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英语语法大全:名词性从句

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:48:39 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  1. 名词性从句可用疑问句词序吗
          No one knows ______ in a million years.
          A. what man will look like            B. what willl man look like
          C. man will look like what            D. what look will man like
          此题应选A。容易误选B。这里考察的主要是:名词性从句(宾语从句)的词序问题。名词性从句包括宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句等四类。不管是哪一类名词性从句, 其词序一律用陈述句词序, 而不能用疑问句词序。
          1. They want to know _____ do to help us.
          A. what can they    B. what they can
          C. how they can    D. how they can
          2. They have no idea at all _____.
          A. where he has gone
          B. where has he gone
          C. which place he has gone
          D. where did he go
          3. The photographs will show you _____.
          A. what does our village look like
          B. what our village looks like
          C. how does our village look like
          D. how our village looks like
          4. Can you make sure ____ the gold ring?
          A. where Alice had put
          B. where had Alice put
          C. where Alice has put
          D. where has Alice put
          答案:1. B 2. A 3. B 4. C
          2. 引导名词从句的whether与that
          ______ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.
          A. If            B. Whether       C. That          D. When 
          此题应选 B。容易误选A, C。
          1. 关于if与whether:两者都可引导宾语从句, 常可换用;但若引导主语从句, 则用wheter(不用if), 排除A。又如:
          他是否会来还是个问题。
          误:If he will come is a question.
          正:Whether he will come is a question.
          2. 关于whether和that:两者都可引导主语从句, 其区别主要应从句意来考虑:whether表示“是否”, 由它引导的主语从句的意思通常是不确定的;that 引导主语从句时, 本身没有词义(that在其它名词性从句中也没有词义), 但是由that引导的整个主语从句的意思通常是确定的。试比较:
          1. a. That we’ll hold a meeting is decided. 我们要 召开一次会议, 这已决定了。
          b. Whether we’ll hold a meeting is not decided. 我们是否要开一个会, 这还没有决定。
          2. a. That he has left here is clear. 他已离开了这 儿, 这点很清楚。
          b. Whether he has left here is not clear. 他是 否已离开这儿, 这还不清楚。
          3. a. That he can finish it in two hours is clear. 他能在两小时内完成它, 这是显然的。
          b. Whether he can finish it in two hours is a question. 他能否在两小时内完成它还是问题。
          3. 引导名词性从句的what
          ______ he said at the meeting astonished everyone present.
          A. What          B. That          C. If            D. Whether
          此题应选 A。选项C(if)显然不能选, 因为if通常不能引导主语从句;选项B(that)和D(whether) 虽然都可以引导主语从句, 但两者除了意思不合题意外, 还有它们在主语从句中都不充当句子成分, 而此句中的 he said缺宾语。
          在名词性从句中, what根据情况不同, 可能有两方面的用法和意思:
          1. 用作连接代词, 表示“什么”(由疑问词变来):
          I don’t know what he gave her. 我不知道他给了她什么。
          What he will say at the meeting is not known tous. 他在会上将说些什么, 我们还不知道。
          2. 表示“……所……的(东西)”, 在结构上相当于一个名词加一个定语从句(所以有人称这样用的what 为关系代词型的what):
          把你买的东西拿给我看。
          Show me what you bought.
          →Show me the thing that you bought.
          这是他想要的东西。
          This is what he wants.
          →This is the thing that he wants.
          我们需要的是钱。
          What we need is money.
          →The thing that we need is money.
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 18:56:49 | 显示全部楼层

          4. 如何区分引导名词性从句的what / that
          —I think ______ he needs is more practice.
          —Yes. ______ he needs more practice is clear.
          A. what, What     B. that, That      C. what, That      D. that, What
          此题应选C。其余三项均可能被误选。What和that 都可以引导名词性从句, 但有区别:
          1. what引导名词从句时, 它在从句中要充当句子成分(主语、宾语等), 而that引导名词从句时, 它在从句中不能充当句子成分。
          2. what引导名词从句时, 它有词义(表示:什么;所……的[东西]);而that引导名词从句时, 它没有词义。
          请做以下试题, 注意区别what和that:
          1. ____ you said is different from the thing ____ he told us.
          A. What, what      B. That, that
          C. What, that       D. That, what
          2. —I think ____ he said is true.
          —But don’t forget the fact ____he is a cheat.
          A. what, what      B. that, that
          C. what, that       D. that, what
          3. ____ surprised us most is ____he spoke Egnlishso well.
          A. What, what      B. That, that
          C. What, that       D. That, what
          答案:1. C 2. C 3. C
          5. whatever与no matter what
          It is generally considered unwise to give a child ______ her or she wants.
          A. whatever       B. no matter what  C. whenever      D. no matter when
          此题应选 A。容易误选B。选项C, D显然是错的, 因为句中的wants缺宾语, 而C, D两项不能作宾语。至于C, D 的区别, 可这样描述:no matter what只能引导状语从句, 而不引导名词性从句。而whatever 既可引导名词性从句(=anythingthat), 也可引导状语从句(=no matter what):
          1. 引导名词性从句(只用whatever):
          无论他做什么都是对的。
          正:Whatever he did was right.
          误:No matter what he did was right.
          无论他说什么似乎都有道理。
          正:Whatever he says sounds reasonable.
          误:No matter what he says sounds reasonable.
          山羊找到什么就吃什么。
          正:Goats eat whatever they find.
          误:Goats eat no matter what they find.
          2. 引导状语从句(两者可换用):
          无论你说什么, 我都不会相信你。
          正:Whatever you say, I won’t believe you.
          正:No matter what you say, I won’t believe you.
          无论发生什么, 都要保持镇定。
          正:Keep calm, whatever happens.
          正:Keep calm, no matter what happens.
          6. whoever与no matter who
          I will give the ticket to ______ wants it.
          A. whoever       B. no matter who   C. whatever       D. no matter what
          此题应选 A。容易误选B。选项C, D都是错的, 因为从句意上看, “想要票的”应该是“人”(whoever)而不能是“东西”(whatever)。至于为什么选 whoever 而不选no matterwho, 这要从它们在句中引导的成分说起:
          no matter who通常只能引导状语从句, 而不能引导名词性从句。而 whoever 既可引导名词性从句(= anyone that)也可引导状语从句(=no matter who):
          1. 引导名词性从句(只用whoever):
          谁想去我就带谁去。
          正:I’ll take whoever wants to go.
          误:I’ll take no matter who wants to go.
          谁赢了都可以获奖。
          正:Whoever wins gets a prize.
          误:No matter who wins gets a prize.
          不管这话是谁对你说的, 他都是在撒谎。
          正:Whoever told you that was lying.
          误:No matter who told you that was lying.
          2. 引导状语从句(两者可换用):
          不管是谁打电话来, 都说我出去了。
          正:Whoever phones, tell them I’m out.
          正:No matter who phones, tell them I’m out.
          不管是谁这样说, 那都是错的。
          正:Whoever says so, it is wrong.
          正:No matter who says so, it is wrong.
         
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