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历年考研英语翻译精解

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发表于 2016-7-9 23:19:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  98年  翻译题解:
          71) But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been
able to looksintosthe past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and
structures that existed 15 billion years ago.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:But even more
important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to looksintosthe
past, / for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures / that
existed 15 billion years ago.  第二、句子主干结构是:主句+ for +原因状语从句。  1)主句是强调句it was...
that...被强调部分the farthest是后面句子的状语,可以理解为scientists had been able to look the
farthestsintosthe past  2) for...引导的原因状语从句是一个系表结构,what they were
seeing是从句中的主语,that...是名词表语the patterns and structures的定语从句。  第三、词的处理:  even more
important (省略)更为重要的是  the patterns and structures (宇宙云的)形状和结构  15 billion years
ago 150亿年前
          完整的译文:  71)但更为重要的是,这是科学家们所能观测到的最遥远的过去的景象,因为他们看到的是150亿年前宇宙云的形状和结构。
          72) The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big
Bang, first put forward in the 1920s, to maintain its reign as the dominant
explanation of the cosmos.
          句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:The existence of the giant clouds was virtually
required for the Big Bang, / first put forward in the 1920s, / to maintain its
reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.  第二、句子的主干结构是一个简单句。  1)整体结构是:The
existence... was virtually required for..., to maintain...2)first put forward in
the 1920s是过去分词短语作插入语,说明前面的名词the Big Bang  3)后面的不定式短语是补语。  第三、词的处理:  the giant
clouds 巨大的(宇宙)云  virtually 事实上,实际上,实质上  the Big Bang 大爆炸理论  first put forward
首创的,开始提出的  in the 1920s 二十年代  to maintain its reign as 以保持……的地位  explanation of
the cosmos 对宇宙(起源论)的解释
          完整的译文:  72)巨大的宇宙云的存在,实际上是使二十年代首创的大爆炸论得以保持其宇宙起源论的主导地位所必不可少的。
          73) Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at the South Pole
and balloon-borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report
their findings soon.
          句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at
the South Pole and balloon-borne instruments / are closing in on such
structures, / and may report their findings
soon.  第二、句子主干结构是:  1)主语+并列谓语Astrophysicists...are closing...and may
report...2)分词短语working with ground-based detectors at the South Pole and
balloon-borne instruments是主语的定语。
          第三、词的处理:   working with 使用,以……为工作手段  ground-based detectors 陆基探测器  the
South Pole 南极  balloon-borne instruments 球载仪器  are closing in on
正越来越近  structures 云系  findings 观测结果
          完整的译文:  73)天体物理学家使用南极陆基探测器及球载仪器,正越来越近地观测这些云系,也许不久会报告他们的观测结果。
          74) If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet
another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary
universe theory.
          句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:If the small hot spots look as expected, / that will be
a triumph for yet another scientific idea, / a refinement of the Big Bang called
the inflationary universe theory.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是“If引导的条件句,主句”。  2)look as
expected是look as they are expected的省略,意思是“看上去和预想的一样”。  3)another scientific
idea和后面的短语a refinement of the Big Bang是同位语关系。  4)过去分词短语called the inflationary
universe theory作定语,修饰the Big Bang.  第三、词的处理:  the small hot spots
小热点  refinement 更完美,提炼,改进  the inflationary universe theory 宇宙膨胀说(理论)
          完整的译文: 74)假如那些小热点看上去同预计的一致,那就意味着又一科学论说的胜利,这种论说即更完美的大爆炸论,亦称宇宙膨胀说。
          75) Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible
consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many
astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is
true.
          句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Odd though it sounds, / cosmic inflation is a
scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in
elementary-particle physics, / and many astrophysicists have been convinced for
the better part of a decade that it is true.
          第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是倒装的让步状语从句+主句。Odd though it sounds = though it sounds
odd  2) consequence前后有多重定语。  3) and many astrophysicists have been
convinced为被动结构。  4) that it is true是宾语从句。  第三、词的处理:  cosmic inflation
宇宙膨胀说  scientifically plausible consequence 科学上可信的推论  in elementary-particle
physics 基本粒子物理学  convinced 被说服,相信  for the better part of a decade 七八年来
          完整的译文:  75)宇宙膨胀说虽然听似奇特,但它是基本粒子物理学中一些公认的理论在科学上看来可信的推论。许多天体物理学家七八年来一直认为这一论说是正确的。
          97年  翻译题解:
          71) Actually, it isn"t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account
of human rights, which is something the world does not
have.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Actually, it isn"t, because it assumes / that there
is an agreed account of human rights, / which is something the world does not
have.第二、句子主干结构是主从复合句。  1)because引导原因状语从句  2)that引导宾语从句,从句中是存在句结构there is an
agreed account of human rights,  3)which从句的先行词是human rights,something后面是定语从句the
world does not have.  第三、词的处理:  Actually
事实上  it主语代词,根据上下文意思这种问法,这种说法,isn"t后面省略的词应该是so或true  an agreed account
约定的看法,共同的认识  human rights
人的权利,人权完整的译文:  71)事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同的认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。
          72) Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social
contract, as part of an exchange of duties and
entitlements.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Some philosophers argue / that rights exist
only within a social contract, / as part of an exchange of duties and
entitlements.第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是主从复合句:Some philosophers argue
that...  2)that引导的是宾语从句  3)as part of...是宾语从句中的rights的主语补足语。  第三、词的处理:  argue
论证  a social contract 社会契约  as part of 作为(是)……的一部分  entitlements
利益,权利  完整的译文:  72)有些哲学家论证说,权利只存在社会契约中,是责任与利益相交换的一部分。
          73) It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to
think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend
to other humans, or with no consideration at all.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:It leads
the discussion to extremes at the outset: / it invites you to think that animals
should be treated / either with the consideration humans extend to other humans,
or with no consideration at all.  第二、句子的结构是:  1)it invites you to think
that...后面是宾语从句。  2) animals should be treated either with..., or
with...要么……要么……,是表示选择的方式状语。  3)the consideration后面的humans extend to other
humans是定语。  第三、词的处理:  leads ...to extremes 引向极端  at the outset 从一开始  invites you
to think 使人们认为  consideration 关切,体谅  humans extend to other humans
人对待人完整的译文:  73)这种说法从一开始就将讨论引向两个极端,它使人们认为应这样对待动物:要么像对人类自身一样关切体谅,要么完全冷漠无情。
          74) Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every
relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the
area of moral choice.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Arguing from the view that humans are
different from animals in every relevant respect, / extremists of this kind
think / that animals lie outside the area of moral
choice.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是现在分词短语状语,主语+谓语+宾语从句。Arguing from...现在分词短语作状语。  2) the
view和后面的从句that...是同位语关系  3) that...引导宾语从句。  第三、词的处理:  Arguing from the view
从……观点看,持……观点  different from... 与……不同  in every relevant respect
在各相关方面  extremists 极端主义者,持极端观点的人  lie outside the area of moral choice
不在道德问题范围,与道德取舍无关完整的译文:  74)这类人持极端看法,认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。
          75) When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind"s instinct for
moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than
laughed at.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:When that happens, it is not a mistake: / it is
mankind"s instinct for moral reasoning in action, / an instinct that should be
encouraged rather than laughed
at.  第二、句子主干结构是两个复合句:  1)When...是前一个复合句的时间状语  2)instinct后面的介词短语for moral
reasoning in action是它的定语  3)that...是定语从句,修饰先行词an
instinct,从句中是被动语态结构,表示选择。  第三、词的处理:  that (代词作主语)联系上下文译为这种反应  mankind"s instinct
for moral reasoning 人类道德观念推理的本能  in action 起作用  rather than
而不完整的译文: 75)这种反应并不错,这是人类用道德观念进行推理的本能在起作用,这种本能应得到鼓励而不应遭到嘲弄。
          96年  翻译题解:
          71) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs.
Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to
some extent self-accelerating.    句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Some of these causes are
completely reasonable results of social needs. / Others are reasonable
consequences of particular advances in science / being to some extent
self-accelerating.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是对比句Some... are... reasonable results of...
Others are reasonable consequences of...  2) particular advances后面有多重定语in
science being to some extent self-accelerating.  第三、词的处理:  are... results of
是……的结果,来自于  social needs 社会需求  to some extent 在一定程度上  self-accelerating
自我加速  完整的译文:  71)在这些原因中,有些完全是自然而然地来自社会需求,另一些则是由于科学在一定程度上自我加速而产生某些特定发展的必然结果。
          72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments
came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make
of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in
detail.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:This trend began during the Second World War, when
several governments came to the conclusion / that the specific demands that a
government wants to make of its scientific establishment / cannot generally be
foreseen in detail.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是主句+ when引导的时间状语,when = at that
time当时,那时。  2)第一个that从句是主句宾语the conclusion的同位语。  3)that a government wants to
make of its scientific establishment是定语从句中的主语从句  4)cannot generally be foreseen
in detail是宾语从句的谓语。第三、词的处理:  trend 趋势  came to the conclusion 得出结论  the specific
demands 具体要求  make of 向……提出  scientific establishment 科研机构  in detail
详尽  完整的译文:  72)这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。
          73) This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of
research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the
future.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:This seems mostly effectively done / by supporting
a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals / but of possible
consequence in the future.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是系词+过去分词+被动宾语:This seems mostly
effectively done by...  2)research后面是双重定语not related to... but of...由此断定related
to意思等于of  第三、词的处理:  This (主语代词要译出来)这一问题  done 解决  not related to
与……无关  immediate goals 当前目标  possible consequence
可能的影响  完整的译文:  73)给某些与当前目标无关但将来可能产生影响的科研以支持,看来通常能有效地解决这一问题。
          74) However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle
unable to deal with some of the world"s more fascination and delightful
aspects.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:However, the world is so made / that elegant
systems are in principle unable to / deal with some of the world"s more
fascination and delightful aspects.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是the world is so...
that...  2) some后面有多重定语of the world"s more fascination and delightful
aspects.第三、词的处理:  elegant systems (精美的)完美的体系  in principle 一般而言  deal with
解决,处理  aspects
原义是方面,联系上下文译成课题,问题  完整的译文:  74)然而,世界就是如此,完美的体系一般而言是无法解决世界上某些更加引人入胜的课题的。
          75) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in
the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of
elegance.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:New forms of thought as well as new subjects for
thought must arise in the future / as they have in the past, / giving rise to
new standards of elegance.  第二、句子的结构:  1)as well as和,以及,连接两个并列主语,must
arise作句子谓语  2)as they have in the past方式状语,as就像是……,同……一样  3)giving rise
to...表示伴随状语。  第三、词的处理:  New forms of thought 新的思维方式  new subjects for thought
新的思维对象  arise 出现  giving rise to 给出,产生,带来  new standards of elegance
完美的新标准  完整的译文:  75)同过去一样,将来必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,给完美以新的标准
          95年  翻译题解:
          71) The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert
attention from the fault that lies with ill-informed or incompetent users.
  句子分析:第一、句子可以拆分为三段:The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, / critics
divert attention from the fault / that lies with ill-informed or incompetent
users. 第二、句子主干结构是:简单句加for引导的原因状语。后面的that引导的是定语从句。第三、词的处理  The target
根据上下文,这里特指标准化测试 divert attention from 原义是把注意力引开,引申为没有注意到lies with在于ill-informed
不甚了解incompetent
users(词性转换)使用不当完整的译文:71)把标准化测试作为抨击的目标是错误的,因为在抨击这类测试时,批评者没有注意到测试的弊病在于使用测试的人对测试不甚了解或使用不当。
          72) How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends
upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on
the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted  句子分析:第一、句子可以拆分为三段:How well
the predictions will be validated by later performance / depends upon the
amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the
skill and wisdom / with which it is interpreted  第二、句子主干结构是:  1)How
well...引导的被动结构是主语从句,How
well是主语从句中的状语前置,depends是句子谓语2)depends后面两个介词短语作并列宾语upon...and on... 3) the
information used是名词+定语4)with which it is interpreted定语从句,先行词是the skill and
wisdom,代词it指代the information  第三、词的处理:  be validated by 为……所证实  depends upon
取决于  reliability 可靠性  appropriateness 适应性  interpreted
解释  完整的译文:  72)这些测试在多大程度上为后来的表现所证实,这取决于所采用信息的数量、可靠性和适应性,以及解释这些信息的技能和才智。
          73) Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a
particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience
concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and
availability.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Whether to use tests, other kinds of
information, or both in a particular situation / depends, therefore, upon the
evidence from experience concerning comparative validity / and upon such factors
as cost and availability.  第二、句子主干结构是:Whether to use..., or
both...引导主语从句depends是句子谓语,upon... and upon...是并列结构的双宾语。  第三、词的处理:  Whether
to..., or 是……还是……  both 指代前句的tests, other kinds of information  in a particular
situation 在某一特定情况下  therefore 因此  the evidence from experience 经验依据  concerning
与……有关的  comparative validity 相对效度  such factors as...
诸如……等因素  完整的译文:  73)因此,在某一特定情况下,究竟是采用测试还是其他种类的信息,或是两者兼用,须凭有关相对效度的经验依据而定,也取决于诸如费用和有无来源等因素。
          74) In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be
measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be
measured or predicted can not be well defined.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为四段:In general,
the tests work most effectively / when the qualities to be measured can be most
precisely defined / and least effectively / when what is to be measured or
predicted can not be well defined.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是一个排比句the tests work most
effectively when...and least effectively
when...  2)连词when引导的是状语从句,意思是当……的时候,从句中都是被动结构。  3) what is to be measured or
predicted是第二个从句的主语。  第三、词的处理:  In general 一般的说  work most effectively 最为有效  be
most precisely defined 很精确界定  measured
测定  完整的译文:  74)一般的说,当所要测定的特征能很精确界定时,测试最为有效;而当所要测定或预测的东西不能明确地界定时,测试的效果则最差。
          75) For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and
thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he
grown up under more favorable circumstances.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:For example,
they do not compensate for gross social inequality, / and thus do not tell how
able an underprivileged youngster might have been / had he grown up under more
favorable circumstances.  第二、句子的结构:  1)主干结构是并列句they do not compensate for...,
and thus do not tell...  2) how able是表语前置,正常语序是:... youngster might have been
how able  3)最后一个句子是虚拟语气句的倒装结构:had he grown up under more favorable
circumstances等于If he had grown up...  第三、词的处理:  they 指示代词,测试  compensate for
弥补  gross social inequality 明显的社会不公  and thus 因此  tell 说明  underprivileged
贫困的、物质条件差的  under more favorable circumstances
在较好的环境下  完整的译文:  75)例如,测试并不弥补明显的社会不公,因此它们不能说明一个物质条件差的年轻人,如果在较好的环境下成长的话,会有多大才干。
          94年  翻译题解:  71) Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the
insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved
techniques and tool.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Science moves forward, they say, / not
so much through the insights of great men of genius / as because of more
ordinary things like improved techniques and tool.  第二、句子主干结构是:not so much
through... as because of...与其……倒不如……  因为not so much...
as是个并列结构,也就是说so和as后面应该两个词的意思应该相同,所以多义介词through的意思应该等于because
of因为,由于。  第三、词的处理:  the insights of great men of
genius是后面带定语的名词短语结构,后置定语的顺序应该在汉语翻译中应该倒过来,即从后往前翻译为:天才伟人的真知灼见。  more ordinary
things like improved techniques and tool这是结构是介词like短语做定语修饰中心词more ordinary
things,也是先翻译定语,再翻译中心词:像改进了的技术和工具等更为普通的东西。  they
say插入语,按照汉语习惯,翻译时放在句首。  完整的译文:  71)他们说,科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼见,不如说源于改进了的技术和工具等更为普通的东西。
          72) In short, a leader of the new school contends, the scientific
revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use of
a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable
direction.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:In short, a leader of the new school contends,
the scientific revolution, as we call it, / was largely the improvement and
invention and use of a series of instruments / that expanded the reach of
science in innumerable direction.
          第二、句子主干结构是:  1)系表结构:the scientific revolution... was largely...  2)
that引导的定语从句,先行词是the improvement and invention and use of a series of
instruments  第三、词的处理:  In short 简而言之  the improvement and invention and use of a
series of instruments (词性转换)一系列器具的改进、发明和使用  expanded the reach of science in
innumerable direction
直译:在难以计数的方向扩大了科学的范围  完整的译文:  72)新学派的一位领袖人物坚持说:简而言之,我们所谓的科学革命,主要是指一系列器具的改进、发明和使用,而这些改进、发明和使用使科学发展无所不及。
          73) Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of
fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers
of science.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Over the years, tools and technology themselves
as a source of fundamental innovation / have largely been ignored / by
historians and philosophers of science.  第二、句子主干结构是一个简单的被动语态句:tools and
technology...have largely been ignored by ...主语部分有一个themselves反身代词  as a source
of fundamental innovation介词短语做定语  第三、词的处理:  Over the years 多年来  philosophers of
science 科学思想家们  完整的译文:  73)工具和技术本身作为根本性创新的源泉多年来在很大程度上被历史学家和科学思想家们忽视了。
          74) Galileo"s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to
turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets
revolve around the sun rather than around the
earth.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Galileo"s greatest glory was / that in 1609 he was
the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens / to prove
that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the
earth. 第二、句子主干结构是:  1)系表结构Galileo"s greatest glory was that...  2)不定式短语作定语结构the
first person to turn...  3)动词+宾语从句作目的状语to prove that...  第三、词的处理:  turn the
newly invented telescope on the heavens (介词on译成动词)把新发明的望远镜对准天空  rather than
而不是完整的译文:  74)伽利略的最光辉业绩在于他在1609年第一个把新发明的望远镜对准天空,以证实行星是围绕太阳旋转而不是围绕地球旋转的。
          75) Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at
the expense of technology or vice versa often depends on the issue of which is
seen as the driving force.  句子分析:  第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Whether the Government should
increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice
versa / often depends on the issue / of which is seen as the driving
force.  第二、句子主干结构是:  1)表示选择意思的从句Whether the Government ...or
...究竟是……还是……作句子的主语,谓语和宾语是depends on the issue  2)of which是宾语the
issue的定语从句。  第三、词的处理:  increase the financing of pure science 增加对纯理论科学的经费投入  at
the expense of technology 减少对技术经费的投入  the driving force
动力,驱动力量  完整的译文:  75)政府究竟是以减少对技术经费的投入来增加对纯理论科学的经费投入,还是相反,这往往取决于把哪一方看作是驱动力量。
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