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王长喜四级大课堂(第八讲)

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发表于 2016-7-11 17:50:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  各位同学,大家好!
          很高兴又与大家相聚网络课堂。今天我要给同学们介绍的是四六级英语听力测试的模式特点、命题规律、测试重点和应对策略。
          一、 四六级英语听力的考查模式
          1.对话
          听力部分一般是20个小题,由A和B两部分组成。第一部分通常是10个对话,每个对话设一个小题,要求同学们根据对话内容从四个选项中选择正确答案。
          2.短文
          B部分有两种形式,一是听短文。一般是三篇120-140字之间的短文,每篇短文后有三到四个问题,共10道小题。该部分主要测试同学们的整体理解能力。
          3.复合式听写
          B部分的另一种是复合式听写。复合式听写由两部分组成。一是单词听写,要求同学们毫无差错地填出短文所缺单词。另一种是补全信息。一般是,每段的第一句主题句已经给出,要求填出具体细节内容说明主题,可以使用听到的原话,也可以使用自己的语言。
          二、四六级英语听力的命题规律和测试重点
          1. 对话
          对话部分考查的重点有:
          1) 地点
          根据对话内容判断对话发生的地点或对话中所提事件发生的地点是四六级英语听力测试中常见的也是比较重要的一个题型。地点题一般有以下几种:
          (1)根据信息词设题
          ① W: Dear, I feel hungry now. How about you?
          M: So do I.Let me call room service.Hello,room service.Please
          send a menu to 320 right away.
          Q: Where are the two speakers?
          A. In a hotel. B. At a dinner table.
          C. In the street. D. At the man's house.
          该题通过hungry 和menu来迷惑同学们,引导大家选择B,其实,本题所借助的信息词是room service 和320这个房间号,答案是A。
          ② M: Can you stay for dinner?
          W: I'd love to. But I have to go and send some registered mail
          before picking up the children from school.
          Q: Where will the woman go first?
          A. To the school B. To a friend's house.
          C. To the post office. D. Home
          本题借助registered mail设题,答案是C。但这里同样也有地点的辨析问题,要求同学们能听出是"首先到……地方"。
          ③ M: Excuse me,I'm looking for the emergency room.I thought that
          it was on the first floor.
          W: It is. This is the basement.Take the elevator one flight up
          and turn left.
          Q: Where did the conversation most probably take place?
          A. In a library B. In a hotel.
          C. In a hospital. D. In an elevator
          本题设题所依据的信息词是emergency room,只要考生了解其语域就可判断答案为C。
          (2)借助对话中提到的多个地点设题
          有时对话中提到的地点不只一个,这时,一般是将所有的地点都包括在选项之中。这种情况下,同学们不必考虑信息词问题,只要能将地点与其相关事件联系起来就可确定答案。如:
          ① M: I did not see our boss yesterday. Has he come back?
          W: He was just back from France besides visiting Britain,
          Germany,and Spain.
          Q: Which country did the woman visit first?
          A. France B. Britain C. Germany D. Spain
          四个地点都是访问过的地点,要求同学们能够分清先后。答案为B。
          ② M: Will Mr. Smith come to the party at the weekend?
          W: He'll be supposed to,,but he won't be back from his trip
          until the next week.
          Q: Where will Mr. Smith be on Saturday?
          A. At the party B. At home
          C. Still on his trip D. Back from his trip.
         
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-11 18:54:49 | 显示全部楼层

            本题是将地点与时间连在一起,要求同学们在听的同时注意区别每个事件所发生的时间,答案为C。
          2) 职业、身份
          根据说话内容判断说话者的身份和职业是四六级听力测试中又一常见题型。该题型的题项设计有两种:
          (1)说话者自身的身份或职业
          根据谈话内容判断说话者一方的职业或身份:
          ① W: Good evening,Professor David.My name is Susan Gray.I'm with
          the local newspaper.Do you mind if I ask you a few questions?
          M: Not at all. Go ahead, please.
          Q: What is Susan Gray.
          A. A writer. B. A teacher. C. A reporter. D. A student.
          由local newspaper可以判断说话者是位记者,在采访。
          ② M: How about the food I ordered? I've been waiting for 20 minutes
          already.
          W: I'm very sorry, sir. I'll be back with your order in a minute.
          Q: Who is the man most probably speaking to?
          A. A shop assistant. B. A telephone operator
          C. A waitress. D. A clerk.
          与order有关的自然是waitress,答案为A。
          (2)说话双方之间的关系
          该题型是上一题型的延伸,要求同学们能判断说话者双方的身份,问题经常是 What's the relationship between the two speakers?
          ① W: How long will it take you to fix my watch?
          M: I'll call you when it's ready. But it shouldn't take longer
          than a week.
          Q: What is the probable relationship between the speakers?
          A. Librarian and student. B. Operator and caller.
          C. Boss and secretary. D. Customer and repairman.
          既然女士让男的fix my watch,说明对方是repairman,而自己是customer。
          ② M: Sorry to trouble you.But is there any possibility of borrowing
          a blanket? I feel cold.
          W: I think we've got one. Could you wait until after take-off
          please?
          Q: What is the probable relationship between the two speakers?
          A. A guest and a receptionist.
          B. A passenger and an air hostess.
          C. A customer and a shop assistant.
          D. A guest and a waitress.
          take-off一词的使用说明女的是空姐,答案自然是B。
          可以看出,职业、身份以及说话双方关系的选择所依据的同样是信息词。当然,要判断双方的关系,还可以从说话的方式入手。如:
          M: Make thirty copies for me and twenty copies for Mr. Brown.
          W: Certainly sir. As soon as I make the final corrections on the
          original.
          Q: What's the relationship between the two speakers?
          A. Boss and secretary. B. Lawyer and client.
          C Teacher and student. D. Nurse and patient.
          两人间说话的语气和方式表明是"老板与秘书"的关系。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-11 20:30:53 | 显示全部楼层

          3)计算题
          计算题在四六级英语听力中属于比较难的题型,要求同学们不仅能分辨不同的时间、金钱等数量概念,还应能将听到的各个数量联系起来进行加减运算。如:
          ① M: Your son seems to have made much progress in playing the
          piano. Does he attend any piano classes?
          W: Yes,he takes lessons twice a week,but from next week on,he
          will go to the class on Saturday evenings, too.
          Q: How often will the woman's son have piano lessons from next
          week on?
          A. Once a week. B. Twice a week.
          C. Three times a week. D. Four times a week.
          两次加一次自然是三次,答案是C。
          ② W: Professor Clark said that the mid-term exam would cover the
          first 15 lessons.
          M: Really?I thought it only included the first 12 lessons.Then
          I must spend the weekend to go over the rest of the lessons.
          Q: How many lessons must the man review over the weekend?
          A. Five lessons. B. Three lessons.
          C. Twelve lessons D. Fifteen lessons.
          这是最简单的计算题,只要同学们不将答案误认为是C或D,就不会出错。
          ③ W:Here's a 10-dollar bill.Give me two tickets for tonight's
          show please.
          M: Sure. Two tickets and here is $1,40 change.
          Q: How much does one ticket cost?
          A. $1.40. B. $4.30. C. $6.40. D. $8.60
          10美元,两张票,找零1.40美元,说明每张票为4.30美元。
          从以上例子可以看出,含有数量概念的题,对话中提到的数量一般不可能为正确答案,总要同学们进行一些简单的加减运算。
          4)言外之意、弦外之音
          推测说话者话中之话是听力中必考的题型。从试题的设计特点来看,大体有一下几种:
          (1)对虚拟语气的考查
          包含虚拟语气的听力考题中一般都有"是不非"相对的选项,这就要求同学们了解虚拟语气的表意功能,根据虚拟语气判断正确选项。如:
          ① W:I'm thinking of going to Austin for a visit.Do you think it's
          worth seeing?
          M: Well, I wish I had been there.
          Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
          A. The man is planning a trip to Austin.
          B. The man has not been to Austin before.
          C. The man doesn't like Austin.
          D. The man has been to Austin before.
          I wish I had been there.说明说话人没有去过。
          ② W:If it hadn't been snowing so hard,I might have been home by 9
          o'clock.
          M:It's too bad you didn't make it.Jane was here and she wanted
          to see you.
          Q: What happened to the woman?
          A. She got home before 9 o'clock.
          B. She had a bad cold.
          C. She had a car accident.
          D. She was delayed.
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-11 21:43:11 | 显示全部楼层

          If it hadn't been snowing so hard, I might have been home by 9 o'clock.说明因为雪太大,说话者未能在9点前到家。也就是说she was delayed。
          (2)对建议的考查
          建议题要求同学们掌握建议的各种表达方式,根据建议选择正确选项。如:
          ① W:The movie starts in 5 minutes and there's bound to be a long
          time.
          M:Why don't we come back for the next show?I'm sure it would be
          less crowded.
          Q: What is the man suggesting?
          A. Coming back for a later show.
          B. Waiting in a queue.
          C. Coming back in five minutes.
          D. Not going to the movie today.
          Why don't…?上一种建议表达方式,根据该句所表达的内容可以判断答案是A。
          ② W:We do need another bookshelf in this room.But the problem is
          the space for it.
          M: How about moving the old dining table to the kitchen?
          Q: What does the man suggest they should do?
          A. Finding a larger room. B. Sell the old table.
          C. Buy two bookshelves. D. Rearrange some furniture.
          根据moving the dining table to the kitchen来判断答案为D。
          建议的表达方式还有:
          Why not …? What do you think of …?
          If I were you/If I were in your shoes, I would …
          Shall we …? I suggest ….
          You'd better/You ought to….
          (3) 对话题的考查
          话题指会话双方所谈论的话题,要求同学们具有概括能力。如:
          ① W: Do you want a day course or an evening course?
          M: Well, it would have to be an evening course since I work
          during the day.
          Q: What are they talking about?
          A. The choice of courses. B. A day course.
          C. An evening course. D. Their work.
          两个人谈论的是选白天的课还是晚上的课,由此可以判断答案应该是A。
          ② M:I was terribly embarrassed when some of the audience got up
          and left in the middle of the performance.
          W:Well, some people just can't seem to appreciate the real-life
          drama.
          Q: What are they talking about?
          A. A movie. B. A lecture. C. A play. D. A speech.
          从对话中的audience, performance与其说 drama可以判断他们所谈论的是a play。
          (4)同义表达方式的考查
          四六级听力测试中对隐含意思的考查很大程度上依赖于同义表达方式,也就是同学们对具体句式、短语、词组甚至单词的理解。如:
          ①M: What do you think of Professor Brown's lecture?
          W: The topic was interesting, but the lecture was much more
          difficult to follow than I had expected.
          Q: What does the woman say about the lecture?
          A. It was a long lecture, but easy to understand.
          B. It was not as easy as she had expected.
          C. It was as difficult as she had expected.
          D. It was interesting and easy to follow.
          与much more difficult to follow than I had expected同义的应该是B。
          ②M: Nancy, why were you late today?
          W: I overslept and missed the bus.
          Q: Why was Nancy late?
          A. She got up later than usual. B. The bus was late.
          C. She forgot she had class. D. Her clock was slow.
          overslept也就是got up later than usual。
          ③M:Did you mind coming back by coach instead of by train?
          W:No, we didn't mind at all. It took a lot longer, but it was
          very comfortable and it was much cheaper.
          Q:How did the woman feel about the coming back by coach?
          A. She felt it was tiring. B. She felt it was very nice.
          C. She felt it took less time.D. She thought it was expensive.
          从comfortable和 much cheaper来看,女士的感觉应该是very nice,答案应该是B。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-11 22:03:12 | 显示全部楼层

          (5)上下义概念的考查
          有些题尽管问题可能问的是含义之类,但其实考查的是同学们对上下义关系的掌握。如:
          ①M: Let me see.I've printed my family name,first name,date of
          birth and address. Anything else?
          W: No,that's all right.We'll fill in the rest of it if you just
          sign your name at the bottom.
          Q: What has the man been doing?
          A. Having an interview. B. Filling out a form.
          C. Talking with a friend. D. Asking for information.
          上义词为概括性词语,下义词所表示的则是具体的东西。本题中能够概括男士所做之事的应该是选项B。
          ② M:What happened to you? You are so late.
          W:The bus I took broke down in front of the hospital and I had
          to walk from there.
          Q:Why was the woman so late?
          A. Something went wrong with the bus.
          B. She took somebody to hospital.
          C. Something prevented her from catching the bus.
          D. She came on foot instead of taking a bus.
          Something went wrong 是对the bus break down的概括性表述。
          对话听力中其它考查项目,如因果、条件、否定、比较等可参看四六级考试的《听力分册》。
          2.短文
          该部分共有短文三篇,设10个小题,重要考查两方面的内容:
          1)对主题的判断
          (1)提问的方式
          主题题通常以下列方式提问:
          What is the main idea/topic of this passage?
          What does the passage mainly discuss?
          What can we learn from the passage?
          What is the passage mainly about?
          (2)选项特点
          主题题的四个选项一般都以短语的方式出现。如:
          ① A. Two types of only children.
          B. Parent's responsibilities.
          C. The necessity of family planning.
          D. The relationship between parents and children.
          ② A. Environmental pollution and protection.
          B. Taxes and services for the public.
          C. Police efforts to protect people.
          D. People's attitude toward taxes.
          ③ A. The difference between classical music and rock music.
          B. Why classical music is popular with math students.
          C. The effects of music on the results of math tests.
          D. How to improve your reasoning activity.
          (3)解题技巧
        #P#
          对于这类题,同学们在听的时候应特别注意文章的首句和尾句,首句一般开篇点名主题,而尾句则总结全文,根据这两句进行推断一般可以确定文章的主题。如上面②题可根据文章最后一段的尾句解答,请看原文:
          We use all sort of services without thinking how we get them. But such services cost money. We pay for them through taxes. What would happen if everyone in a city stop paying taxes? The water supply would stop. The street might not be cleaned. There would be no police force to protect people and property.
          The chief duty of every government is to protect persons and proper-
          ty. More than three-fourths of the money spent by our government is used for this purpose. The next largest amount of public money goes to teach and train our citizens. Billions of dollars each year are spent on schools and libraries. Public money is used to pay the teachers and other public officials.
          Years ago the government made money from the sale of public lands. But most of the best public lands has now been sold. The money raised was used to help pay the cost of government. There are still some public lands that contain oil, coal, gas, and other natural products. They could be sold, but we want to save them for future years. So we all must pay our share for the services that make our lives comfortable.
          从尾句可以看出文章谈论的是人们为什么都应该交税以使我们的生活更加美好。
          再如③题,同学们可以通过文章的开始几句,找到文章的主题。请看原文:
          Do you have a tough math test coming up? Then listen to some classical piano music just before the test. You might end up with a higher score.Researchers at a university in California conducted an experiment. They asked a group of college students to listen to some piano music by a famous 18th century composer before taking a math test. They were surprised to find that the students' scores jumped 8 to 9 points. The music seems to excite nerve activities in the brain; similar to the activity that occurs when a person is figuring out a math problem. However, the scientists warn that before you get too excited about applying the method to your math test, you should remember that brain exciting effects last only 10 or 15 minutes. Would rock music work as well as the piano music did? No, the scientists say. In fact, the less complex music might even interfere with the brain's reasoning ability.
          显然,黑体部分表明了文章的主题,紧接着的实验为支撑细节,用于说明文章的主题。
          2) 对具体事实的判断
          (1)提问的方式
          对细节的提问通常以wh-question的方式出现,主要针对文章的有关人物、事件、地点、时间、原因、目的、数据等。
          如上面两篇短文的其它几个问题的选项。
          ① What's the chief duty of every government?
          A. To protect persons and property.
          B. To collect taxes.
          C. To teach and train citizens.
          D. To save natural resources for future use.
          ② How did the government raise money in the past?
          A. By selling services that make life comfortable.
          B. By selling land containing oil.
          C. By selling public lands.
          D. By selling coal and other natural products.
          ① Why can classical music play a positive role in problem solving?
          A. Because it stimulates your nerve activity.
          B. Because it keeps you calm.
          C. Because it strengthens your memory.
          D. Because it improves your problem solving ability.
          ②What is one of the findings of the research?
          A.Piano music could interfere with your reasoning ability.
          B.The effects of music do not last long?
          C.The more you listen to music,the higher your test scores will be.
          D.Music, whether classical or rock, helps improve your memory.
        #P#
          (2)选项特点
          这种细节判断题以辨认题居多。有可能几个选项在文章中都有所提及,但只要同学们仔细听,注意分别,就能从原文中找到出处。如上面99年6月的考题,第①题可以在文章找到The chief duty of every government is to protect persons and property,这同样也是第二段的主题句,是整段要说明的内容。第②题也能从文章找到Years ago the government made money from the sale of public lands.一句为佐证。
          再如99年1月的考题,①②两题也都能从文章中找到信息句,如The music seems to excite nerve activities in the brain. 和… you should remember that brain exciting effects last only 10 or 15 minutes.
          从考查的范围来看,短文听力中原因的考查最多,其次是对具体所发生的事情的判断,也包括依据事实所做的推理判断。如99年6月第二篇短文、2000年1月第二篇短文全是原因的考查,一般原因考查题多出现在故事短文中,只要同学们能够理清故事的来龙去脉,这种原因题就比较简单。如:
          When I was at school,my ambition was to be a pilot in the Air Force. But my eyesight wasn't good enough. So I had to give up that idea. I went to university and studied physics. I wanted to stay on there and do research, but my father died at about that time. So I thought I'd better get a job and earn my living. I started working in an engineering firm.
          I expected to stay in that job for a long time. But then, they appointed a new managing director. I didn't get on with him, so I resigned and applied for a job with another engineering company. I would certainly have accepted the job if they had offered it to me, but on my way to the interview I met a friend who was working for a travel agency. He offered me a job in Spain. And I've always liked Spain, so I took it.
          I worked in the travel agency for two years and then they wanted to send me to South America. But I had just got married. So I decided to stay here. Then we had a baby and I wasn't earning enough to support the family. So I started giving English lessons at school in the evenings.
          I liked the English teaching more than working for the travel agency, and then the owner of the school offered me a full-time job as a teacher. So I resigned from the agency. Two years later, the owner of the school wanted to retire, so he asked me to take over as the director. And here I am.
          14. Why did the man give up studying physics?
          15. Why did the man resign from the engineering firm?
          16. Why did the man take the job at the travel agency?
          17. Why did the man start to teach English part time?
          很显然本短文要求同学们了解文中的"我"工作变化的原因。但考试时同学们看不到问题,只能看到选项。在这种情况下,同学们应该做的是:
          注意问题的顺序与短文所讲故事发生的时间顺序是一致的。
          一边听,一边判断选项是否符合事实,在短文中是否提到。
          最后再听问题,这时只是验证一下自己的答案而已。
          (3)解题技巧
          一篇文章,一个主题,内容上完整统一,所有的细节都是围绕主题展开,为主题服务。听力理解所要求的是对文章的整体把握,细节也应该是用于说明主题的主要细节。也就是说,每篇短文的几个题是相互关联的,相互说明的。选择细节理解题时应注意:
          ① 注意抓主要细节;
          ② 注意信息的直接辨认,从听力文章中找到信息句;
          ③ 注意各题之间的关联,保证相互说明,不能相互矛盾。
          3.复合式听写
          试题分布
          复合式听写共有短文一篇,设10个小题。1-7题要求用原词填写,8-10只是补全信息,不必用原词。
          题眼设计
          1)1- 7题设计规律
          ① 所填单词以实词为主。97,98两年的复合式听写中只有一个是介词,其他13个全是名词、形容词或副词。
          ② 7个单词以评价性词汇为主,也就是说可以从上下文找到说明的信息。如97年6月的复合式听写:
          In police work, you can never predict the next crime or problem. No working day is identical to any other, so there is no (1)"______" day for a police officer.
          既然没有一天是相同的,也就没有哪一天是"典型的"。根据这种因果说明可以判断所填单词为typical。而没有一天完全相同,也正说明了警察的工作富于变化,由此也可以判断下面的第5个空填variety( I think I can (describe) police word in one word:(5) _______.)。
          ③ 表示信息复现的词汇为题眼
          有些词语即使听不清楚同样可以填出。如98年1月的复合式听写。
          文章的第一段介绍了Michael如何5岁上高中,10岁上大学,11岁攻读硕士学位。第二段开始一个转折,介绍他的这种"成功"也来之不易。 所填单词为上义词复现,对上文的总结,自然应该是success。(But Michael's _____ hasn't always come easy.
          ④ 表示信息同现的词汇为题眼
          复合式听写所天词汇一部分是同现词汇,如97年考题:
          One day, for example, I was working undercover; that is, I was on the job, but I was wearing (6)____ clothes, not my police (7)______.
          通常情况下警察所穿的应该是"制服",即uniform,这样,uniform, wear就构成的同现关系。根据(6)(7)的对照同现关系,可以判断(6)所表示的应该是"便装",这也正式对上文working undercover的解释。
          ⑤ 对文章叙述逻辑的考查
          叙述逻辑即上下文的因果、转折、递进、解释等关系。如果同学们能看出这些关系,则不用听就可以将所缺单词填上。如98年考题。
        #P#
          But Michael's (success) hasn't always come easy. (5)______ his intelligence, he still lacks important life (6)_______. In one class, he had to struggle to understand (7)______ novels, because, he says, "I'm 11. I've never been in love before."
          由上下文个逻辑关系可以判断(5)应该填Despite,即虽然他很聪慧,但却缺乏很重要的生活……。后面在课上所发生的事情是说明他缺乏(……)的一个例证。例证本身不仅说明了(6)应该填experiences,同时也说明(7)应该填love。
          2)8-10题设计规律
          8-10基本上是三句话,从句子内容来看,大体有两种情况。
          ① 用于说明主题的细节
          这部分听写一般是段落的主题已经给出,要求同学们补全支撑细节。如98年考题:
          Another challenge was his size. (8) _____________________________.
          紧接着的一句显然是用来说明Another challenge was his size.的,原句是high school physical education was difficult, because all of the equipment was too big for the then five-year-old student.
          97年的8-10题也是如此,所描述的是用来说明警察工作危险的细节。请看原文:
          Sometimes, it's dangerous. One day, for example, I was working undercover,….. I was trying to catch some robbers who were stealing money from people as they walked down the street. Suddenly, (8) ____. Another policeman arrived, and together, we arrested three of the men; but the other four ran away. Another day, I helped a woman who was going to have a baby. (9) ______. I put her in my police car to get her there faster. I thought she was going to have the baby right there in my car. But fortunately, (10) ____________.
          ② 概括性的结论或主题
          95年以来,复合式听写只考过两次,其中98年的第十句为结论句(Michael is smart, but he is like every other kid. )是最全文的一个概括。主题句还没有考过,但主题与结论做为文章的重点之笔应该是听力理解的重点,也应该是复合式听力所应包含的东西。
          解题技巧:
          根据上面所谈的复合式听写的特点,我建议在做复合式听写时最好做到一下几点:
          ① 注意话题知识的运用。
          文章的话题规定了用词范围,根据话题判断单词有注意明确词汇。
          ② 利用词汇的同现和复现关系。
          ③ 根据上下文推测词汇的运用。
          ④ 在做8-10题时在不能将原句完全记下的情况下,将关键词记下来,然后根 据关系词,结合文章叙述的逻辑,重新编写句子。
          三、四六级英语听力的解题技巧
          1.对话
          根据对话听力的设题特点,我认为在解答对话听力理解题时同学们应注意以下几点:
          1)提前阅读选项,判断问题所属,从而集中精力于有关信息。
          2)注意根据信息词汇判断地点和说话人的身份职业等。
          当同学们看到四个地点和职业名词时,大脑中就应该马上出现与这些地点或职业相关的一系列词语,在听的过程中注意提到了什么信息词语,这样就可轻松地判断谈话发生的地点,说话人的职业或身份,以及谈话双方的关系。
          为此,同学们有必要了解与各种职业和地点行业有关的信息词汇,如:
          饭店:menu, order, waitress, waiter, take order, go Dutch, It's my treat等;
          旅馆:check in/out, make a reservation, register, reception desk等;
          医院:physician,doctor,nurse,operation-room, emergency room, visiting
          hours, prescribe, pill等;
          银行:open an account, withdraw, deposit, saving, cash a check等;
          飞机/机场:flight, safety-belt, boarding card, captain, airhostess, airline, take off, land, crash等。
          有关信息词汇同学们可以参看四六级英语《听力分册》,这里就不再一一列举。
        #P#
          3)注意加减运算,听到的不是答案
          在涉及时间、距离、金钱等数量概念的听力中,一般都要求同学们进行加减方面的运算,很少是听到什么就是什么。有时,计算可能会麻烦些,同学们可以先将听到的时间等记下,等有时间再计算。在计算题中应特别注意以下数字的读音差别:
          13---30 14-40 15 --- 50 16 --- 60 17 -70 18 -80 19 -90
          选项中会有这种数字读音差别的考查。如:
          W: when does the next train leave?
          M: You have just missed one by 5 minutes. Trains leave every 50
          minutes, so you'll have to wait for a while.
          Q: How long does the woman have to wait for the next train?
          A. 45 minutes. B. 50 minutes. C. 10 minutes. D. 5 minutes.
          如果把50minutes 听成了15 minutes,就会误选选项C。
          4)注意记笔记,将人物、地点、时间等对号入座
          听力测试中的另外一种现象就是,四个选项中的人物、地点、时间或事件等在对话中可能都有提及。在这种情况下,同学们所需要的不是寻找信息词,而是注意将四个选项与对话中提及的信息对号入座。如:
          ① W: Do you enjoy life in Washington?
          M: Yes, indeed. I'm planning to move to New York or Boston.
          Anyway, I've never regretted my earlier decision.
          Q: Where does the man live now?
          A. In New York. B. In Boston C. In Newport D. In Washington
          四个地点对话中提到了三个,具体是哪一个,同学们在听的时候应注意分辨。
          ②M:Please buy two packs of cigarettes for me while you are at the store.
          W:I am not going to any store. I'm going to see Aunt Mary. But I
          will get them for you at the gas station.
          Q:Where will the woman stop on her way?
          A. At a cigarette store. B. At a bus station.
          C. At a gas station. D. At Aunt Mary's
          ③M:I'd like to make two reservations on Flight 651 for June 8th.
          W:I'm sorry, we're booked up on the 8th. But we still have a few
          seats available on June 9th.
          Q:When does the man want to leave?
          A. On the 6th of June. B. On the 8th of June. C. On the 9th of June. D. On the 19th of June
          如果地点不含职业性的对比,一般就很可能属于这里所介绍的类型,那么同学们所做的就是分别。
          5)从语法入手、从短语含义入手,判断隐含之意
          在四六级听力中常考查到的语法是建议和虚拟语气。要求同学们判断建议是什么,虚拟中含义是什么。就建议而言,同学们只需注意建议的各种表达方式,就可解答这类听力题;至于虚拟语气,我想同学们可以记住这样一条规律:
          与所听到的相反的就是答案。
          6) 概括与具体,具体与抽象相对,概括的、抽象的是解
          这类题主要是话题的选择,也包括一些对整个事件的评价等。如:
          ① W:We all talk about how liberated we are, but in fact woman are
          still not treated equally.
          M:I don't think so. You've got the vote, you've got your careers
          I think you've got everything important.
          Q:What are they talking about?
          A.The woman's job as a librarian. B.Woman's rights in society.
          C.An important election. D. Career planning.
          谈论的话题应是一个抽象的概括性的东西,所以答案是B。
          ②M:This has been the worst flood for the past 20 years. It has
          caused much damage and destruction.
          W:Look at the price of fruits and vegetables.No wonder they are
          expensive.
          Q:What are they talking about?
          A. The effects of the flood.
          B. The heroic fight against flood.
          C. The cause of the flood.
          D. Floods of the past twenty years.
          能够概括对话中物价上涨的应该是A。
        #P#
          7)肯定与不肯定相对,含义不肯定的是解
          这一技巧用于解答说话者言外之意的听力题。如:
          ①W:I intend to buy some fruits for the children. These apples and
          pears seem to be in season. I'll get two dozen of each.
          M: I hope they're as good as they look.
          Q: What does the man mean?
          A. The apples and pears might no be so good.
          B. The apples are not as good as the pears.
          C. The apples and pears are very good.
          D. The apples and pears are as good as they look.
          hope的使用说明答案应该是不太可能的选项,自然是A。
          ②W:If this weather keeps up, I'm going to have to buy a warmer
          coat.
          M:Sounds like a good idea. Spring is still a long way off, you
          know.
          Q:What does the man mean?
          A. The woman should wait to buy new clothes.
          B. The cold weather will probably continue.
          C. The weather will warm up soon.
          D. He already has a warm coat.
          Sounds like a good idea说明了语气的不可能,答案应该是B。
          8)"同意"是解
          一般情况下,如果四个选项中有一个表示"同意"的概念,那么,此选项就是正确选项。如:
          ① W: It's a wonderful film, isn't it?
          M: You can say that again.
          Q: What does the man mean?
          A. He agrees with the woman.
          B. He didn't hear what the woman said.
          C. He is surprised by her opinion.
          D. He thinks she should look at it again.
          ② M: This is the longest assignment we've had all semester.
          W: You're telling me. We'll be lucky if we can do half of it.
          Q: What does the woman say about the assignment?
          A. She has done half of it already.
          B. She agrees that it is very long.
          C. They have all semester to do it.
          D. There's nothing wrong with it.
          请同学们注意以下表示同意对方观点的常用语。如果听到这些,就可以选择含有"同意"的选项:
          You said it.
          You can say that again.
          You are telling me.
          You may/might well say so.
          I'll say.
          I couldn't agree more.
          2.短文
          根据短文听力的特点,同学们可以做以下工作。
          1) 注意把握首尾句,从整体上理解全文,这同样有利于主题题的解答。
          2) 听前阅读选项,增加听的目的性和针对性。
          3) 听时记笔记,以掌握文章的主要细节内容。
          4) 根据不同的听力材料采用不同的听力技巧。如故事性的文章一般可以边听边划答案,标出故事中提到的信息;说明文要注意要说明的主题是什么,支撑细节有哪些。
          5) 做完后通读所有答案,看是否能相互说明,成为一个整体。
          3.复合式听写
          在前面我已经给大家介绍了复合式听写中可以运用的一些技巧。复合式听写很大程度上利用了完形填空的词汇和篇章技巧,同时在有三题中又运用了写作的技法。但是否能够以适当的语言准确地补全短文所缺信息,不是技巧本身所能做到的,需要同学们平时加强这方面的训练。
          同学们,我们用了两讲的时间简要分析了四六级听力测试的特点和可以运用的一些方法技巧。但是,听力能力的发展不是一朝一夕可练就的,更不是知道几个小窍门就能解决问题的。我所希望的是,同学们结合四六级考试听力测试的特点,有针对性地强化训练,同时注意解题的技巧,可望在短时间之内有个突破。祝大家在听力测试中取得好成绩。
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