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Today in history:January 8

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发表于 2016-7-9 23:20:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  January 8
          President de Gaulle is first president of the Fifth Republic
          1959: De Gaulle becomes president
          England have
          General Charles de Gaulle has been proclaimed first President of the new
Fifth Republic in France during a brief ceremony at the Elysee Palace in
Paris.
          As part of the proceedings, held in the great reception hall of the palace,
the collar of the Grand Master of the Legion of Honour was placed around the
incoming president"s neck.
          Retiring president, M. Ren?Coty, welcomed the new president saying: "The
first among Frenchmen is now the first in France."
          A salute of 21 guns was fired on the banks of the Seine to mark the solemn
occasion.
          Under the new constitution President de Gaulle is also the head of the
French Community - which includes most of the former overseas territories in
French Black Africa.
          Speaking for the first time as president, General de Gaulle said: "In the
majestic character of this ceremony the renovated institutions of the Republic
and the new institutions of the Community enter into force.
          "Long live the Community, long live the Republic, long live France."
          The inauguration was attended by a large number of dignitaries including
the President of the Senate and the Assembly, representatives from all the state
institutions of France, members of the judiciary, academics and military
representatives.
          The 12 African Premiers of the republics also attended.
          Following the ceremony, President de Gaulle, accompanied by ex-president
Coty, was driven to the Arc de Triomphe, where he rekindled the flame at the
tomb of the unknown soldier in memory of France"s war dead.
          And within an hour of officially taking up the reigns of power President de
Gaulle carried out his first presidential duty by appointing committed Gaullist
Michel Debre as his prime minister.
          The new French government was approved by the President this evening.
          The installation of President de Gaulle marks the end of an eight-month
transitional period in France following near civil war when Frenchmen in Algeria
staged a revolt.
          Pol Pot and many of his Khmer Rouge soldiers have begun retreating
          1979: Vietnam forces Khmer Rouge retreat
          Artificially 1969:
          The Hundreds of Khmer Rouge troops have fled Cambodia after being crushed
by Vietnamese-led rebel forces.
          The capital, Phnom Penh, has been seized and Pol Pot and many of his
soldiers forced to retreat into the countryside.
          It signals the end of nearly four years of brutal domination by the
guerrillas.
          Defeated soldiers crossed the border into Thailand where they were taken to
prison as illegal immigrants.
          The Thai authorities have said they will not be forcibly returned to
Cambodia.
          Thousands more are reported to be seeking refuge in an enclave of North
West Cambodia.
          The retreat is a serious blow for the Khmer Rouge, which having itself
captured Phnom Penh four years ago began torturing and killing its
opponents.
          Fall of Phnom Penh is critical
          An intelligence source said there was little evidence of an organised
defence between the Cambodian capital and the Thai border - and that Phnom Penh
was taken almost without a shot being fired.
          It has been suggested that the Khmer Rouge decided to pull out of positions
around the capital when they realised they would have little chance at beating
the superior armed opposition.
          The Vietnamese invasion came after a fierce year-long border war between
Vietnam and Cambodia.
          Vietnam launched its offensive on Christmas Day, with the help of
pro-Vietnamese rebels in Cambodia assembled a few weeks earlier under the banner
of the Front for National Salvation.
          The fall of Phnom Penh is regarded by analysts as critical to the power
balance in South East Asia.
          Russia has firmly supported Vietnam while China has backed Cambodia.
          Vocabulary:
          crevasse : a deep fissure(裂缝)
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