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英语语法:不定式概论(2)

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:49:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  另外,tell, advise, show, teach, find out, decide, discuss, learn, forget等动词,常用一个带连接代(副)词的不定式作宾语:
          They will teach us how to repair farm tools. 他仍将教我们怎样修农具。
          We must decide whether to go or stay. 我们得决定去还是留。
          He didn't know whether to laugh or to cry when he heard the words. 听了这话他是啼笑皆非。
          No one could tell me where to get the book. 没有人能告诉我哪里能找到这本书。
          I hope you'll advise me what to do. 我希望你给我出主意怎么办好。
          The book explains how to solve the problem. 这本书解释如何回答这个问题。
          Don't forget how to unlock it. 别忘了如何开锁。
          You can learn how to type there. 在那里你可学习怎样打字。
          She considered how to answer the question. 她考虑如何回答这个问题。
          另外,在某些复合宾语中,我们常常先用一个it代表不定式,而把不定式放到后面去,如:
          They found it impossible to get everything ready in time. 他们发现不可能把一切按时准备好。
          She thought it unnecessary to argue with him about it. 觉得没有必要和他辨论。
          I consider it better not to go. 我认为还是不去为好。
          这种结构很有用处,例如下面这类句子就都可以这样翻译:
          你难道不觉得这样译好些吗? Don't you think it better to translate it this way?
          这种种烦恼使她不能专心工作。 All these worries made it impossible for her to concentrate on her work.
          他规定堂上只能讲英语。 He made it a rule only to speak English in class.
          她感到有责任指出这一点。 She felt it her duty to point that out.
          间或可以看到下面这种句子:
          I have long had it in mind to answer your letter. 我一直在想给你回信。
          She took it on herself to apologize for me. 她亲自出面替我道歉。
          He regards it as important to help his friends. 他认为帮助朋友是很重要的。
          ********************
          注: 在个别的介词后可用"连接代(副)词+不定式"这种结构作宾语,如:
          Everyone has his own idea of how to do it. 如何做这件事各人都有不同的看法。
          ********************
          不定式有时也可用以用作表语:
          The problem is to find a solution. 问题是得找出一个解决办法。
          Her wish was to become an artist. 她的志愿是成为一个艺术家。
          The greatest happiness is to work for the happiness of all. 最大的幸福就是为大家的幸福而工作。
          His job was to make contacts with the local people. 他的任务是联系当地群众。
          To do this would be to cut the foot to fit the shoe. 这样做是削足适履。
          The most important thing is to put theory into practice. 最重要的是把理论变为实际。
          What I like is to swim in the sea and then to lie on the warm sand. 我喜欢的是在海里游泳,然后躺在暖和的沙上。
          有时,在一个汉语句子中,如果主语很长而表语很短,在译为英语时,我们可以把两者颠倒过来,用上述结构来表示:
          培养学生的独立工作能力是我们现在的主要任务。 Our main task now is to develop the students' ability to carry on independent work.
          仔细分析当前的形势并从而制定我们的政策,是我们最迫切的任务。 Our most urgent task is to make a careful analysis of the present situation and form our policy on the basis of such an analysis.
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