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英语最基本的五个时态(三)

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发表于 2016-7-9 23:20:46 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  三、 一般将来时
          一般将来时由助动词shall或will加动词原型构成,shall用于第一人称,will用于第二、三人称。这个时态的肯定、否定及疑问机构可表示如下:
          I shall go.
          I shall not go.
          shall I go?
          除英国以外的说英语的国家,在陈述句中,即使在第一人称一般也用will,在英国也有这种趋势,在口语中常紧缩为I’ll.
          一般将来时表示将要发生的动作和情况:
          I will (shall) arrive tomorrow.
          will you be busy tonight?
          the agreement will come into force next spring.
          we won’t (shan’t) be free tonight.
          有时表示将来的时间状语,有时没有时间状语,这时要从意思上判断是否指未来的动作或情况:
          I will think it over.
          who will take the chair?
          will she come?
          they won’t object it.
          在以i 或 we 作主语的问句中,一般用shall,这时或是征求对方的意见(a),或是询问一个情况(b):
          a. shall I make a fair copy of it?
          which book shall i read first?
          where shall we meet?
          b. shall we have any classes tomorrow?
          when shall we have the rehearsal?
          shall I be able to find them there?
          在这类问句中,近年来也有不少人用will,特别是美国。
          what will we do?
          how will get there?
          which will I take?
          注意在时间或条件状语从句中,一般不能用将来时态,而用现在时态代替:
          I’ll let you have the book when i’m through.
          they’ll fight till they win complete victory.
          I’ll be round to see you if i have time tomorrow.
          注:在两种情况下条件从句可以用一般将来时:
          1. 表示愿望:
          if they won’t cooperate, our plan will fall flat.
          2.主句的谓语表时现在的情况:
          if he won’t arrive this morning, why should we wait here。
          表示将要发生的动作或情况,除了一般将来时外,还有一些其他结构和时态:
          1. be going +不定式(表打算、准备作的事或即将发生或肯定要发生的事):
          we ‘re going to put up a building here.
          how are you going to spend your holiday?
          who is going to speak first?
          2. be +不定式(表示按计划安排要发生的事或用来征求对方的意见):
          when is the factory to go into production?
          the line is (going) to be opened to traffic next week.
          Am I to (=shall I ) go on with the work?
          3.一般现在时(限于某些动词,表示按计划或时刻要发生的事):
          school finishes on january 18th.
          we get off at the next stop.
          when does the winter vacation begin?
          4.现在进行时(限于某些动词,表示按计划安排要发生的事):
          we are having an english evening tonight.
          they are playing some folk music next.
          I am talking the children to the zoo (on sunday ).
          在单纯表示将来情况,特别是谈一连串的事情或在带时间或条件状语从句的句子中,谓语多用将来时:
          next term i will try to do better. I’ll speak more english and do more
reading-aloud.
          he’ll come to see you when he has time.
          he’ll tell you if you ask him.
          在表示打算或准备时,如不提时间、条件等,多用be going to这个结构,用一般将来时时很少的,特别是在口语中:
          he is going to buy a dictionary.(很少说he will buy a dictionary.)
          在谈即将发生的情况时,用be going to 这个结构也多一些。在表示按计划安排要做得事时,用be to
的时候也不少。另外还有将来进行时等时态也可表示将来的动作。
          注:be about to 可表示即将作某事
          we are about to leave.
          he is about to retire.
          一般将来时有时还可用来表示一种倾向或习惯性动作:
          a drowning man will catch at a straw.
          crops will die without water.
          oil will float on water.
          注:这一时态有时用来表示揣测(a)或容量(b):
          a. that man in the middle will be the visiting minister.
          b. the hall will seat 500people.
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