All work and no play could make for some very messed-up kids,指出没有玩耍的孩子可能会出现严重问题。可以看出这句话和B的说法联系紧密。此后作者对玩耍的重要性进行了阐述。首先是引用一位大学教授的话说明玩耍对孩子成长的重要意义(Play is the most powerful way a child explores the world and learns about himself),而后,在最后一句话中指出玩耍对孩子成长的实际作用。最后一句话的Unstructured play恰好与B的in his own way意义一致,都指大人不干涉孩子,任其与同伴自由玩耍。到此可以肯定B为正确答案。
          其实A、D的说法在文中都有论述(A在最后一段,D在第二段),其说法本身是正确的,但是否可以和孩子的成长联系起来则很难说,至少文章没有直接说明这一点。这时依据四级阅读的出题规律,直接在第三段查找答案,我们的思路就豁然开朗了。
          24. A
          题目问作者所关心的事实是美国孩子……。
          A,参加的活动中有组织的活动越来越多。
          B,越来越受到他们上班母亲的忽视。
          C,用来看电视的时间越来越多。
          D,做的家务劳动越来越少。
          这个题的关键词不是很突出,只能确定为American kids, 同时结合题目的顺序来缩小搜寻范围。本题是倒数第二题,应该考查文章后半部分的内容,又了解到上一题已经考查了第三段,所以本题考查第四段的可能性大。不 过,鉴于文章一共才四段,第四段应该会留给最后一题,所以考查第三段后半部分的可能性也是有的。因此,应该从第三段后半部分开始寻找相关信息。
          第三段后半部分是这样的:Unstructured play encourages independent thinking and allows the young to negotiate their relationships with their peers, but kids ages 3 to 12 spent only 12 hours a week engaged in it——这句话以but为分界线,前面讲的是无组织的玩耍给孩子们带来的益处,后面讲的是孩子们很少有时间参与无组织的玩耍这一事实。选项A的说法和这句话相关,不过A是从相反角度来讲的,也就是原文说法为无组织的玩耍很少,而A认为有组织的活动增多。这二者能不能划等号呢?不能妄下定论。不过,从第一段的综述中可以找到相关的内容支持A的说法。第一段中提到They also did more household work(这句话否定了D的说法) and participated in more of such organized activities as soccer and ballet,这里的organized activities应该等于structured activities,由此可以判断A说法本身是正确的。但A所述事实是不是作者所忧虑的呢?第一段没有明确指出这一点,答案还是需要回到第三段最后一句话中来寻找。作者阐述了无组织玩耍的好处,之后话锋一转,指出孩子们很少参与这种活动,这种转折关系应该能够体现出作者的忧虑之情。
          B的说法是第二段的内容,为正确答案的可能性不大。从第二段来看,或许B的说法在文中确实提到,但作者却并未流露出忧虑之情。
          C的说法是第四段的内容。作者在第四段指出孩子们把空闲时间的四分之一的时间用来看电视,也对这种现象表示了担心。但这些时间是否比以前多,则没有明确提到。
          25. A
          题目问我们能从文章中推断出什么。
          A,课外活动有助于提升孩子们的智力。
          B,如果关掉电视机,多数孩子会转而去读书。
          C,目的在于培养孩子们的读书兴趣的努力已经颇有成果。
          D,多数家长认为读书对孩子们有益。
          这是一道推理题,同时也是最后一题,考查的内容可能是全文也可能是最后一段。观察四个选项,基本都与阅读reading有关,可以判断考查的是最后一段。推理题需要采用排除法,把每个选项的内容与文章的相关内容进行对比,排除错误的选项。
          A的说法是第三段的内容,相关句是:Unstructured play encourages independent thinking。如果Unstructured play等于extracurricular activities,那么A是正确的。有组织的玩耍可以视为体育课上足球或芭蕾舞课(第一段提到),这些都是正式的课程,那么无组织的玩耍也就可以视为课外活动。A的说法勉强可以算对,是否选择A还要结合其他几个选项。
          B的相关句:If they’re spending less time in front of the TV set, however, kids aren’t replacing it with reading.后半句说明孩子们不会以阅读来取代看电视,B是错误的。
          C的相关句:Despite efforts to get kids more interested in books, the children spent just over an hour a week reading,意思是尽管人们付出努力来培养孩子的读书兴趣,但孩子们一周仅有一个多小时用来读书。这一结果显然不是fruitful。
          D的说法在文中没有直接提到。但有一句话与D稍有关系:But that, believe it or not, was one of the findings parents might regard as good news.这句话说明父母们把孩子们看电视视为好事,看电视和读书是对立的关系,所以这至少证明父母们没有多么支持读书。另外还有一句:Despite efforts to get kids more interested in books,不过这里的efforts的施动者是否为父母们不得而知,即便是父母们,也没有体现出大多数(most)父母这一层含义。
          综合这些分析,可以判断A是正确的。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 13:49:40 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Two
          Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
          Henry Ford, the famous U.S. inventor and car manufacturer, once said, “The business of America is business.” By this he meant that the U.S. way of life is based on the values of the business world.
          Few would argue with Ford’s statement. A brief glimpse at a daily newspaper vividly shows how much people in the United States think about business. For example, nearly every newspaper has a business section, in which the deals and projects, finances and management, stock prices and labor problems of corporations are reported daily. In addition, business news can appear in every other section. Most national news has an important financial aspect to it. Welfare, foreign aid, the federal budget, and the policies of the Federal Reserve Bank are all heavily affected by business. Moreover, business news appears in some of the unlikeliest places. The world of arts and entertainment is often referred to as “the entertainment industry” or “show business.”
          The positive side of Henry Ford’s statement can be seen in the prosperity that business has brought to U.S. life. One of the most important reasons so many people from all over the world come to live in the United States is the dream of a better job. Jobs are produced in abundance (大量地) because the U.S. economic system is driven by competition. People believe that this system crates more wealth, more jobs, and a materially better way of life.
          The negative side of Henry Ford’s statement, however, can be seen when the word business is taken to mean big business. And the term big business—referring to the biggest companies, is seen in opposition to labor. Throughout U.S. history working people have had to fight hard for higher wages, better working conditions, and the fight to form unions. Today, many of the old labor disputes are over, but there is still some employee anxiety. Downsizing—the laying off of thousands of workers to keep expenses low and profits high—creates feelings of insecurity for many.
          26. The United States is a typical country ________.
          A) which encourages free trade at home and abroad
          B) where people’s chief concern is how to make money
          C) where all businesses are managed scientifically
          D) which normally works according to the federal budget(D)
          27. The influence of business in the U.S. is evidenced by the fact that ________.
          A) most newspapers are run by big businesses
          B) even public organizations concentrate on working for profits
          C) Americans of all professions know how to do business
          D) even arts and entertainment are regarded as business(C)
          28. According to the passage, immigrants choose to settle in the U.S., dreaming that ________.
          A) they can start profitable businesses there
          B) they can be more competitive in business
          C) they will make a fortune overnight there
          D) they will find better chances of employment(B)
          29. Henry Ford’s statement can be taken negatively because ________.
          A) working people are discouraged to fight for their fights
          B) there are many industries controlled by a few big capitalists
          C) there is a conflicting relationship between big corporations and labor
          D) public services are not run by the federal government(C)
          30. A company’s efforts to keep expenses low and profits high may result in ________.
          A) reduction in the number of employees
          B) improvement of working conditions
          C) fewer disputes between labor and management
          D) a rise in workers’ wages(D)
          这篇材料的核心内容是美国无处不在的商业哲学。这一哲学的创始者就是亨利·福特,第一小段引用他的话说:The business of America is business,第一个business应该泛指“事情”,第二个指“商业”、“买卖”,大体句意是说美国人的生活就是商业。后面的一句也对这句名言做了解释:美国人的生活方式搭建在商业世界的价值基础之上(way of life is based on the values of the business world)。
          这句话到底因何而出呢?第二段集中笔墨对此做了详述。作者的着眼点主要在于美国的报纸。几乎所有报纸都一个商业板块,里面充斥着交易、项目、财经、管理、股价等等报道(the deals and projects, finances and management, stock prices and labor problems of corporations are reported daily)。而大多数全国性报纸的财经板块对于报纸本身来说地位至关重要。商业新闻还出现在一些貌似不可能出现的地方(business news appears in some of the unlikeliest places)。艺术与娱乐世界经常被成为娱乐产业或是演艺商业。
          作者罗列了如此丰富的证据,看来福特的名言确实无可争辩。接下来,作者就来讨论商业社会利弊了。首先是利:商业给美国带来了繁荣(prosperity that business has brought to U.S. life)。许多人奔赴美国的最重要原因之一是这里可以找到更好的工作(dream of a better job)。由于美国的经济系统是由竞争驱动的,就产生了大量的职位需求。人们相信这一系统创造了更多的财富、职位,改善了物质生活(this system creates more wealth, more jobs, and a materially better way of life)。
          最后一段讨论了商业哲学的消极影响。作者首先说明消极影响的发生条件:当business指的是big business,而big business指的是biggest companies的时候,而这种影响发生在大公司的劳方身上。在美国历史上,工人始终要为更高的工资、更好的工作条件和组织工会的权利而与资方斗争(higher wages, better working conditions, and the right to form unions)。现在,虽然旧有的劳资纠纷已经消失,但劳方依然存在某方面的忧虑,比如,为节约成本、增加利润的目的而经常发生的裁员现象(laying off词组指的是解雇),就使许多人感到不安。
          26. B
          题目问的是美国是一个什么样的典型国家。
          A,鼓励国内外的自由贸易。
          B,人们最关心的问题是如何赚钱。
          C,所有的公司都得到了科学地管理。
          D,依赖联邦预算而正常运转的国家。
          本文的第一段很短,出题的可能性不大,而结合题目来看,仅从第一段确实无法直接得出答案。本题的解答需要充分理解第二段。
          虽然第一段内容较短,但其最后一句话却是第二段整段的核心。该句的意思是美国人的生活方式基于商业世界的价值。第二段从美国社会的商业新闻无孔不入现象出发,论述了这个观点。
          结合四个题支,可以看出本题并不是很难,因为A和C的说法在文中根本没有出现,可以直接排除。D中的federal budget在文中有所提及:the federal budget, and the policies of the Federal Reserve Bank are all heavily affected by business,意思是联邦预算要受到商业的重大影响。这一句同样是强调商业的重要性的。这样的话,D也可以排除。
          这样就只剩下B了。B的说法实际上是第一段最后一句话的通俗说法,因为第一,美国人连自己的生活方式都是基于商业世界的价值,那么他们首先关心的确实应该是赚钱——商业的本质就是赚钱。第二,商业新闻无孔不入,说明人们非常关心这类新闻,否则刊登这类新闻的报纸的销路就会受到影响。
          27. D
          题目问商业在美国的影响以哪一事实而得到证明。
          A,大多数报纸都由大公司运营。第二段以大量篇幅描述了与报纸相关的内容,作者举出这些报纸的例子的目的是什么呢?第二句话是一个概括句,A brief glimpse at a daily newspaper vividly shows how much people in the United States think about business,可以看出这些报纸可以显示出美国人对商业的想法。这和由什么公司运营没有关系,所以A是错误的。
          B,即便是公共机构也集中全力赚钱。与这句话相关的原文是:Welfare, foreign aid, the federal budget, and the policies of the Federal Reserve Bank are all heavily affected by business,这里的welfare(福利)和foreign aid(外国援助)应该和公共机关有关,但heavily affected by business仅是说受到商业影响,这不代表就是集中精力赚取利润。
          C,所有不同职业的美国人都知道如何做生意。文中没有明确这一点,从常识上也可以判断这种说法太过武断了。
          D,即便是艺术和娱乐也被视为生意。这一说法和第二段最后一句话相照应:The world of arts and entertainment is often referred to as “the entertainment industry” or “show business.”
          28. D
          题目问移民选择到美国定居,怀揣什么样的梦想。
          A,他们能在美国开展有利可图的生意。
          B,他们能在生意上更具竞争力。
          C,他们能在美国一夜暴富。
          D,他们能获得更好的工作机会。
          第三段提到了人们来到美国定居的原因:One of the most important reasons so many people from all over the world come to live in the United States is the dream of a better job,这里讲的非常明显,原因就是想要获得一份更好的工作,是job,而不是business(可排除A)。D的说法与此最为接近。
          此句之后的两句做了进一步的解释,其中提到了driven by competition,B的说法应该是源于这里的competition,不过本句意思是说竞争会促使工作机会大量出现,和增强竞争力没有关系。
          C的说法可能源于第三段最后一句中的wealth一词,不过理解文意后可以轻松排除该选项。
          29. C
          题目问福特的名言也可以消极地理解,是因为什么。
          A,不鼓励工人为自己的权利而战。
          B,许多产业被少数大资本家控制。
          C,在大公司和工人之间存在冲突关系。
          D,公告事业不由联邦政府运营。
          福特名言的消极一面是最后一段的内容(开头即提到The negative side of Henry Ford’s statement)。最后一段先是指出进行消极理解的前提条件:business指代大公司。在这一前提下,大公司是与工人对立的(in opposition to labor),后文具体论述了二者如何对立,如工人要求提高工资待遇、资方进行裁员等等。
          和这些内容相关的选项有A和C,其中C的说法完全符合第三段的论述。至于A,因为缺少了关键的前提条件——大公司,所以不能认为是正确的。
          30. A
          题目问公司压缩成本、抬高利润的行为有可能导致什么。
          A,减少员工数量。
          B,改善工作环境。
          C,减少工人和管理层直接的摩擦。
          D,提高工人工资。  
          题目里的keep expenses low and profits high一句出现在最后一段的最后一句话:Downsizing—the laying off of thousands of workers to keep expenses low and profits high—creates feelings of insecurity for many,可以看出keep前面有to,表明这是一个目的状语,那么to前面的内容就是题目所问的内容。这道题可以归结为是对短语the laying off的考查。Laying off的意思是“解雇”,那么the laying off of thousands of workers就是“解雇成千上万的工人”,恰好是A所说的“减少员工数量”。
          如果不了解这个短语的含义,从downsizing这个单词的结构上也可以作出大致的判断(down——向下,size——尺寸)。另外,BCD三个选项都是对工人有利的情形,必然不会引起工人的忧虑,这就和原文中的feelings of insecurity(不安全感)意思相反了。从这一点也可以排除BCD三个错误选项。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 14:16:51 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Three
          Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
          Professor Smith recently persuaded 35 people, 23 of them women, to keep a diary of all their absent-minded actions for a fortnight. When he came to analyse their embarrassing lapses (差错) in a scientific report, he was surprised to find that nearly all of them fell into a few groupings, Nor did the lapses appear to be entirely random (随机的).
          One of the women, for instance, on leaving her house for work one morning threw her dog her earrings and tried to fix a dog biscuit on her ear. “the explanation for this is that the brain is like a computer,” explains the professor. “People programme themselves to do certain activities regularly. It was the woman’s custom every morning to throw her dog two biscuits and then put on her earrings. But somehow the action got reversed in the programme,” About one in twenty of the incidents the volunteers reported were these “programme assembly failures.”
          Altogether the volunteers logged 433 unintentional actions that they found themselves doing—an average of twelve each, There appear to be peak periods in the day when we are at our zaniest (荒谬可笑的). These are two hours some time between eight a.m. and noon, between four and six p.m. with a smaller peak between eight and ten p.m. “Among men the peak seems to be when a changeover in brain ‘programmes’ occurs, as for instance between going to and from work.” Women on average reported slightly more lapses—12.5 compared with 10.9 for men—probably because they were more reliable reporters.
          A startling finding of the research is that the absent-minded activity is a hazard of doing things in which we are skilled. Normally, you would expect that skill reduces the number of errors we make. But trying to avoid silly slips by concentrating more could make things a lot worse—even dangerous.
          31. In his study Professor Smith asked the subjects ________.
          A) to keep track of people who tend to forget things
          B) to report their embarrassing lapses at random
          C) to analyse their awkward experiences scientifically
          D) to keep a record of what they did unintentionally(B)
          32. Professor Smith discovered that ________.
          A) certain patterns can be identified in the recorded incidents
          B) many people were too embarrassed to admit their absent-mindedness
          C) men tend to be more absent-minded than women
          D) absent-mindedness is an excusable human weakness(D)
          33. “Programme assembly failures” (Line 6, Para. 2) refers to the phenomenon that people ________.
          A) often fail to programme their routines beforehand
          B) tend to make mistakes when they are in a hurry
          C) unconsciously change the sequence of doing things
          D) are likely to mess things up if they are too tired(D)
          34. We learn from the third paragraph that ________.
          A) absent-mindedness tends to occur during certain hours of the day
          B) women are very careful to perform actions during peak periods
          C) women experience more peak periods of absent-mindedness
          D) men’s absent-mindedness often results in funny situations(A)
          35. It can be concluded from the passage that ________.
          A) people should avoid doing important things during peak periods of lapses
          B) hazards can be avoided when people do things they are good at
          C) people should be careful when programming their actions
          D) lapses cannot always be attributed to lack of concentration(A)
          这篇材料为我们讲述了一个有趣的实验。第一段首先交代了实验的基本信息。Smith教授劝使35个人在两周内记录自己全部的心不在焉的行为(absent-minded actions),在分析实验结果时,他发现这些行为大体可以归为几个类别(all of them fell into a few groupings),而它们的出现也并不是随机的。
          第二段举了一个具体的例子。一个女人在早上上班前把狗食当作了耳坠,而把自己的耳坠喂给了狗(threw her dog her earrings and tried to fix a dog biscuit on her ear)。对这一行为的解释是:在做某种活动的时候,人的大脑像计算机一样程式化,女人的程式是先喂狗食而后戴耳坠,而这一次她的行为由于某种原因出现了颠倒(threw her dog her earrings and tried to fix a dog biscuit on her ear)。
          例子解说完毕,作者开始介绍该实验的研究结果。首先,在一天之中,行为发生谬误的情况具有时间特征,且往往以两个小时为阶段,比如下午4到6点就是发生荒唐可笑行为的高峰期之一。其次,对于男人来说,荒唐行为多发期常常是在生活内容的转换阶段,比如下班后与上班前之间的时间段(between going to and from work)。关于女人的平均犯错率为何比男人高的现象,研究者是这么解释的:they were more reliable reporters,也即女人在记录犯错事件时更为诚实一些。
          最后一段还介绍了一个研究发现:the absent-minded activity is a hazard of doing things in which we are skilled。这句话比较难于理解,因为它是典型的英语思维方式,动作性质或形容词性质的意义完全由名词来表达(如absent-minded activity,hazard),与汉语完全不同。结合后文可以知道这里实际上是说我们在做擅长的事情时,会为了避免出现谬误而精神过度集中,而这常常会带来危险。
          31. B
          题目问Smith教授在他的实验中要求受试者做什么事。注意这里的subjects并不是通常的意思,而是受实验者的意思。
          A,记录爱丢三落四的人们身上发生的事情。Keep track of是追踪、记录的意思。文中第一段第一句:to keep a diary of all their absent-minded actions for a fortnight,用日记记录他们的心不在焉的行为,这里的their应该指的是受试者自己。而A是说要受试者去记录别人的行为,并不正确。
          B,报告他们令人尴尬的随心谬误。第一段第二句:When he came to analyse their embarrassing lapses in a scientific report,当他撰写科学报告来分析他们令人尴尬的行为谬误时。这里的embarrassing lapses与B的说法一致。
          C,对他们的尴尬经历进行科学分析。从第一段可知,进行科学分析的是Smith教授,而不应是受试者。
          D,记录他们无意识所作的事情。what they did unintentionally 与文中的absent-minded actions意义类似,但在文中还用embarrassing lapses对absent-minded actions做了进一步限定,指的是因心不在焉而导致的令人尴尬的谬误。这样的话,what they did unintentionally所涵盖的行为就显得过于宽泛了。
          32. A
          这道题问Smith教授发现了什么。
          A,可以把所记录的事件归纳为某种类型。第一段写到教授在分析实验数据时——he was surprised to find that nearly all of them fell into a few groupings,groupings是分组的意思,them是指所记录的心不在焉的行为,那么教授的发现就是几乎所有心不在焉行为都可以分为某种组别。也就是某几种行为归为一个类型,另外几种行为又归为一个类型,这与A的说法一致。
          B,许多人不好意思承认他们的心不在焉行为。这是一个迷惑选项,因为第一段When he came to analyse their embarrassinglapse一句里出现了embarrassing,这个题支就用embarrassed来迷惑考生。其实原文很好理解,embarrassinglapse就是指的心不在焉行为本身,至于是否不好意思承认则没有说明。不过,这些行为都是被受试者记录下来提交给研究者的,可见受试者并没有不愿承认,否则就不会记录并提交了。
          C,男人比女人更加心不在焉。Women on average reported slightly more lapses—12.5 compared with 10.9 for men—probably because they were more reliable reporters一句与此相关。从数据来看,男人比女人的心不在焉行为更少,所以C的说法不对。
          D,心不在焉是一种可以原谅的人类弱点。文中没有提到类似的说法。
          33. C
          这道题问文中的Programme assembly failures是指发生在人们身上的哪种现象。
          A,常常不能预先设计好他们的例行程式。
          B,匆忙行事时往往会犯错。
          C,无意识地颠倒做事情的先后次序。
          D,身体过于疲惫时常会将事情搞糟。
          Programme assembly failures出现在第二段末尾,而第二段前面部分所叙述的就是Programme assembly failures的具体例子。这个例子讲一个女人按照自己的例行程式,应该是先喂狗而后戴耳坠,而这天早晨她却把耳坠喂了狗,把狗食当成了耳坠。从这个例子来看,她是有自己的例行程式的,所以A不对。她犯错的原因在文中没有给出,只提到是somehow,某种原因,那么B和D为犯错特别加了前提条件就不对了。答案是C。
          34. A
          这道题问我们能从第三段得知什么。
          A,心不在焉行为常在一天中的某些小时发生。第三段中有There appear to be peak periods in the day when we are at our zaniest一句,前半句是说一天中有一些高峰期,后半句的at our zaniest直译是“我们最愚蠢的时候”,也就是最容易犯错的时候。这句后面的一句例举出这种高峰期往往是下午4-6点这样的时间段。A的说法与这二句的意思一致。
          B,女人在谬误多发期会非常小心地行事。
          C,女人的谬误多发期更多。
          D,男人的心不在焉行为经常导致搞笑的情形发生。
          B、C、D三种情形在第三段都完全找不到相似内容。
          35. D
          题目问从这篇材料可以得出什么结论。
          A,人们应该避免在谬误多发期做重要的事情。第三段提到了谬误多发期,不过没有直接说是否应该避免在这个时候做重要的事情,我们也不能妄下结论。
          B,人们在做擅长的事情时可以避免危险。根据篇章分析中关于最后一段的内容,人们在做擅长的事情时会因为精神更为集中而使事情变得更糟(trying to avoid silly slips by concentrating more could make things a lot worse),可见B的说法不正确。
          C,人们在为自己的行动设计程式时应该多加小心。本文讨论的不是程式设计问题(比如第二段的例子中女人的程式本身是没有问题的),而是心不在焉行为会使程式出错,因此C的说法不对。
          D,谬误并不总是由注意力缺失造成。最后一段指出注意力过于集中也可能带来危险,说明谬误并不总是由注意力缺失造成,也可以由注意力过于集中造成。D是正确的。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 14:45:47 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Four
          Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
          It’s no secret that many children would be healthier and happier with adoptive parents than with the parents that nature dealt them. That’s especially true of children who remain in abusive homes because the law blindly favors biological parents. It’s also true of children who suffer for years in foster homes (收养孩子的家庭) because of parents who can’t or won’t care for them but refuse to give up custody (监护) rights.
          Fourteen-year-old Kimberly Mays fits neither description, but her recent court victory could eventually help children who do. Kimberly has been the object of an angry custody baffle between the man who raised her and her biological parents, with whom she has never lived. A Florida judge ruled that the teenager can remain with the only father she’s ever known and that her biological parents have “no legal claim” on her.
          The ruling, though it may yet be reversed, sets aside the principle that biology is the primary determinant of parentage. That’s an important development, one that’s long overdue.
          Shortly after birth in December 1978, Kimberly Mays and another infant were mistakenly switched and sent home with the wrong parents. Kimberly’s biological parents, Ernest and Regina Twigg, received a child who died of a heart disease in 1988. Medical tests showed that the child wasn’t the Twiggs’ own daughter, but Kimt only was, thus sparking a custody battle with Robert Mays. In 1989, the two families agreed that Mr. Mays would maintain custody with the Twiggs getting visiting fights. Those rights were ended when Mr. Mays decided that Kimberly was being harmed.
          The decision to leave Kimberly with Mr. Mays rendered her suit debated. But the judge made clear that Kimberly did have standing to sue (起诉) on her own behalf. Thus he made clear that she was more than just property to be handled as adults saw fit.
          Certainly, the biological link between parent and child is fundamental. But biological parents aren’t always preferable to adoptive ones, and biological parentage does not convey an absolute ownership that cancels all the rights of children.
          36. What was the primary consideration in the Florida judge’s ruling?
          A) The biological link.
          B) The child’s benefits.
          C) The traditional practice.
          D) The parents’ feelings.(B)
          37. We can learn from the Kimberly case that ________.
          A) children are more than just personal possessions of their parents
          B) the biological link between parent and child should be emphasized
          C) foster homes bring children more pain and suffering than care
          D) biological parents shouldn’t claim custody rights after their child is adopted(D)
          38. The Twiggs claimed custody rights to Kimberly because ________.
          A) they found her unhappy in Mr. Mays’ custody
          B) they regarded her as their property
          C) they were her biological parents
          D) they felt guilty about their past mistake(C)
          39. Kimberly had been given to Mr. Mays ________.
          A) by sheer accident
          B) out of charity
          C) at his request
          D) for better care(C)
          40. The author’s attitude towards the judge’s ruling could be described as ________.
          A) doubtful
          B) critical
          C) cautious
          D) supportive(A)
          这篇材料讲的是亲生父母与养父母对孩子的优先权利问题。第一段只是一个引篇,主要向人们传达一个信息,即很多由养父母监护下的孩子比亲生父母照料下的孩子更加健康也更加快乐(healthier and happier with adoptive parents than with the parents that nature dealt them——deal做及物动词时是“给予”的意思)。而后举了两个例子加以说明。第二段开始进入主题,介绍了Kimberly Mays的优先监护权的案例。
          这一段呈现的信息包括Kimberly Mays的年龄,其养父母的情况(只有一个养父),生身父母的情况(从来未与其生活过,with whom she has never lived),以及案件的结果(继续与养父生活,驳回亲生父母的要求,remain with the only father she’s ever known and that her biological parents have “no legal claim” on her)。
          下一段揭示了这一案件结果所蕴含的意义:sets aside the principle that biology is the primary determinant of parentage. That’s an important development, one that’s long overdue,意思是它颠覆了生理联系对家庭关系的首要决定作用,这是一项迟来的重要的进展。
          第四段把这个案件的始末详细地叙述了一遍。早在1978年,Kimberly Mays与另外一个婴儿被阴错阳差地互换了父母。另外一个孩子在1988年生病夭折,此时经过测试才知道这个孩子不是Kimberly生父母的孩子。Kimberly生父母由此与其养父展开了一场争夺监护权的斗争,最后双方达成协议,养父保留监护权,生父母有探望的权利;但养父若认为生父母的探望使Kimberly受到了伤害,则该权利终止(Those rights were ended when Mr. Mays decided that Kimberly was being harmed)。
          下一段是此案的一些后续描述,主要是法官对此案的相关解释。第一点说明是Kimberly did have standing to sue on her own behalf Kimberly也有权为了自己的利益提起诉讼(比如,假设在生父母的经济状况远好于养父的情况下)。第二点基于第一点,说明赋予Kimberly这项权利的目的:她并不是大人们争来抢去的财产(more than just property to be handled as adults saw fit)。
          最后一段总结这一案件的意义所在。首先是亲生父母的监护权并不总是优先于养父母(biological parents aren’t always preferable to adoptive ones),其次是血缘关系并不意味着亲生父母可以剥夺孩子全部的权利(biological parentage does not convey an absolute ownership that cancels all the rights of children)。
          36. B
          这道题问佛罗里达法官的判决首要依据什么考虑。
          A,血缘关系。
          B,孩子的利益。
          C,传统习惯。
          D,父母的感受。
          文章提到佛罗里达法官的判决是在第二段,判决的内容是:A Florida judge ruled that the teenager can remain with the only father she’s ever known and that her biological parents have “no legal claim” on her,意思是当事人可以继续和养父生活在一起,而生身父母对她不享有合法权利。从判决本身看不出该判决的主要依据。
          因为这是第一题,所以答案应该到第一段去寻找。第一段第一句话就指出许多孩子和养父母生活会更健康和幸福(many children would be healthier and happier with adoptive parents than with the parents that nature dealt them),这句话有统领全文提纲的作用,应该说全文内容都和它有关。如果把法官的判决和这句话联系起来的话,那么法官依据的只能是B的说法:孩子的利益(健康和幸福)。
          关于A的说法,第三段已经直截了当地否定了:sets aside the principle that biology is the primary determinant of parentage。
          而C的说法在文中没有提到,D的说法较为含混,没有说明是养父母还是亲生父母,本身就有问题。
          37. D
          题目问我们能从Kimberly的案子了解到什么。
          A,孩子不仅仅是父母的个人财产。
          B,父母和孩子的血缘关系应该受到重视。
          C,养父母带给孩子的痛苦和折磨比关爱要多。
          D,亲生父母不应在孩子被人领养后要求其监护权。
          题目没有告诉我们是要考查哪一段,关键词也不具有针对性,需要我们自己缩小搜索答案的范围。全文一共6段,前两段是大段,第三段为小段,而后是一个大段和两个小段,可以说文章的重心在前面。这样的话,本题作为第二题绝对不可能去考查第四个大段的内容。鉴于第一题考察内容涉及第一段和第二段,本题考查第二三段的可能性大。
          观察第二段的内容,可以说核心词就是custody rights。第二句讲的是两个家庭如何展开监护权战争,第三句讲的是法官最终判决亲生父母不享有监护权。
          第三段是对法官这一判决的意义的探讨,内容依然是强调保护养父母的权利。
          这样看来,作者对Kimberly的案子的关注点完全在孩子的监护权上。四个选项中提到这一点的只有D,所以应该毫不犹豫地选择D。
          D的说法在文中存在直接的着落点。法官的判决中说到亲生父母have “no legal claim” on her,即“没有合法要求”,换句话说,就是对她的监护权要求是非法的,也就是不应要求监护权。
          38. C
          题目问Twiggs夫妇要求对Kimberly的监护权,是因为……
          A,他们发现她在Mays先生的监护下过得并不快乐。
          B,他们把她当作自己的财产。
          C,他们是她的亲生父母。
          D,他们对过去的过错感到内疚。
          这道题有一定难度,除了可以明确A的说法在文章中没有提到之外,其余几项都有一定的道理。而关键问题在于,文章本身实际上也没有清晰地说明夫妇要求监护权的原因。因此,本题只能借助于推断。
          B的说法在文中可以找到模糊的着落点。倒数第二段提到Thus he made clear that she was more than just property to be handled as adults saw fit,这里面出现了property一词,如果对文意似懂非懂,很有可能会选择这一项。这句话的意思是法官借此判决向人们传达这样一条信息:她不仅仅是大人肆意处置的对象。判决内容是这个女孩可以为自己的利益自行提出起诉(Kimberly did have standing tosue on her own behalf),和Twiggs夫妇没有关系。从文章的这句话可以看出,成不成为财产是从女孩的感受出发,至于夫妇有没有把女孩当作财产是无法推断的。因此可以排除B。
          C的说法在文中也没有直接的证据,但可以找到多处相关点。首先,在第二段首次引出Kimberly案子的时候,作者就使用了biological parents这个词组。第四段介绍夫妇如何错收了孩子,讲到夫妇在得知孩子不是亲生女儿后,立即与Mays先生展开监护权的斗争。从这个叙述的衔接顺序,多少可以感觉到夫妇想要争夺监护权是因为女儿是他们亲生的。此外,第三段和最后一段是作者的议论,内容都是亲生父母对孩子的权利问题,可见文章核心思想与“亲生”有关,那么选择C应该是稳妥的办法。
          至于D,从常理来说较为符合实际,但在文中始终找不到类似的描述,所以必须排除。
          39. A
          这道题问Kimberly被送给Mays先生是因为什么。
          A,仅仅是意外。
          B,出于慈善目的。
          C,在他的要求之下。
          D,为了得到更好的照顾。
          本题的难度在于理解题目的含义。对Kimberly归于Mays的理解,可以有两种:一是婴儿时意外交换给了Mays,二是长大后法官将其判给Mays。
          这道题流行的答案是C,可见是把题意理解为了第二种。而结合各种因素来看,本题的真实意思应该是第一种。
          首先,A选项by sheer accident很显然是针对婴孩互换说的。长大后孩子监护权的归属是由法院判决的,不可能出现意外因素。出题者一般不会提供如此毫不相干的题支。
          其次,题目中使用的谓语是be given to,give这个动词的意义较为宽泛,但相较于法庭判决,倒更像是说护士把孩子抱给了Mays。
          第三,也是最具说服力的一个理由是,题目所用的时态是过去完成时。可以对照一下前几题 所使用的时态,有关文章具体内容的问题都是使用了一般过去时,那么,本题如果所指的是法官的判决的话,没有理由不继续使用一般过去时。但本题使用的是过去 完成时,说明该事件的发生要早于争夺监护权的事件,那么答案只有一个,该事件就是孩子被抱错。
          理解了题意之后,题目的解答就相对容易了。第四段开头提到Kimberly Mays and another infant were mistakenly switched,这里的mistakenly直接对应A中的accident,所以本题选择A。
          40. D
          题目问作者对法官判决的态度可以描述为……
          A,置疑。
          B,批评。
          C,谨慎。
          D,支持。
          法官的判决首次出现在第二段的末尾,此后的一段马上对这一判决的意义进行了评论,第四 段、第五段介绍的是案件的详情,没有涉及作者的议论,最后一段作者再次出面议论判决的意义。所以,要判断作者对法官判决的态度,需要理解第三段和最后一 段。因为本题是最后一题,所以重点理解最后一段就可以了。
          最后一段共两句话。第二句以but开头,可见两句话的关系是转折关系。在转折关系中,重心在转折后的内容。
          第一句指明父母之间的血缘关系是“基本的”,并以certainly起头,表示这种情形属于普遍情况。而后作者话锋一转,指出亲生父母并不总是优先于养父母,而血缘关系也不代表对孩子的绝对拥有、可以无视孩子的权利。
          可以看出,第二句前半句是在肯定法官对监护权归属养父的判决,后半句则肯定了法官对Kimberly有权为了自己的权利提起上诉的判决。所以说,作者的对法官判决的态度应该是支持的。本题选择D。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 15:01:03 | 显示全部楼层
2003.9
          Passage One
          Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
          A recent study, published in last week’s Journal of the American Medical Association, offers a picture of how risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver, Indeed, a 16-year-old driver with three or more passengers is three times as likely to have a fatal accident as a teenager driving alone, By contrast, the risk of death for drivers between 30 and 59 decreases with each additional passenger.
          The authors also found that the death rates for teenage drivers increased dramatically after 10 p.m., and especially after midnight, with passengers in the car, the driver was even more likely to die in a late-night accident.
          Robert Foss, a scientist at the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, says the higher death rates for teenage drivers have less to do with “really stupid behavior” than with just a lack of driving experience. “The basic issue.” Be says, “is that adults who are responsible for issuing licenses fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is.”
          Both he and the author of the study believe that the way to mitigate (使…缓解) the problem is to have states institute so-called graduated licensing systems, in which getting a license is a multistage process. A graduated license requires that a teenager first prove himself capable of driving in the presence of an adult, followed by a period of driving with night of passenger restrictions, before graduating to full driving privileges.
          Graduated licensing systems have reduced teenage driver crashes, according to recent studies. About half of the states now have some sort of graduated licensing system in place, but only 10 of those states have restrictions on passengers, California is the strictest, with a novice (新手) driver prohibited from carrying any passenger under 20 (without the presence of an adult over 25) for the first six months.
          21. Which of the following situations is most dangerous according to the passage?
          A) Adults giving a lift to teenagers on the highway after 10 p.m.
          B) A teenager driving after midnight with passengers in the car.
          C) Adults driving with three or more teenage passengers late at night.
          D) A teenager getting a lift from a stranger on the highway at midnight.(B)
          22. According to Robert Foss. The high death rate of teenage drivers is mainly due to ________.
          A) their frequent driving at night
          B) their improper way of driving
          C) their lack of driving experience
          D) their driving with passengers(C)
          23. According to Paragraph 3. which of the following statements is TRUE?
          A) Teenagers should spend more time learning to drive.
          B) Driving is a skill too complicated for teenagers to learn.
          C) Restrictions should be imposed on teenagers applying to take driving lessons.
          D) The licensing authorities are partly responsible for teenagers’ driving accidents.(D)
          24. A suggested measure to be taken to reduce teenagers’ driving accidents is that ________.
          A) driving in the presence of an adult should be made a rule
          B) they should be prohibited from taking on passengers
          C) they should not be allowed to drive after 10 p.m.
          D) the licensing system should be improved(D)
          25. The present situation in about half of the states is that the graduated licensing system ________.
          A) is under discussion
          B) is about to be set up
          C) has been put into effect
          D) has been perfected(C)
          这篇文章讲的是青少年驾车车祸死亡率过高的问题。文章总共五个段落,基本呈现了一个“提出问题”、“分析原因”、“解决办法”三步格局。这也是论说文最常用的结构,了解这种结构对于理解文章的意义是有好处的。
          前两段提出问题,问题通常是具体的问题,作者只需以例举的方式向读者呈现问题就可以了。开头先是交代了获知问题的来源:美国医学协会杂志上的一篇研究(Journal of the American Medical Association)。这条信息可以说一箭双雕,既能表明这一问题的严重性(否则一个医学协会不会进行研究),又不必多费篇幅去证明这一问题的真实性、普遍性(美国医学协会当然具有权威性)。
          How risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver,这是一个总领句,意思是搭一个青少年驾驶者的车是多么的危险。随后是一个例子,一个16岁的司机搭载三四名乘客时,其发生致命事故的可能性是他单独驾车时的3倍(a 16-year-old driver with three or more passengers is three times as likely to have a fatal accident as a teenager driving alone)。而与此对应,30到59岁的司机搭载乘客时其发生致死车祸的可能性却在降低(the risk of death for drivers between 30 and 59 decreases)。
          下一段继续举例。青少年在晚上10点以后驾车的死亡率大幅上升。车内同时又有乘客的话,则发生致死事故的可能性会更高。
          问题呈现完毕,接下来就是分析原因了。作者以权威人士Robert Foss之口说出了问题背后的实质:higher death rates for teenage drivers have less to do with “really stupid behavior” than with just a lack of driving experience,这个句子较难理解,关键在于吃透have less to do with……than这个句型。这个句型的原型是have something to do with,意思是与……有关,那么have less to do with ……than就是“与……的关系不如与……的关系大”的意思。这句话想要表达的意思就是:与将其归因于“愚蠢行为”相比,用缺少驾驶经验来解释如此高的死亡率更为合理。他继续分析道,问题的根本在于负责发放驾照的大人们没有意识到驾车的复杂性和技术难度(fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is)。
          问题的解决方案在于使各州发布“驾照分步发放系统”(graduated licensing systems),这一系统要求青少年首先要具备在成人监护下驾车的能力,随后是乘客人数限制,最后是完全不受限制地驾驶权限。
          这一系统的实施情况和效果如何呢?最后一段写到,它减少了青少年司机所发生的车祸数量(reduced teenage driver crashes)。有大约一半的州实施了类似的系统,不过只有10个州对乘客进行了限制(only 10 of those states have restrictions on passengers),加利福尼亚在这方面限制最严。
          21. B
          根据文章内容,下列哪种情况最为危险。
          关于驾车危险性问题,在文章开头举的几个例子中有充分的说明。第一个例子说一个16岁的司机搭载三四名乘客时,其发生致命事故的可能性是他单独驾车时的3倍,第二个例子说青少年在晚上10点以后驾车的死亡率大幅上升;车内同时又有乘客的话,则发生致死事故的可能性会更高。把这道题的几个选项和上面的例子进行对比就可以找到正确答案。
          A,夜里10点以后,成年人在高速公路上驾车搭载未成年人。例子的说法是夜里10点以后青少年驾车同时搭载别人的危险性高,而不是成年人驾车。A把主体搞错了。
          B,一个未成年人在午夜后驾车,车中坐有乘客。第二段的例子提到了个这个说法。
          C,成年人在深夜驾车搭载三个或三个以上未成年乘客。文章例子中提到的危险情况都为驾车人是未成年人。
          D,未成年人在午夜高速公路上搭载陌生人的车。这个选项体现了出题人的想象力,在现实中,未成年人夜间搭载陌生人的车的确非常危险,但这不在文章的讨论范围。
          22. C
          题目的意思是根据Robert Foss的说法,青少年驾车者的高死亡率主要是因为什么。
          A,他们经常在夜间驾车。
          B,他们驾驶的方式不恰当。
          C,他们缺乏驾驶经验。
          D,他们驾车搭载了乘客。
          文章提到Robert Foss是在第三段,(Robert Foss, a scientist at the University),那么答案也只能在第三段寻找,至多参考一下第四段。正确理解这句话的意思:higher death rates for teenage drivers have less to do with “really stupid behavior” than with just a lack of driving experience——高死亡率与驾驶经验缺失的关系比“做傻事”更大。由此可见C所说的缺少驾驶经验是正确的。
          23. D
          根据第三段的内容,下列哪项叙述是正确的。
          观察第三段,是一个不是很长的段落。在小段上出题,同时又指明把考查范围限定在该段,则很有可能这个小段出现了难句。
          第三段一共只有两句话,上一题已经考查过了第一句,两句话同时考查一句话的可能性很小,所以要把注意力集中在第二句话的理解上,而彻底了解这句话的意思应该结合后文。第二句引用了Robert的原话:The basic issue is that adults who are responsible for issuing licenses fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is——从字面上看,这句话意思是:根本问题是,负责发放驾照的成年人(adults who are responsible for issuing licenses)没能 (fail to)认识到驾驶汽车非常复杂且技术性很强(recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is)。
          A,青少年应该花更多的时间来学习驾驶。句子最后提到驾驶汽车非常复杂且技术性很强,不过解决方案必定是花费更多时间吗?不见得。改变发放驾照程序就是一例。
          B,学习驾驶技术对于青少年来说是过于复杂了。句子最后提到驾驶汽车非常复杂且技术性很强,不过这就意味着青少年不能学习驾驶技术了吗?不是,解决方案是下文提到的调整发放驾照的程序。
          C,对青少年的驾驶学习申请应该加以限制。限制学习人数不是解决办法,文章也没有提到这一点。
          D,发放驾照部门应对青少年驾车事故负部分责任。从第二句字面意思可以直接推出D的结论。另外,后文提出的解决方案是改变管理当局的现有政策,从这一点也可看出管理当局应该负有一定责任。
          24.D
          题目问文中提到了关于减少青少年驾车事故的措施的建议,这条建议是什么。
          A,应该把在大人监护下才能驾车制定成规则。
          B,青少年应被禁止搭载乘客。
          C,他们不应被允许在夜里10点以后驾车。
          D,应当改进驾照发放系统。
          这道题比较简单,文章的第四五两段讲的都是驾照发放系统的改进问题,应当选择D。对于A、B、C所说的几条建议,在最后两段介绍的建议中都只字未提,所以不应选择。
          25.C
          目前大约一半左右的州的情况是驾照分步发放系统如何如何。
          A,正处讨论中。
          B,将要得到确立。
          C,已经起到了效果。
          D,已经得到完善。
          这道题考查最后一段的内容。第一句Graduated licensing systems have reduced teenage driver crashes的意思很明了,分步发放系统已经减少青少年驾车事故,这说明这一系统已经起到了效果,与C的说法一致。后面的一句话是个长句,大体意思是说一半的州虽然实施了分步发放系统,但在乘客限制上不是很严格,只有加利福尼亚较为严格。这说明这一系统还需要进行完善,D就不对了。文章没有提到这一系统是否正处讨论中,从已经实施这一情况来看,应该是讨论过并得到确立了。这样A和B的说法就都是错误的。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 16:03:59 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Two
          Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
          If you know exactly what you want, the best route to a job is to get specialized training. A recent survey shows that companies like graduates in such fields as business and health care who can go to work immediately with very little on-the-job training.
          That’s especially true of booming fields that are challenging for workers. At Cornell’s School of Hotel Administration, for example, bachelor’s degree graduates get an average of four or five job offers with salaries ranging from the high teens to the low 20s and plenty of chances for rapid advancement. Large companies, especially, like a background of formal education coupled with work experience.
          But in the long run, too much specialization doesn’t pay off. Business, which has been flooded with MBAs, no longer considers the degree an automatic stamp of approval. The MBA may open doors and command a higher salary initially, but the impact of a degree washes out after five years.
          As further evidence of the erosion (销蚀) of corporate (公司的) faith in specialized degrees, Michigan State’s Scheetz cites a pattern in corporate hiring practices, although companies tend to take on specialists as new hires, they often seek out generalists for middle and upper-level management. “They want someone who isn’t constrained (限制) by nuts and bolts to look at the big picture, “says Scheetz.
          This sounds suspiciously like a formal statement that you approve of the liberal-arts graduate. Time and again labor-market analysts mention a need for talents that liberal-arts majors are assumed to have: writing and communication skills, organizational skills, open-mindedness and adaptability, and the ability to analyze and solve problems, David Birch claims he does not hire anybody with an MBA or an engineering degree, “I hire only liberal-arts people because they have a less-than-canned way of doing things,” says Birch. Liberal-arts means an academically thorough and strict program that includes literature, history, mathematics, economics, science, human behavior—plus a computer course or two. With that under your belt, you can feel free to specialize, “A liberal-arts degree coupled with an MBA or some other technical training is a very good combination in the marketplace,” says Scheetz.
          26. What kinds of people are in high demand on the job market?
          A) Students with a bachelor’s degree in humanities.
          B) People with an MBA degree front top universities.
          C) People with formal schooling plus work experience.
          D) People with special training in engineering.(C)
          27. By saying “... but the impact of a degree washes out after five years” (Line 3, Para, 3), the author means ________.
          A) most MBA programs fail to provide students with a solid foundation
          B) an MBA degree does not help promotion to managerial positions
          C) MBA programs will not be as popular in five years’ time as they are now
          D) in five people will forget about the degree the MBA graduates have got(B)
          28. According to Scheetz’s statement (Lines 4-5. Para. 4), companies prefer ________.
          A) people who have a strategic mind
          B) people who are talented in fine arts
          C) people who are ambitious and aggressive
          D) people who have received training in mechanics(A)
          29. David Birch claims that he only hires liberal-arts people because ________.
          A) they are more capable of handling changing situations
          B) they can stick to established ways of solving problems
          C) they are thoroughly trained in a variety of specialized fields
          D) they have attended special programs in management(A)
          30. Which of the following statements does the author support?
          A) Specialists are more expensive to hire than generalists.
          B) Formal schooling is less important than job training.
          C) On-the-job training is, in the long run, less costly.
          D) Generalists will outdo specialists in management.(D)
          这篇文章讲的是何种专业在人才市场上更受青睐的问题。到底什么样的人才更受青睐呢?文章实际上讲了两个观点,前两段论述了第一个观点,即“专家”更受青睐;后面的三段又提出了与此相反的观点,“杂家”更受青睐。观点之所以不同,是因为它们的前提条件不同。
          先来看第一个观点。第一句可以说开宗明义:the best route to a job is to get specialized training,最好的办法是练就专业技能。而后作者提出了论据——最近一项调查结果显示,商务类和医疗保健类的毕业生很受公司青睐(companies like graduates in such fields as business and health care)。
          下一段举出了更多的例子。That’s especially true of booming fields,这里的fields应该和第一段的fields所指相同,都是指学生的专业。急速发展的领域更是炙手可热,一个酒店管理学院的本科毕业生平均可以接到五到六个职位邀请(get an average of four or five job offers),同时有大量的升职机会。
          接下来,作者笔锋一转,提出了一个反面观点,too much specialization doesn’t pay off(pay off词组指“得到回报”)。而观点不同的关键在于条件,第二个观点是in the long run,即从长远来看。作者首先以商务领域为例,指出MBA过剩使得这一学历不再是职业通行证(no longer considers the degree an automatic stamp of approval)。
          下一段介绍了密歇根州的Scheetz的说法,继续支持第二个观点。Scheetz认为,尽管现在的公司在招新人时依然倾向于招收“专家”(tend to take on specialists as new hires),但在中上层管理职位上更倾向于“杂家”(generalists for middle and upper-level management)。原因是专家的眼光局限于具体细节,难以从大局考虑(constrained by nuts and bolts to look at the big picture)。
          如果这篇材料是写给高中生们的,那么最后一段可以算是大学专业报考指南。This sounds suspiciously like a formal statement that you approve of the liberal-arts graduate:这似乎是在正面肯定文科毕业生。那么文科生有什么优势呢?写作、交流能力、组织技巧、开放的头脑、适应性、分析和解决问题的能力(writing and communication skills, organizational skills, open-mindedness and adaptability, and the ability to analyze and solve problems)。作者又引出另一位人士David Birch把文科生大夸了一番,最后以Scheetz的中庸观点收场:文科学历加上专业技能(liberal-arts degree coupled with an MBA or some other technical training)将是市场的宠儿。
          26. C
          本题问哪些人在人才市场上需求量颇高。
          这道题的考查的内容涉及全篇材料,必须根据每一个选项所描述的特点,在文章中找到相应的内容,对比之后排除错误选项。
          A,人文学科的本科毕业生。Humanities,人文学科,可以认为是文章后几段所说的liberal-arts,但这些专业的人在是从长远角度看(in the long run),易进入中高层职位(for middle and upper-level management),而不是本科毕业生。
          B,拥有顶尖大学MBA学位的人。第三段提到MBA学位no longer considers the degree an automatic stamp of approval,说明MBA学位已经并不火爆了。
          C,经过正规学校教育同时拥有工作经验的人。第二段最后一句是Large companies, especially, like a background of formal education coupled with work experience,这里提到经过正规学校教育同时拥有工作经验的人受到了大公司的青睐,符合题意。
          D,在工程学方面拥有专业技能的人。最后一段说明文科生的特点有利于找工作,其中提到工程人才:David Birch claims he does not hire anybody with an MBA or an engineering degree,意思是此人绝不雇用MBA或是工程学毕业生。这说明工程学人才并不火爆。
          27. B
          这道题问but the impact of a degree washes out after five years一句是什么意思。这是一道句子考查题,需要理顺上下文的逻辑关系之后作答。
          A,大多数MBA课程没能为学生打下坚实的基础。
          B,MBA学位并不会对升入管理层带来帮助。
          C,MBA课程在五年以后就不会像现在这样受欢迎了。
          D,五年后人们就会忘记MBA毕业生们的学位。
          首先应该判断这一段在全篇中所起到的作用是什么,也就是这一段的大体功能,段落中的每一句话都是为了这个功能服务的。
          本段第一句话应该是一个总领句,in the long run, too much specialization doesn’t pay off,意思是从长远来看,太专并不会带来回报。这句话提出了本文的第二个观点,文章的余下部分都是在论证这个观点。而实际上,这句话的意思并没有非常清晰地表达出来,比如in the long run到底指什么,不会带来回报具体是什么意思等。根据下一段的论述,可以知道这句话的意思实际上指的是在公司工作几年之后,太专不利于进入管理层。第三段余下的部分应该是为证明这个观点所举的例子,那么其背后的意义当然也是这个观点本身。四个选项中B的表达与此最为接近。
          28. A
          根据Scheetz的说法,公司更喜欢什么样的人才。
          A,具有战略头脑的人。
          B,具有美术才能的人。
          C,有野心、侵略性强的人。
          D,在机械学方面接受过教育的人。
          文章提到Scheetz是在第四段,首先是他介绍的一种人才雇用惯例(Scheetz cites a pattern in corporate hiring practices),而后直接引用了他的原话。此外,在全文最后一句话中也提到了Scheetz。考虑到本题刚刚是第三道题,考查最后一句话的可能性不大,所以,只需研究第四段就可以了。
          Scheetz所提到的惯例大致是这样的:在招聘新员工时还是会招“专家”,而在提拔中上管理层时则青睐“杂家”(generalists)。他的原话直译是:他们想要不被具体细节限制的人,这些人有更广阔的视角。可以看到公司更喜欢的人有两个要点,一是杂家,二是视角广阔或者看问题更为深远。A所说的strategic mind与look at the big picture应该是一个意思,可以选A。B所说的美术才能虽是文科,但恰恰也属于专家,只有通晓大部分文科专业的人才能称之为杂家。C的说法在文中没有提到。D也属于specialists。
          29. A
          题目问David Birch宣称他只雇用文科生是因为……
          A,文科生处理变化情况的能力更强。
          B,他们能够坚持固有的解决问题的方式。
          C,他们在一系列专业领域内都受到了完整的教育。
          D,他们参加了管理方面的特别课程。
          文章提到David Birch是在最后一段,文中他宣称he does not hire anybody with an MBA or an engineering degree,即不愿雇用specialists,而后文章引用了他的原话“I hire only liberal-arts people because they have a less-than-canned way of doing things”,这里的because从句已经说出了原因,本题考查的就是对句话的理解。Way of doing things,做事情的方式,由此可以估计,原因大体上是某种特别的做事的方式,基本可以把C和D排除,因为它们与方式无关。这具体是一种什么方式呢?less-than-canned,这是一个临时自造的词,字典里肯定没有,我们只能通过分析它的构成来猜测它的意思。Can是“能够”,此外还有罐头的意思,这里是被动式,说明已经转化成了动词形式,canned就是做成了罐头的意思。做事情时头脑像装进罐头一样,说明是死脑筋,墨守陈规。David Birch先生最不喜欢的就是这种人,反过来,他喜欢的就是脑筋灵活,思路开阔的人,A的说法与此一致,B的说法与此相反。应该选A。
          30. D
          题目问作者支持下列哪个观点。从四个选项来看,这道题的考查范围遍布全文,不过解答难度却并不高,原因就是三个错误选项的迷惑性相对较小。
          A,给“专家”所付的薪水比“杂家”要高。文中没有直接说工资高低问题。从文中的观点——杂家进入管理层的机会高于专家来看,杂家的薪水肯定是高于专家的。这与A的说法相反。
          B,正规学校教育不如工作培训重要。文章里没有类似的内容,可以直接排除。
          C,在职培训从长远角度讲花费更少。文章没有讲到花费问题,可以直接排除。
          D,“杂家”在管理方面要胜过“专家”。这正是文章后三段论述的中心。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 16:59:34 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Three
          Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
          About six years ago I was eating lunch in a restaurant in New York City when a woman and a young boy sat down at the next table, I couldn’t help overhearing parts of their conversation. At one point the woman asked: “So, how have you been?” And the boy—who could not have been more than seven or eight years old—replied. “Frankly, I’ve been feeling a little depressed lately.”
          This incident stuck in my mind because it confirmed my growing belief that children are changing. As far as I can remember, my friends and I didn’t find out we were “depressed” until we were in high school.
          The evidence of a change in children has increased steadily in recent years. Children don’t seem childlike anymore. Children speak more like adults, dress more like adults and behave more like adults than they used to.
          Whether this is good or bad is difficult to say, but it certainly is different. Childhood as it once was no longer exists, Why?
          Human development is based not only on innate (天生的) biological states, but also on patterns of access to social knowledge. Movement from one social rote to another usually involves learning the secrets of the new status. Children have always been taught adult secrets, but slowly and in stages: traditionally, we tell sixth graders things we keep hidden from fifth graders.
          In the last 30 years, however, a secret-revelation (揭示) machine has been installed in 98 percent of American homes. It is called television, Television passes information, and indiscriminately (不加区分地), to all viewers alike, be they children or adults. Unable to resist the temptation, many children turn their attention from printed texts to the less challenging, more vivid moving pictures.
          Communication through print, as a matter of fact, allows for a great deal of control over the social information to which children have access. Reading and writing involve a complex code of symbols that must be memorized and practices. Children must read simple books before they can read complex materials.
          31. According to the author, feeling depressed is ________.
          A) a sure sign of a psychological problem in a child
          B) something hardly to be expected in a young child
          C) an inevitable has of children’s mental development
          D) a mental scale present in all humans, including children(B)
          32. Traditionally, a child is supposed to learn about the adult world ________.
          A) through contact with society
          B) gradually and under guidance
          C) naturally and by biological instinct
          D) through exposure to social information(B)
          33. The phenomenon that today’s children seem adult like is attributed by the author to ________.
          A) the widespread influence of television
          B) the poor arrangement of teaching content
          C) the fast pace of human intellectual development
          D) the constantly rising standard of living(A)
          34. Why is the author in favor of communication through print for children?
          A) It enables children to gain more social information.
          B) It develops children’s interest in reading and writing.
          C) It helps children to memorize and practice more.
          D) It can control what children are to learn.(D)
          35. What does the author think of the change in today’s children?
          A) He feels amused by chair premature behavior.
          B) He thinks it is a phenomenon worthy of note.
          C) He considers it a positive development.
          D) He seems to be upset about it.(B)
          这篇材料讲的是儿童早熟的问题。开头首先讲述了一个作者亲历的故事,作为引出儿童早熟问题的契机——六年前我在餐厅里遇见一对母子并偷听了他们的谈话;母亲问儿子过的怎么样,儿子回答说最近有一点沮丧(a little depressed lately)。
          母子的对话深深印在作者的脑子里,因为它证实了作者的一个想法:现在的孩子正在改变。是什么方面改变了?作者拿现在的孩子与小时候的自己做了对比:小时的我直到高中才知道沮丧是什么滋味(I didn’t find out we were “depressed” until we were in high school)。
          问题已经提出,接下来作者就要证明这个问题确实存在。第三段举出了很多现在儿童早熟的表现:Children speak more like adults, dress more like adults and behave more like adults than they used to。
          儿童早熟的原因何在?从第四段开始,文章进入了分析问题阶段。第一句话就一针见血,指出问题的根源出在接触社会知识的途径上(patterns of access to social knowledge)。社会角色转变后通常要学习相应的新知识(Movement from one social rote to another usually involves learning the secrets of the new status),大人们一直在教给孩子们这样的知识,但要进度是缓慢的、按部就班的(slowly and in stages)。这里所说的社会角色转变也就是年龄增长的结果,比如上六年级和上五年级即是两种不同的社会角色。
          第四段说的是孩子们过去吸收新知识的情形,第五段则开始介绍现状。还是从途径说起,98%的美国家庭都已经安装了电视(installed in 98 percent of American homes),电视是一个传递信息的载体,传递对象不分成人与儿童,儿童通过看电视过早地吸收了尚不适合他们的知识。
          文章最后一段介绍了通过书本传授知识的好处,这也算是作者提出的儿童早熟问题的一个解决方案。通过印刷品传授知识可以更容易地控制儿童接触到的知识是适合他们的年龄层次的(allows for a great deal of control over the social information to which children have access),只要不让儿童在成长到一定程度之前接触较为复杂的知识就可以了(Children must read simple books before they can read complex materials)。
          31. B
          题目问根据作者的说法,“感到沮丧”是……。
          A,孩子出现心理问题的明确信号。
          B,很难想象会在小孩子身上出现。
          C,孩子精神成长过程中不可避免的现象(原文有误,此为大体意思)。
          D,存在于所有人类身上的精神现象,包括孩子。
          这道题需要注意的地方是题目给出的According to the author,这是一个限定条件,意思是说判断选项的对错不是依据其说法本身是否错误,而是与作者的说法是否一致。文中作者对feeling depressed的评论应该是在第二段,也就是刚刚讲完作者亲历的故事之后。作者说到my friends and I didn’t find out we were “depressed” until we were in high school,意思是我和我的朋友们直到高中才开始感觉沮丧,言下之意就是小孩子是不会出现沮丧心理的。符合这个意思的是选项B,其余几项都不能从作者的叙述中推测出来。
          32. B
          这道题问从传统来看,孩子应该通过什么方式来了解学习成人世界。
          A,通过与社会的接触。
          B,循序渐进,受教于人。
          C,依靠生理本能自然习得。
          D,将其暴露在社会信息的冲击之下。
          本题讨论孩子学习社会知识的途径,这应该是第五段的内容。在第五段中有这样一句话:Children have always been taught adult secrets, but slowly and in stages,后面一句以traditionally开头,说明这一句讨论的是传统方式的学习途径。been taught,受教,应该说相当于选项B中的under guidance;in stages,stage是阶段的意思,in stages就是按阶段,循序渐进,这个意思与B中的gradually一样。这样的话,按照文意,本题选择B最为合适。
          33. A
          本题问如今的儿童成人化现象被作者归因于什么。
          A,电视的广泛影响。
          B,教育内容安排不当。
          C,人类智力发展的快速进步。
          D,生活水平的持续提高。
          这道题较为容易。第五段讲的是孩子学习社会知识的传统方式,这一段在上一题中已经考过了。在第六段作者开始讨论如今孩子们早熟的原因,本题考查的就是第六 段。在这一段作者首先讲述了一种现象,也就是电视在美国社会的普及(第一句),以及电视不分地域、不分老幼地传播信息的特点(第二句)。最后一句指出这种 现象对孩子们的学习途径的影响:many children turn their attention from printed texts to moving pictures,孩子们把注意力从书本转向了电视。上一段讲过,按照传统学习方式,孩子们就是传统的孩子,而以电视为主体的方式,必然造成儿童发生某种变化,在文章中这种变化就是成人化。这道题应该选A。
          34. D
          本题问作者为何要主张让孩子们通过印刷媒介交流信息。
          A,这种方式可以使孩子们获得更多的社会信息。
          B,可以发展孩子们对阅读和写作的兴趣。
          C,可以增加孩子们记忆和练习的机会。
          D,可以控制孩子们学习的内容。
          作者在最后一段主张孩子们应该通过印刷媒介交流信息。此段一共三句话,把它们逐一分析透彻,答案也就显而易见了。Communication through print, as a matter of fact, allows for a great deal of control over the social information to which children have access。首先找到主谓宾的大体结构,主语是通过印刷媒介交流,谓语是allows for ,allow本意是允许,在这里是指“使……可以发生”,宾语是control,控制。“控制”是对什么的控制呢?social information,社会信息、知识。后面是一个从句,to which children have access可以改变句序来理解:which children have access to。宾语与宾语从句合起来的意思就是“儿童能够接触到的信息的控制”。整个句子的大意则是通过印刷媒介交流可以控制儿童能够接触到的信息。符合这个意思的是D,而A与此正好相反。
          Reading and writing involve a complex code of symbols that must be memorized and practiced。这一句的结构比上一句要清晰一些。主语是阅读与写作;谓语involve,涉及;宾语是“复杂的象征符号”。后面的从句对符号做了解释:必须记忆和练习。这句话所要表达的意思是:阅读与写作涉及很多复杂的要素,是需要不断记忆和练习(实践)才能掌握的。
          Children must read simple books before they can read complex materials。根据上一句所述的道理,儿童们必须循序渐进,先读简单的材料,待其完全理解掌握了这些资料,再学习更为复杂的资料。
          这两句话中没有提到培养孩子兴趣的问题,B可以排除。至于C的说法,文中有关阅读与写作的论述所要表达的核心观点是先易后难,循序渐进,与增加机会无关。这道题选择D。
          35. D
          这道题问作者对如今发生在孩子们身上的变化是如何看待的。
          A,他觉得孩子们的早熟行为十分有趣。
          B,他觉得这是一个值得注意的现象。
          C,他认为这是一种积极的进步。
          D,他似乎为此充满忧虑。
          本题考查对全篇材料的理解,必须结合全文的各种信息,寻找文章中流露出作者态度的地方,最后做出判断。第二段中As far as I can remember, my friends and I didn’t find out we were “depressed” until we were in high school,这里把自己和现在的小孩进行对比,暗含现在的小孩不应该这么小就感到“depressed”的意思,应该说对孩子们身上的变化是持否定态度的。
          第四段作者提出:Whether this is good or bad is difficult to say,似乎对儿童的变化是好是坏没有做出评判,但再看最后一段最后一句话Children must read simple books before they can read complex materials,这里赫然使用了must这样带有强烈肯定色彩的词,可见作者的态度并不像第四段说的那样,而是对孩子们身上发生的变化持有明显的否定态度,说他为这种现象感到忧虑也不为过。
          四个题支中D表达了作者的这种态度。B似乎也有道理,但不如D准确、具体,所以还是应该选择D。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-12 18:06:23 | 显示全部楼层
Passage Four
          Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
          “Opinion” is a word that is used carelessly today. It is used to refer to matters of taste, belief, and judgment. This casual use would probably cause little confusion if people didn’t attach too much importance to opinion. Unfortunately, most to attach great importance to it. “I have as much right to my opinion as you to yours,” and “Everyone’s entitled to his opinion,” are common expressions. In fact, anyone who would challenge another’s opinion is likely to be branded intolerant.
          Is that label accurate? Is it intolerant to challenge another’s opinion? It depends on what definition of opinion you have in mind. For example, you may ask a friend “What do you think of the new Ford cars?” And he may reply, “In my opinion, they’re ugly.” In this case, it would not only be intolerant to challenge his statement, but foolish. For it’s obvious that by opinion he means his personal preference, a matter of taste. And as the old saying goes, “It’s pointless to argue about matters of taste.”
          But consider this very different use of the term, a newspaper reports that the Supreme Court has delivered its opinion in a controversial case. Obviously the justices did not shale their personal preferences, their mere likes and dislikes, they stated their considered judgment, painstakingly arrived at after thorough inquiry and deliberation.
          Most of what is referred to as opinion falls somewhere between these two extremes. It is not an expression of taste. Nor is it careful judgment. Yet it may contain elements of both. It is a view or belief more or less casually arrived at, with or without examining the evidence.
          Is everyone entitled to his opinion? Of course, this is not only permitted, but guaranteed. We are free to act on our opinions only so long as, in doing so, we do not harm others.
          36. Which of the following statements is TRUE, according to the author?
          A) Everyone has a right to hold his own opinion.
          B) Free expression of opinions often leads to confusion.
          C) Most people tend to be careless in forming their opinions.
          D) Casual use of the word “opinion” often brings about quarrels.(A)
          37. According to the author, who of the following would be labored as intolerant?
          A) Someone who turns a deaf ear to others’ opinions.
          B) Someone who can’t put up with others’ tastes.
          C) Someone who values only their own opinions.
          D) Someone whose opinion harms other people.(B)
          38. The new Ford cars are cited as an example to show that ________.
          A) it is foolish to criticize a famous brand
          B) one should not always agree to others’ opinions
          C) personal tastes are not something to be challenged
          D) it is unwise to express one’s likes and dislikes in public(C)
          39. Considered judgment is different from personal preference in that ________.
          A) it is stated by judges in the court
          B) it reflects public like and dislikes
          C) it is a result of a lot of controversy
          D) it is based on careful thought(D)
          40. As indicated in the passage, being free to act on one’s opinion ________.
          A) means that one can ignore other people’s criticism
          B) means that one can impose his preferences on others
          C) doesn’t mean that one has the right to do things at will
          D) doesn’t mean that one has the right to charge others without evidence(C)
          这篇材料讲的是“观点”,虽然有五段之多,但主要论述的内容实际上只有一个:观点到底是什么。文章的结构是这样的,开头提出几个观点,如人人都有权表达自己的观点(Everyone’s entitled to his opinion),挑战别人观点的人总是被贴上偏狭的标签(anyone who would challenge another’s opinion is likely to be branded intolerant)。注意,intolerant不是无法忍受的意思,而是“不容异己、偏执”等意思,“无法忍受的”应是intolerable。而后,作者指出这些观点的对错必须根据观点的定义来判断(depends on what definition of opinion you have in mind),从而为论述观点的不同定义做好准备。
          第二段论述了观点的第一个定义:一种个人偏好(by opinion he means his personal preference, a matter of taste)。作者以某人对新车的评论为例,指出,挑战这类观点不但是偏狭的(intolerant),而且是愚蠢行为。
          接下来是另外一个例子,最高法院将其“观点”递交给一个争议不休的案子(Supreme Court has delivered its opinion in a controversial case)。这个例子中的观点体现的不再是个人的偏好(their personal preferences, their mere likes and dislikes),而是对一种经过深思熟虑之后的判断的传达(they stated their considered judgment)。这是观点的第二个定义。
          这两个定义回答了“挑战别人观点的人总是被贴上偏狭的标签”的对错问题。
          最后,作者又论述了观点的第三种定义。作者把上述两种定义视为观点的两种极端(two extremes),而大多数观点处于这二者之间,既不是个人偏好,也不是深思熟虑过的结论(It is not an expression of taste. Nor is it careful judgment),而是融合了这两方面的内容。
          这一定义回应了“人人都有权表达自己的观点”这一说法。作者在最后一段指出这种说法不仅是被允许的,而且是受到保护的,只要其观点不伤害到别人(so long as, in doing so, we do not harm others)。
          36. A
          本题问根据作者的说法,下列叙述中哪一项是正确的。
          这道题看似涉及面较广,但依照四六级阅读题的规律,还是应该首先从第一段寻找答案。
          第 一句首先指出观点一词在当今被人们随意地使用着,而后是对观点的大体定义。第三句指出如果人们不把观点赋予太重大的意义,那么这种随意使用的现象也不会引 起多少混乱。第四句话锋一转,称事实恰恰相反,大多数人给观点赋予了重要的意义。而后是一些人们给观点赋予重要意义的例子。
          A,每个人都有权持有自己的观点。这一说法来自于I have as much right to my opinion as you to yours,二者意思一样。在最后一段作者也提出持有观点的权利是受到保障的。应该选A。
          B,观点的自由表达经常会导致混乱。This casual use would probably cause little confusion if people didn’t attach too much importance to opinion. Unfortunately, most to attach great importance to it。 前一句是说如果人们不把观点赋予太重大的意义,那么这种随意使用的现象也不会引起多少混乱,等于“如果人们把观点赋予重大意义,则随意使用现象就会引起混 乱。而后一句说大多数人给观点赋予了重要的意义,等于是说观点的随意使用会经常引起混乱。不过,要注意的是文中所说的引起混乱的是对opinion一词的随意使用,而不是B所说的观点的自由表达。
          C,大多数人的观点往往并非深思熟虑而成。根据上面对B的分析可知,文中的careless指的是对观点一词的使用,而不是观点的形成。
          D,对观点一词的随意使用往往会引发争吵。Fusion(混乱)并不是quarrel(吵架)。
          37. B
          这道题问的是根据作者的说法,下列哪一种人会被称为intolerant(不容异己的)?
          A,对别人的观点置若罔闻的人。
          B,对别人的喜好无法容忍的人。
          C,只认为自己的观点有价值的人。
          D,自己的观点伤害到别人的人。
          题目中的关键词是intolerant和label,因为是第二题,所以应该去第一段后半部分(因第一段较长,出两题可能性是有的)和第二段寻找这两个关键词。
          第一段最后一句话anyone who would challengeanother’s opinion is likely to be branded intolerant中出现了intolerant一词,而brand的词意和label是一样的,由此判断这句话可能为我们寻找答案带来帮助。句意是:任何挑战他人观点的人都很可能被冠以intolerant。这句话说法较为空泛,暂时无法依靠这句话做出准确判断,需要继续搜索第二段的内容。
          可以发现第二段开头前两句出现了label和intolerant,但作者使用的是疑问句,从疑问句中是无法找出答案的,需要向后看。不过后面一句给出的说法却是一个人是否intolerant还要看观点的定义,从这句话依然无法做出判断。随后作者举出了一个例子,并做出结论:it would not only be intolerantto challenge his statement, but foolish。作者的意思是说挑战这一说法(也就是they’re ugly)不仅是intolerant,甚至是愚蠢的。原因就是这种所谓的观点仅仅是个人喜好而已,无法容忍别人的喜好偏爱,显然是心胸狭隘的表现。这与B的说法一致。
          38. C
          题目问文章中的新福特车作为例子是要来表明什么问题。
          A,批评一个著名品牌是愚蠢的。
          B,一个人不应总是顺从他人的观点。
          C,不应挑战个人喜好。
          D,公开表达自己的喜恶是不明智的。
          这道题的关键信息非常明显,即福特汽车。在第二段描述完福特汽车的例子以后,作者做了简短的评述:it would not only be intolerantto challenge his statement, but foolish。这里的statement指的是前文认为福特车很丑陋的一句话:they’re ugly。这句话显然是个人喜好,评述中说挑战这一statement是愚蠢的,也就是说挑战个人喜好是愚蠢的。C的说法与此一致。
          39. D
          题目问Considered judgment(经过深思熟虑后做出的判断)与个人偏好有所不同,是因为……
          A,它是由法官在法庭宣布的。
          B,它反映了公众喜恶。
          C,它是大量论战后的结果。
          D,它基于缜密的思考。
          题目中的关键信息是Considered judgment,鉴于第二段在上一题已经考查过,可以直接到第三段寻找Consideredjudgment。可以看出四个题支的说法都与第三段有关,而Considered judgment也出现在了最后一句话中——they stated their considered judgment, painstakingly arrived atafter thorough inquiry and deliberation。后半句实际上是judgment的非限制性定语从句,只不过省略了which和be动词。Arrive at是作出(决定)的意思,指作出considered judgment这一判断。After thorough inquiry anddeliberation是“经过了周密细致的调查和研究之后”,说明judgement是经过了周密细致的调查和研究才得出的。这一点和D的说法一致。
          A和B的说法在第三段第一句中都有提到,但把细致的判断归因于法庭和法官显然是不对的。而controversial一词也仅是指案子引起了大量的争议,这些争议和法官的判决没有直接关系。因此AB都是错误的。
          从Obviously the justices did not sharetheir personal preferences, their mere likes and dislikes一句可以了解到,法官们的判断没有受到个人喜恶的影响(did notshare their mere likes and dislikes)。C可以排除。
          40. C
          这道题问根据文中暗示,按照自己的观点自由行事如何如何。
          A,意味着可以忽视别人的批评。
          B,意味着可以把自己的偏好强加给别人。
          C,并不意味着一个人有权随意依照自己的意志行事。
          D,并不意味着一个人有权在毫无证据的情况下控告别人。
          题目给出的关键词是act on one’s opinion,而四个选项中也显现一个关键信息right。可以在文中最后两段寻找这二个关键点。
          倒数第二段中没有相关信息,最后一段出现了entitled和guaranteed两个词,它们都与权利有关,与right相对应。而后还直接出现了free to act on our opinions这个关键信息,可以肯定答案就在本段,无须在倒数第二段上耗费过多精力。
          最后一段的前两句话一问一答,澄清了一个问题,也就是我们有权利去按照自己的观点行事。最后一句话为这一权利设置了一个条件:we do not harm others,不能伤害到别人。综合起来的意思就是,我们实际上不能随意按照自己的观点行事,除非在不伤害到别人的前提下。观察四个选项,C的说法与此最为接近。
          D所说的控告在最后一段没有提到过,可以排除。
          A和D的说法都和“不能伤害到别人”这一前提相违背,也是错误的。
            
            
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