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美丽的城市:米兰

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发表于 2016-7-9 23:18:30 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Milan (Italy)
          The hard-working Milanese(米兰人)run their busy metropolis with efficiency and
aplomb(沉着、冷静). It is the country"s economic engine room, home to Italy"s stock
market and business centres. This stylish city is also the world"s design
capital and rivals Paris as a leading fashion centre.
          Milan is all about worldly pleasures. Shopping is of almost religious
significance. Theatre and cinema flourish in this fashionable milieu(环境), as
does a hopping club scene and a slew of tempting restaurants. Apart from a few
gems, the city is not renowned for its looks; it"s the lifestyle that
counts.
          Milan is a sprawling metropolis, but most of its attractions are
concentrated in the city centre, between the duomo(大教堂)(cathedral) and the
Castello Sforzesco(斯弗克斯可城堡). The duomo is best place to begin exploring the city
and is within strolling distance of dozens of historic sites.
          Apart from the city center, another area deserving your attention is the
Brera, immediately north of the duomo, with its posh galleries and fashionable
shopping streets.
          Milan is said to have been founded by Celtic tribes(凯尔特部落), who settled
along the Po river in the 7th century BC. In 222 BC, Roman legions marched into
the territory, defeated the locals and occupied the town, which they called
Mediolanum (middle of the plain). The city"s key position on the trade routes
linking Rome with northwestern Europe ensured its continued prosperity, and it
was here in 313 AD that Constantine I(君士坦丁一世,拜占庭帝国皇帝)made his momentous edict
granting Christians freedom of worship.
          The city endured centuries of chaos caused by waves of barbarian invasions.
It formed a commune (town council) in the 11th century, leading the city into a
period of rapid growth. Perhaps because of this success, the city did not get
along well with its neighbors.
          From the mid-13th century, the city was governed by a succession of
important families: the Torrianis, the Viscontis and the Sforzas. Under the
latter dynasties, Milan enjoyed considerable wealth and power. The city came
under Spanish rule in 1535 and was given to Austria in 1713 as part of the
Treaty of Utrecht(乌特勒克条约). Austrian power-broker Maria Theresa left her mark on
the city; the facades of La Scala and the Palazzo Real remain her favorite shade
of yellow. Napoleon made Milan the capital of his Cisalpine Republic in 1797 and
his Italian Republic five years later. It hosted his coronation as King of Italy
in 1805.Austria regained control of the city from 1814-1859. It wasn"t long
before troops under Victor Emmanuel II and Napoleon III wiped up the Austrian
forces at the Battle of Magenta. Milan was incorporated into the Kingdom of
Italy in 1860.
          During WWII central Milan was heavily bombed, and the opera house in
particular was blown to smithereens(碎屑). Fittingly, Mussolini"s career also
ended in Milan - his corpse was hung upside down from the roof of a petrol
station on Piazzale Loreto after he was shot trying to flee the country.
          The post-war industrial boom - led by car manufacturing - and greater
access to northern Europe via the new Alpine tunnels led to a spurt of growth
accompanied by industrial unrest. The Red Brigades terrorised Milan and other
centres of industry throughout the 1970s. In the 1990s, local political elites
were torn apart by kickback scandals that went to the top of the region"s
political, administrative and commercial elites. Extremist parties such as the
nationalist Lega Nord benefitted from the resultant political vacuum.
          Organised crime continues to be the perpetual scourge of Milanese civic
life. In January 1999, nine people were murdered in nine consecutive days,
prompting the Milanese mayor to adopt a New York-style "zero tolerance" policy.
It did little to discourage the criminals - in December 2000, a bomb was
discovered on the roof of Milan"s Duomo.
          In 2002, a small plane crashed into the 25th floor of the city"s 30-storey
Pirelli skyscraper building, killing two lawyers inside.
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