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实用英语:倒装结构全解析

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发表于 2016-7-9 23:17:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  完全倒装:
          1.形式:谓语动词全部移到主语前(主语是代词时例外)难点:语序
          例:主语为名词:Here comes the bus.状 + 谓 + 主
          主语为代词:Here you are. 状 + 主 + 谓
          2.使用:
          ①方位副词(here,there)和时间副词(now,then)置于句首时,其后用完全倒装。
          Then___ we had been looking forward to.
          A) the hour came B)came the hour C)did the hour D) the hour did come
          Look forward to doing:
          I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon.
          Then 那时候(一般和过去时态连用)
          ②为了是描绘的生动,有些于介词同形的副词可移到句首,后面用完全倒装。
          如:in, out, up, down, off, away
          Away flew the mosquito.
          Up went the prices and ___.
          A) the living standard came down B) came down the living standard
          C) down the living standard came D) down came the living standard
          Living standard 生活水平
          Living conditions 生活状况
          Go up/down 价格上涨/下降
          ③有些句子没有宾语,而主语又比较长时,有时可以把时间、地点状语提前,后面用完全倒装。
          On a hill in front of them____.
          A)a great castle stood B)did a great castle stand
          C) stood a great castle D)a great castle stand
          A great castle 主语
          On a hill in front of them为地点状语提前,其后用完全倒装,1,4非倒装排除,2为部分倒装排除,选3。
          部分倒装:
          1.形式:只将谓语动词的一部分(如BE动词,助动词,或情态动词)放在主语前面,其余部分仍然在主语之后。
          2.使用:
          ①so, neither/nor 提到句首时后面用完全倒装的形式
          受够了: be fed up with/be tired of /be sick of
          容忍:put up with
          提出(计划,方案): come up with
          中断,分手:break up with
          I’m fed up with you .
          I can’t put up with you any longer.
          Now, I come up with a solution.
          I want to break up with you.
          I didn’t mean to hurt you. Neither do I.
          She never laughed, ___ lose her temper.
          A. or she ever did
          B. nor did she ever
          C. or did she ever
          D. nor she ever did
          Lose one’s temper 发脾气
          Ever 从不,应该放在它修饰的动词前面
          看题目,前半句“她从不笑”是否定还是肯定?否定!
          所以其后也应选nor 在句首引起部分倒装,把助动词提前
          选B
          We don"t need air conditioning, ___.
          A. nor can we afford it
          B. and nor we can afford it
          C. neither can afford it
          D. and we can neither afford it
          Afford sth./to do sth.
          看选项均为否定,选有倒装的A),C)改为neither can we afford it
          I could not persuade him to accept it, ___ make him see the importance of
it.
          A. if only I could not
          B. no more than I could
          C. or I could not
          D. nor could I
          Persuade sb. to do sth. 劝某人去做某事
          Persuade sb. into doing sth. 劝某人做了某事(已成功)
          See the importance of sth. 认识到……的重要性
          If only 要是……就好了(其后用虚拟)
          No more than 不超过
          No less than 不少于
          否定!选倒装D
          Wood does not conduct electricity, ____.
          A) so do rubber B) so does rubber C)nor does rubber D)nor rubber does
          conduct v.传导
          conductor 导体
          前半句为否定,后半句也应该选否定nor
          选C
          All animals need air and_____.
          A) so plants do B) so need plants C)so do plants D) plants are so
          看选项,有人选B吗?不对啊!
          Need 在这里是实义动词,因此应该把助动词提前,选C。
          ②在省略IF的条件从句中,should, had, could, were可以提到句首。
          Had he worked harder, he ___ the exams.
          A. must have got through
          B. could get through
          C. would get through
          D. would have got through
          Get through 通过/ he failed in the exam
          .看题目,前半句为倒装,还原为:
          If he had worked harder
          什么语气啊?虚拟!是对现在、过去还是将来的虚拟?过去!
          IF条件从句用had done, 主句用would(could,should,might)+have done
          选D
          ___ for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand.
          A. Not being
          B. Had it not been
          C. Without being
          D. Not having been
          Lend/give sb. a hand
          看题目,什么语气?虚拟!是对什么时候的虚拟?过去!
          主句为would have done 从句应为had done
          选哪个?B
          还原为:If it hadn’t been for…
          ③有些让步状语从句有时也有倒装的情况,如:as, though
在表达“尽管”的含义时,从句的一部分谓语,表语部分或被强调的部分或应提前置于句首。
          ___ as it was at such a time, his work attracted much attention.
          A. Being published
          B. Published
          C. Publishing
          D. To be published
          看题目,考察的是什么语法点?非谓语动词,首先排除哪个?C
          A)正在印刷,D)将要印刷 都不对,所以选B
          题目说:“尽管在这么一个时间出版,他的作品仍然获得了广泛的关注》”
          正常语序是:As it was published at such a time
          谓语是was published,由于AS表尽管,所以部分谓语提前了!
          Great as Newton was, many of his ideas ___ today and are being modified by
the work of scientists of our time.
          A. are to challenge
          B. may be challenged
          C. have been challenged
          D. are challenging
          看题目,前半句为倒装,正常语序为As Newton was great
          由于AS表尽管,所以表语部分提前了
          modify 修改,修饰 challenge/challenging
          随便处理下题目:他的IDEAS是挑战别人还是被挑战?被!所以排除1,4
          2可能被挑战,C受到了挑战,选3。
          ___, he does get annoyed with her sometimes.
          A. Although much he likes her
          B. As he likes her much
          C. Much although he likes her
          D. Much as he likes her
          get annoyed with sb.= be angry with sb.
          看题目:although 后面的从句一定不能用倒装;AS 后面的从句一定要倒装。
          A)much 程度副词
          C)much 提前
          B)much 没提前
          D)强调的部分提前
          ④含有否定意义的词:never, little, few, hardly, scarcely, seldom, in no way, no
longer, on no account, under no circumstances放在句首(包括从句句首)时,其后用部分倒装。
          We have been told that under no circumstances ___ the telephone in the
office for personal affairs.
          A. may we use
          B. we may use
          C. we could use
          D. did we use
          看题目,导致倒装的成分under no circumstances位于宾语从句句首
          看选项,哪两个符合要求?1,4!
          “在任何情况下都不能”,没有过去意味,所以选A。
          ⑤ONLY+状语+句子时,句子用部分倒装.
          注:是不是ONLY放在句首时一定引起倒装?!不是!只有满足上面情况时才用!
          Only under special circumstances ___ to take make-up tests.
          A. permitted are freshmen
          B. freshmen are permitted
          C. are freshmen permitted
          D. are permitted freshmen
          under special circumstances在特殊情况下
          take tests 参加考试
          make up 构成/捏造/弥补/化妆
          make-up tests 这是大家经常参加的什么考试?对了!补考。
          Freshman是新鲜男子吗?不是!大一新生!
          看选项,正常语序应为: freshmen are permitted;这里由ONLY +状语
          under special circumstances,其后的句子用部分倒装,把BE 动词提前,
          选3。
          Only by shouting at the top of his voice ___.
          A. was he able to make himself hear
          B. he was able to make himself hear
          C. he was able to make himself heard
          D. was he able to make himself heard
          Only+状语by shouting at the top of his voice
          其后引起部分倒装,可以排除2,3
          make sb. do sth.让某人做……
          make sb. done 让某人被别人怎么样
          选哪个?4!
          ⑥no sooner…than…/hardly…when…/scarcely…when… 一……就……
          not…until… 直到……才……
          在这些结构中,否定词放到句首时,其后谓语动词要倒装。通常含有否定词的部分要用过去完成时,另一部分用一般过去时。
          Not until the game had begun ___ at the sports ground.
          A. had he arrived
          B. would he have arrived
          C. did he arrive
          D. should he have arrived
          sports ground 运动场 sports meet(meeting)运动会
          sports car跑车
          看题目,“直到比赛开始她才到运动场”,哪个在前?比赛开始在前!
          好!含有否定词的部分用过去完成时;那剩下部分用一般过去时。含有否定词在比赛开始部分,所以选一般过去时+倒装,选C。
          No sooner had we reached to top of the hill ___ we all sat down to
rest.
          A. when
          B. then
          C. than
          D. until
          看题目,含有否定词的部分用过去完成时;那剩下部分用一般过去时。
          选3。
          ___ she realized it was too late to go home.
          A. No sooner it grew dark than
          B. Hardly did it grow dark that
          C. Scarcely had it grown dark than
          D. It was not until dark that
          1.没倒装
          2. 倒装了,但that应改为when
          3. 倒装了,但that应改为when
          选4
          (作者系重庆新东方学校国内部优秀教师)
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