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高二英语语法:“It”用法及其句型和固定搭配讲解

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:53:12 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  "It" 用法及其句型和固定搭配,是高中英语语法的重点、难点,又是近几年高考的热点,因此应给予充分的重视,现将it用法归纳如下:
          一、It用作实词
          表达以下概念:指代前文提到的事物,前文中的this,
that;替代前文中的内容;指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人;指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事;指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象……
          二、It用作形式主语
          替代作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词,而把真正作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词置于句尾。
          It 作形式主语的常见句型:
          1. 代作主语的动词不定式,其句型为
          (1) It be adj. (for sb.) to do sth.
          此处adj. 通常为描述事件的形容词:easy, difficult, hard, necessary, unnecessary, possible,
impossible, likely, unlikely, right, wrong, important, unimportant, legal,
illegal, well-mannered, ill-mannered, polite, impolite, clear, obvious, certain,
suitable, proper, fit, useful, useless, dangerous…
          例 It is illegal (for a teenager) to drive a car without a license.
          (2) It be adj. of sb. to do sth.
          此处adj. 通常为描述人的形容词:kind, unkind, nice, rude, cruel, considerate, thoughtful,
thoughtless, careful, careless, silly, foolish, stupid, clever, wise, crazy.
          例 It's kind of you to help me with the problem.
          (3) It替代作主语的动名词的常见句型
          It's no good/use doing…
          It's (well)worth doing…
          It's (well)worth one's while doing/to do…
          It's (well)worth while doing/ to do
          例 It's no use crying over spilt milk.
          2. It替代作主语的从句常见句型
          (1) It is + noun +从句
          例 It is no secret that the president wants to have a second term at
office.
          (2) It is adj. +clause
          It's surprising that… (should)………竟然……
          It's a pity/shame that…(should)………竟然……
          例 It's important that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.(=It's
of much importance that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.)
          (3) It verb sb. + clause= It is v-ing + clause
          It+surprise/delight/interest/disappoint/worry/disturb/annoy/amaze
          /bother/concern/frighten/please/anger sb. that…
          例 It worried me that she drove so fast.(= It was worrying that she drove so
fast.)
          (4) It verb (to sb.) that…= sb/sth verb to do
          (verb = appear, seem, come about, emerge, follow, chance, happen, occur,
transpire, turn out , work out)
          例 It (so) happened/chanced that they were out.(= They happened/chanced to
be out.)
          (5) It is v-ed that…=sb/sth is to do
          (verb=say, report, think, believe, hope, expect, agree, accept, decide,
determine, intend, plan, understand, know)
          例 It is said that the couple have gotten divorced.(=The couple are said to
have gotten divorced.)
          (6) It is v-ed that … (should)…
          (verb=demand, request, require, order, suggest, advise, recommend
          例 It is suggested that they should begin with the third question.
          三、It作主语的句型
          1. It takes sb. … to do…(=sb takes…to do…)某人用多长时间做某事
          例 It took the men a week to mend our roof.(= The men took a week to mend
our roof.)
          2. It's (just)(un)like sb. to do…(不)像某人做某事的风格
          例 It was (just) like him to think of helping us.
          3. It's (about/high) time that… should /v-ed…是该做某事的时候了
          例 It's(about/high) time that we should take action.
          4. It's the x-th time (that) … have v-ed…第几次做某事了
          例 It's the third time that he has failed the driving test.
          5. It is/has been… since …continuous v-ed(延续性动词) 某动作已有多长时间不发生了
          例 It's 10 years that he lived here
          6. It was(not)… before…过(不)了多长时间某动作发生了
          例 It was not long before they arrived.
          四、It 作形式宾语
          用来替代作宾语的从句、动词不定式、动名词,而把真正作宾语的从句、动词不定式、动名词置于句尾。
          It 作形式宾语的常见句型:
          1. verb+ it+ adj./noun (for/of) to do/clause (verb=think, believe, suppose,
consider, feel, make, keep…)
          例 I think it hard for you to do the task on your own./I think it hard that
you'll do the task on your own.
          2. verb+it+adj./noun (one's) doing (adj.=useless/worth/worthwhile)(noun=no
use/no good/worth one's while/a waste of time/money/energy/words) (verb=think,
believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)
          例 I'll make it worth your while telling me about his secret.
          3. verb+it+ important/unimportant/necessary/unnecessary/natural/essential
that … (should)…
          verb+it+of much/great/no/little importance that…(should)…
          (verb=think, believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)
          例 I think it important that you (should) attendthe conference.
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 19:03:43 | 显示全部楼层

          4. verb + it+ as+ noun/adj.+ clause (verb=accept, regard, take, see,
view)
          例 The lecturer takes it as encouraging when so many students attend his
lecture.
          5. v. +it + prep. + that…
          owe it to sb. that…把…归功于…
          leave it to sb that…把…留给某人去做
          take it for granted that …想当然
          keep it in mind that…
          例 Don't bother to arrange anything. Just leave it to me to sort out.
          6. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词后面,尤其是表示好恶的动词后,enjoy, like, love, dislike, resent, hate,
don't mind, be fond of, feel like, see to 宾语从句紧跟it之后
          例 I hate it you can swim so well and I can't.
          7. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的介词后面,宾语从句紧跟it之后(except that例外)
          例 I'm for it that you will follow their advice.
          五、强调句型
          It is/was+被强调部分+ that(who)… 强调句型用来强调谓语动词以外的任何句子成分。当被强调部分是人时也可以用who。
          在使用强调句型时需注意以下几点:
          1. 请注意强调句型的特殊疑问句
          例 When was it that he changed his mind to take part in the activity?
          2. 在强调原因状语从句时,只能强调由because所引导的从句
          例 It was because he was ill that he didn't come to school yesterday.
          3. 在强调not … until结构时必须把not与until一起放到被强调的位置上
          例 It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was my
brother.
          4. 注意强调句型与定语从句的区别
          例 It was at 7 o'clock that he came here yesterday.( 强调句型)
          It was 7 o'clock when he came here yesterday.(定语从句)
          六、It 常用的固定搭配
          1. make it
          (1).在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达
          例 It's hard to make it to the top in show business.
          (2).在口语中相当于fix the date for,表示“约定好时间”
          例 —Shall we meet next week?
          —OK. We just make it next Saturday.
          2. as it is
          (1).相当于in fact, in reality表示“事实上,实际情况是……”
          例 We had planed to finish the task today, but as it is we probably won't
finish it until next week.
          (2).相当于方式状语从句,表示“照原样”
          例 Leave the table as it is.
          3. as it were 相当于as one might say, that is to say, 表示“也就是说,可以说,换句话说”
          例 He is, as it were, a modern Sherlock Holmes.
          4. if it weren't for…/if it hadn't been for…用来引导虚拟语气,相当于without, or but
for, 表示“如果不是……,要不是……”
          例 If it weren't for Tom, I wouldn't be alive today.
          5. that's it
          (1). 相当于That's all. That's so much. 表示“至此为止,没有别的了”
          例 You can have one more sweet, and that's it.
          (2). 相当于 That's right.表示“对啦”
          例 — I guess the key to the problem is thechoice “A”
          —That's it.
          6. catch it 在口语中,相当于be punished/scolded for doing sth. wrong.
表示“因做错事而挨骂,受责备,受批评,受惩罚”
          例 We'll really catch it form our teacher if we're late for class again.
          7. have it
          (1).相当于say, insist表示“说,主张,表明,硬说”
          例 Rumour has it that they are getting divorced.
          (2).相当于get to know something,表示“了解,知道,获悉”
          例 I had it from John that she was going abroad.
          8. have what it takes在口语中,相当于be well qualified for, 表示“具有成功的条件”
          例 You can take it from me that your daughter has what it takes to be a
star.
          9. so it seems / appears.
          10. Keep at it! (Don't give up!)相当于go on,表示“继续做,不放弃”
          例 My teacher asked me to keep at it.
          11. Go it! (Go on!) 拼命干, 莽撞
          12. Now you have done it! (You have done sth. wrong.)
          13. Now you'll catch it! (You'll be punished.)
          14. As it happened, … 在口语中,相当于it's a pity that…, 表示“真不凑巧,真遗憾”
          例 As it happened, they were out.
          15. As it turned out,…在口语中,相当于it was found to be in the end, 表示“最后被证明是”
          例 As it turned out, his statement was false.
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