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英语语法:替代

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:49:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  替代是一种避免重复的连接上下文的手段。在英语中主要有三种替代现象:名词性替代、动词性替代和分句性替代;同理,替代词也分为名词替代词、动词替代词和分句替代词。此外还有状语的替代。
          一、名词性替代
          用名词性替代词one (s), the same, the kind, the sort等所表示的替代现象叫做名词性替代。
          1.名词性替代词
          例1:The child doesn’t like this book. Show him a more interesting one. (one = book)
          例2:His novel is a bad one for children. (one = novel)
          2.某些不定代词
          在名词性替代中还可以用一些不定代词来替代。如all, both, some, any, enough, several, none, many, much, more, (the ) most, (a) few, another, the other, others, either等。例如:
          I don't want any more food. I’ve had enough.
          3. one 和 ones是最常见的替代词
          one的复数形式是ones.one 和ones作为替代词只能用以替代可数名词, 不可用来替代不可数名词。例如:
          1)The grey horse is stronger than the black one.
          2)The new design is much better than the old ones.
          4.名词性物主代词mine,yours
          名词性物主代词mine, yours等可用来代替my +名词,your +名词等,例如:
          “Whose is that coat?” “It’s mine.”
          二、动词性替代
          用动词替代词do,do so等所表示的替代现象叫做动词性替代。
          1.谓语的替代形式
          do是谓语的替代形式,有时态和人称的变化。例如:
          1)Some people like a shower after they have played tennis. Peter does, for example.
          2)John speaks German as fluently as Mary does.
          2.由do,so等组成的复合替代形式
          (1)“so +助动词+主语”。例如:
          “Mary will enter the university in September.” “So will Joan.”
          (2)“so +主语+助动词”。例如:
          “I’ve been to Beijing.” ”So you have.”
          注:这种结构中第二句的主语与第一句的主语是同一个人,否则应像“so +助动词+主语”的结构一样,主谓要倒装。
          (3)“主语+(助动词+)do + so”。例如:
          “Have you sent your plan to the committee?”
          “I did so yesterday.”
          (4)“主语+(助动词+)do + that”。例如:
          “Do you know who broke the television set?”
          “I heard John did that.”
          (5)“主语+(助动词+)do + it”。例如:
          “My brother said he was going to send a letter of protest to the President.” ”I did it last week.”
          注:如果上文表示否定意义而在简短反应中表示相同的看法时,则用“neither / nor +do +主语”。此时,do 不是动词替代词,而是助动词。例如:
          Mary didn’t like English, neither did her brother.
          3.to代替整个动词不定式
          当某个动词不定式词组在句子中再次出现时,我们可以只用to这个词,而不必重复整个动词不定式词组。例如:
          1)I went there because I wanted to. (=…because I wanted to go there.)
          2)Perhaps I’ll go to Brazil this summer; I’d very much like to.
          3)“Are you and Gillian getting married?” ”We hope to.”
          4)I think he should get a job, but you can’t force him to if he’s not ready (to).
          5)I don’t dance much now, but I used to a lot.
          6)We’ll never leave home; he hasn’t got the courage (to).
          注1:有时to可省略(尤其是在形容词和名词之后,见例4、6)。在某些动词(如try)之后也可省略to。例如:
          “Can you start the car?” “Ok, I’ll try.”
          注2:在want和would like之后,通常不能省略to。然而,当want或like 用于从句时(例如,在when, if, what, as之后),to常常省略。例如:
          1)Come when you want.
          2)I’ve decided to do what I like.
          3)Come and stay as long as you like.
          三、分句性替代
          用分句替代词so或not替代整个分句的现象叫做分句性替代。例如:
          Many people believe that there will be another world war before the end of the century. My father think so, but I believe not.
          1.分句替代词so或not可替代that从句
          so可用来替代肯定的that从句,not替代否定的that从句,它们常与I’m afraid, believe, expect, fear, guess, hope, suppose, think等词语搭配。例如:
          1)“Have we got enough money?” “I think so.”
          2)“We’re not going to be in time.” “No, I suppose not.”
          2. so与not可用来代替if 后面的从句
          例1:Are you free this evening? If so, come and have a drink with us.
          例2:Are you busy this afternoon? If not, I wish you would stay with me for a while.
          3.用it, this, that, such作为替代词
          例1:If you don’t work hard, you’ll regret it. (regret it = regret not working hard)
          例2:He was very tired. This explains why he went to bed early.
          例3:You’re trying to cut with the back of the knife; that’s a silly thing to do.
          例4:I may hurt your feelings, but such (= that) was certainly not my intention.
          四、状语的替代
          1.时间状语的替代形式主要用副词then
          例如:We saw John at eight on Monday evening. We told him then that we could be coming to the party.
          2.地点状语的替代形式主要用副词here和there
          例如:Mary is in London and John is there too.
          It和that有时也可以用作地点状语的替代形式,这种场合的it和that在句中作主语,并可同there交换使用,谓语动词是联系动词。
          例如:They sat right in front of the stage. That / it / There was where the noise was greatest.
          3.方式状语的替代形式用in that way和like that
          例如:“She plays the piano with great concentration and with great energy.” “I’m afraid she doesn’t study like that.”
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