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发表于 2016-7-9 23:18:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  1.改变词类Conversion。英语一个词能充当的句子成分较少,充当不同成分时常常要改变词类。Insulin is used
 in the treatment of diabetes.This
issue is of paramount importance.Rationing by points is over and 
rationing by the purse is in.Oceanography has been defined as “The 
application of all sciences to the study of the sea”. 1990. 1
          2. 选词用字Diction。Before Hugo could protest he and the others were led 
away. (抗议-分辩)Put a teaspoonful of tea in the pot and then you just add 
the boiling water to it and let it stand. (稍等片刻再喝)It"s a crime you 
didn"t finish school. (憾事)
          3.词序调整Inversion。一个句子中词和分句的顺序,英汉两种语言往往不同。如表示时间和地点,英语常常是先小后大,而汉语是先大后小。His address is 3612 Market Street 
Philadelphia PA 19001USA.Don"t hesitate to come when you need 
help.black and white TViron and steel company
cannot build a ship a bridge or a house if you don"t know how to make a
 design or how to read it.It took him a long time to reach the bottom 
and to couch behind a little dwarf palm.
          5.增词Amplification。英语中没有量词,助词,翻译时应根据上下文的需要予以增加。有些英语的不及物动词必须增加宾语意思才完整。I could knit when I was 
seven. Without a sense of your fault how can repentance and amendment 
be expected﹖ 如果Walking past the Garden of EdenAdam’s son asked his 
father “Who owns that large estate﹖”“That"s where your mother and I 
used to live” replied Adam“before she ate us out of house and home.”
          6.重复Repetition。Practically every river has an upper a middle and a 
lower part. 上游,中游,下游If an atom contains three protons it must have 
three electrons to be electrically neutral.
Organization has not so far justified the hopes which the people set 
on it. (辜负)Suddenly he heard a sound behind him and realized he was not
 alone in the garage. (还有别人)If a patient at Beth Israel is not 
responding to treatment it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose 
another approach to his doctor. 1993. 1
          8.分译法Division。英语长句多,为了符合汉语表达习惯,可将英语长句拆成短句。It was a real challenge that those who had learned 
from us now excelled us. It has been rightly stated that this situation 
is a threat to international security.Because they tremble at the 
thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion they
 are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores. 
1993. 6
          1)It goes without saying that…不言而喻的是……
          2)It is common knowledge that…众所周知的是……
          3)It occurs to me that…我突然想起
          4)It is not that...but that…并不是说……而是说
          5)某些含蓄否定的翻译 Plants which refine crude ores are often located in countries 
other than those in which the crude ores are mined.  提炼矿石的工厂通常不是设在开采矿石的国家,而是设在其它国家。6)more...than...与其说……不如说……She is more like his mother than 
like his teacher.7)no more...than...和……一样都不There is no reason they 
should limit how much vitamin you take any more than they can limit how
 much water you drink. 他们没有理由限制你服用多少维生素,就像他们不能限制你喝多少水一样。8)not...all... 
all is...not...并不是……都……All that glitters is not gold.Both of the books 
are not helpful. Everyone doesn"t want to go to the 
concert.9)cannot...too...无论……也不过分We can"t praise him too much.10)much 
less still less to say nothing of not to mention let alone更不用说He 
knows little of mathematics and still less of chemistry.In old China 
there was hardly any machine-building industry to say nothing of an 
electronic industry.All they have to do is to press a button and they 
can see plays films operas and shows of every kind not to mention 
political discussions and the latest exciting football 
match.11)so...that...如此……以至于And home appliances will also become so 
smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of
 a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage.  12 not so much...as...与其说……不如说……Science moves forward they say not so much through the 
insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like 
improved techniques and tools.  13)not...because...(否定转移)并不是因为……The 
police didn"t arrest me because I committed any crime. They said I was 
wandering on the street with the intent of committing an arrestable 
offense.14 anything...but...一点也不,决不 nothing...but...就是,仅仅,but for...要不是……The method of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression 
of the necessary mode of working of the human mind it is simply the 
mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and 
exact explanations. Alone in a deserted house he was so busy with his 
research work that he felt anything but lonely.  But for your timely 
help we couldn"t have finished the work on time.15)as特殊状语从句,译为定语从句 ″In 
short″ a leader of the new school contends ″the scientific revolution as we call it was largely the improvement and invention and use of a 
series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable 
directions.″  16 what is called...所谓的,所说的……(东西)One difficulty is that 
almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace 
behavior to states of mind feelings traits of character human nature 
and so on.  17)such...as...诸如……Whether to use tests other kinds of 
information or both in a particular situation depends therefore upon 
the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon 
such factors as cost and availability.  18)not...not...双重否定,可依情况译为没有……
不……,或每一个……,都……10.注意英语惯用法,俚语和俗语的翻译。Mr. Wilson talks a lot but Mrs. 
Wilson wears the trousers in their house.It seems to me what is sauce 
for the goose is sauce for the gander公鹅.I hope she will always feel 
like a daughter of America and not like a stepchild.It"s a lot easier 
to get in the hole than to get out again.
          一、 事前要有准备
          二、 翻译时兼做编辑
          三、 翻译时要记要点
          四、 翻译时要树立信心
          五、 译员要有广博的知识面
六、 译员要有良好的政治素质和强烈的爱国热情
现用来泛指类似“水门事件”的丑闻。看来Watergate 由特指“水门事件”到泛指丑闻这一现象为英语所特有,在汉语中则存在着空缺。
          1. 生活环境、生活经验的差异引起了词汇空缺。
比如我们说“吃闲饭”(lead an idle lefe), “吃香”(be very popular), “吃不消”(more than one can
stand, too much) 等等,译成英语就无法字字对应了。
这些都是欧美文化的个性,与中国文化互不相融。 在翻译此类作品时,译者往往要借助文中补充说明或加注解的方法,才能把原意解释清楚。
比如,如果把“东施效颦”简单地译成"Dongshi imitates
Xishi,"原文的含义就没译出来。东施是谁,西施又是什么样子,只有中国读者理解。如果译文读者也明白“东施效颦”指的是“The ugly imitates
the beautiful in such a distorted way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes
worse”, 那么就得对译文进行解释性加工。
语就把喜庆问称为“red-letter day”。但把上年纪人 的去世也当成一大“喜事”,这就令他们奇怪了。
厌恶的心理。中西方人对狗所持的不同态度,自然而然也在各自的语言中反映出来。 (一)汉语表示法 狗腿子(lackey), 狗崽子(son of bitch),
狗急跳墙(a cornered beast will do sth. desperate), 狗嘴吐不出象牙(a filthy mouth can"t
utter decent language)。 (二)英语表示法 love me,love my dog.(爱屋及乌), top dog(最重要的人物),
lucky dog (幸运儿), dog-tired(筋疲力竭),to lead a dog"s life(过着牛马不如的生活)。
从以上汉英表示法来看,我们发现二者在语义上很不相同。在英语中,虽然“dog”间或含贬义,如“this/that dirty dog”(这/那个狗东西),
“They say English is going to

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