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初中英语知识点总结:谓语动词和主语的一致

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发表于 2018-7-19 22:50:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  新东方网小编给各位初三考生整理了各学科的复习攻略,本文是初中初中英语知识点总结:初中英语知识点总结:谓语动词和主语的一致,帮助各位考生梳理知识脉络,理清做题思路,希望各位考生可以在考试中取得优异成绩!
          谓语动词和主语的一致
          有些谓语动词必须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,特别是动词为现在时态时。在一般现在时中,若主语为第三人称单数,多数动词都要加-s或-es,如:He
comes.Mary cries。如果主语不是第三人称单数,就不需加这样的词尾,如:I come.
          They
cry.而且,不管是作主要动词还是助动词,在第三人称单数的主语后都得用is,has,does这种形式,否则用are,am,have或do。至于can,may,must这些助动词,在各种人称后形式不变:
          He(or She,It,My friend)comes(or sees,goes).
          He(or She,It,My friend)is waiting,has come,does go,(is,has,does作助动词) is
kind,has a funny face,doesnothing at all.(is,has,does作主要动词)
          I(or we,You,They,My friends)come(or see,go).
          I am waiting,have come,do go.We(or You,They,Myfriends)are waiting,have
come,do go.(am,are,have,do作助动词)
          I am sorry.They are kind,have funny faces,do nothingat
all.(am,are,have,do作主要动词)
          任何主语+must(or can,may,ought to,need not,darenot)come(or see,go).
          过去时可和住何主语一起用,只有was和were是例外。was和第一第三人称单数主语一起用,其他主语都和were一起用,如:
          He was ill.I was ill.They were ill.
          在将来时中主要是用shall或will,不需加词尾,如:
          They(or John and Mary) will come,shall come.
          He(or It) will come,shall come.
          判断主语的人称不难,但判断它的数有时却并不容易。至少有39种有关数上一致的问题,它们可以分为两大类。
          第一大类是哪个是主语的问题。在这类中,决定哪个词或词组是主语比决定某个主语是单数还是复数更困难。以下面句子为例:
          The students,as well as the teacher,are(or is?)in the
class-room.(在决定用are还是is以前,首先得决定students和teacher哪是主语,还是两者都是主语。)
          My guide is(or are?) the stars.(是guide还是stars是真正的主语?)
          第二大类是主语是单数还是复数的问题。在这类中,决定主语是单数还是复数比决定哪个是主语更困难:
          Billiards(单数还是复数?) is(or are?)my favorite game.
          The phenomena(单数还是复数?) is(or are?) unbelievable.
          The headquarters(单数还是复数?) is(or are?)in London.
          1)第一大类:哪个是主语?
          谓语动词通常跟在主语后面,但有时却放在主语前面,特别是在由who,which,how,when等疑问词或助动词引起的问句中:
          Who are they?
          Which does she like best?
          Has your wife come back from Paris?
          Are the guests celebrating her birthday?
          在某些倒装句中,谓语动词有时放在主语前面:
          If you are not satisfied,nor is Peter.
          Never in my life have I forgot her.Nobody else can I love.
          Hardly has Liz woken up when the sun rises.
          “I feel bored.”“So is evrybody.”
          在下面这类倒装句中情况也如此。
          There come many children.
          Before the house stands a tree.
          Before the house stand a tree and a bench(two things).
          In the house there is a cat,(there is)a dog,and(thereare)three
birds.(后面的there is,there are多省略,在acat前用is是对的。)
          To Dick fall the duties of maintaining the family.
          After Jan comes Nora.
          Here's all the coins I have.(在口语中here's和there's和where's后可跟一复数名词)
          There's three friends waiting for me.
          Where's the kids that stole the apples?
          在下面这类句子中,补语或分词提前,主语在is,was,are,were之后:
          Gone are all my happy days!
          Waiting for the results are thousands of people.Gathered under the roof
were all the big shots.
          两个单数名词由and连接可构成复数主语:
          John and Mary(=Two persons)are coming.
          (但:John is coming and Mary is coming,too.)
          My money and my friend are both gone.
          Good coffee and bad are different from each other.
          两个人称代词由and连接也构成复数主语:
          He and I (=We)are friends.
          Both you and he(=Both of you)are ill.
          由every,any等词修饰的几个主语,尽管由and连接,仍然保持是单数:
          Every boy and every girl is playing.
          Any relative,any friend and any neighbour is ready to helphim.
          Each grown-up and each child likes it.
          No city,no village,no mountain,(and) no sea is a place ofsafety.
          Many a man and many a woman has seen the accident.
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发表于 2018-7-19 22:57:55 | 显示全部楼层

          两个名词前各加同一限定词,表示是两个人或两样东西,谓语动词要用复数:
          A general and a statesman(two persons)were killed.
          His home and his office are very far from my home.
          A black and a white dog are playing in the yard.
          一个不可数名词,如有两个形容词修饰,而指两样东西,动词用复数;否则用单数:
          English and French grammar are different.
          Sweet and sour pork is delicious.
          如果主体词重复,表示是两样东西,动词要用单数:
          The situation before the war and the situation after are differ-ent.
          What he said and what he thought were the same.
          如作主语的两个名词用同一限定词,指的是一个人或一样东西,动词要用单数:
          A general and statesman(one person)was killed.
          His home and office(one place)is very far from my house.
          A black and white dog(one dog) is playing.
          What he said and thought was for others.
          有时两个名词虽由and连接,但习惯上被看作是一样东西,这时动词也用单数:
          Bread and butter is enough for me.
          Whisky and soda is his favourite.
          Duck and peas is delicious,but eggs and bacon is better.
          That cup and saucer is broken.
          The wheel and axle is out of repair.
          A needle and thread is all my grandmother needs.
          Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy.
          两个抽象名词一起用时,有时代表两个东西,有时代表一个东西,动词的单复数要根据意思来决定,有时两者都可以(看我们如何考虑):
          The use and object of this are(or is)simple.
          The stitching and binding of books are(or is)a hard job.
          His courage and endurance are(or is)Great.
          Sym pathy and understanding are(or is)required.
          Trial and error(通常看作一个概念)is the best way tolearn.
          All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
          The ebb and flow of one's fortune is a matter of course.
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          有时一个主语后跟一逗号,以及“and+名词+副词”,后面的动词就常和第一个名词一致。“and+名词+副词”可以看作一个省略的分句:
          Mary,and her parents too(or also,likewise,as well),isfond of John.(=Mary is
fond of John,and her parents arefond of John,too.)
          Mary,and perhaps(or particularly,even,certainly)herparents,is fond of
John.(and+副词+名词)
          Mary,but not her parents,is fond of John.
          Mary's parents,but not Mary herself,are fond of
John.(在跟有not时,可以用but代替and。)
          单纯数词一般看作单数,如果有两个数词由and或time或其它词连接,动词可以用单数或复数形式:
          Thirteen is an unlucky number.
          Two and two make(or makes)four.
          Eight plus five equals thirteen.(书面体)
          Three fives are(or is)fifteen.(口语体)
          Three times five are(or is)fifteen.
          What are(or is)twice seven?
          40 multiplied by 58 equals 2320.(书面体)
          Five from nine(or Nine take away five)is(or leaves)four.(口语体)
          Six hundred and one minus forty equals five hundred and
six-ty-one.(书面体)
          Three into twelve goes four.(口语体)
          Two hundred fifty divided by fifty equals
five.(书面体)如果数词表示复数的人或东西,动词也用复数形式:
          Five(=Five Persons)were killed.
          One and a half…为复数,而half a…为单数:
          One and a half dollars were spent on sugar,and half a dollarwas Spent on
flour.
          A fine and/or imprisonment is(or are)not enough.
          如果两个主语由or或nor连接,动词与最靠近的主语一致:Either you or I am right.
          Neither Alice nor her parents like Mike.
          One or two words are enough.(但是A word or two is e-nough.)
          There is one or two examples.
          Wang or rather his brothers decide the matter.
          但:Life or(=and)death are nothing to me.
          Whether John or Mary are willing to help me is still a problem.
          两个主语若由not only…but also…连接起来,动词和最近的主语一致:
          Not only my house,but many other houses have been white-washed.
          (但最好说:Not only my house has been whitewashed,butmany other houses,too.)
          Not only Mary's parents,but also Mary herself likes Mike.
          There is not only Mary,but also Mary's parents.
          如果主语后跟有介词短语、连词短语或是分词短语,动词仍与主语一致,不受中间插入成分的影响(注意主语后及短语后的逗号):
          Two girls,besides(介词)Mary,are studying Malay.
          All my sisters,except Lilian,study flower-arranging.
          The street,with so many people going up and down,is dirty.
          Lee,together with(介词短语)his three brothers,has cometo our party.
          The horses,along with their owner,fall into the river.
          This problem,in addition to the other two,make me sad.
          You,as well as(连词短语)he,are mistaken.
          The students,much more than the teacher,wish for a holi-day.
          The teacher,as much as the students,wishes for a holiday.
          Wang's friends,no less than Wang himself,wish for his suc-cess.
          One apple,divided(分词短语)by six children,is a thingunpleasant.
          The manager,accompanied by his assistants,has gone out.
          My schoolmates,including John,are kind to me.
          All the members,not excepting the chairman,are arrived.
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发表于 2018-7-20 00:07:23 | 显示全部楼层

          上面那种插在主语和谓语动词之间的成分,也可移到句首,意思是差不多的:
          Besides Mary,three students are studying Malay.
          In addition to the other two,this problem makes me sad.
          No less than Wang himself,Wang's friends wish for his suc-cess.
          Accompanied by his assistants,the manager has gone out.
          主语后面有时跟有of或其他介词时,动词仍和主语一致:One of the boys is sick.
          The meeting of so many strangers broadens his view.
          A cleanup of such a government is absolutely necessary.
          The loss of his parents was too much for him.
          A truckload of oranges costs about a thousand dollars.
          Two spoons of sugar are just enough.
          Two bottles of whisky are nothing to him.
          Only five bags of rice are in stock.
          Six cases of cholera are reported.
          Signs of revolt are increasing every day.
          This kind(or sort,type,class,species,breed,variety)ofcat is rare.
          These kinds(or sorts,…)of flowers are rare.(口语体)
          Flowers of this kind(or sort,…) are rare.(书面体)
          One of the students,who speaks lrish,is her son.
          One of the students who speak lrish is her son.
          More children than one are infected.
          Nobody but five workers is promoted.
          Such people as John are wonderful.
          The number of banks in this city is about forty.(但:A num-ber of banks are
closed down.动词和这类数词短语后的名词一致)
          The average of absentees is four in each meeting.(但:Anaverage of four
persons are absent in each meeting.)
          The total of murders in this year is over two hundred.(但:A total of two
hundred murders are committed this year.)
          后面跟复数动词的短语有:a majority of people,a variety ofreasons,a rain of bullets,a
storm of stones,a flood of re-sources,a sea of faces,a trickle of tourists,a
mountain ofwatermelons等等。
          系动词一般都和前面的主语一致,而不受后面补语的影响:My only pleasure is the movies.
          The movies are my only pleasure.
          Those stars are my only guide.
          My only guide is those stars.
          His food is fruit and milk.
          Fruit and milk are his food.
          Dogs are a pleasant trouble.
          We are a football team.
          主语后的同位语和补语一样都不影响动词的形式:
          The movies,my only pleasure,are also my ruin.
          Those stars,my only guide,are twinkling all the night.
          His food,fruit and milk is delicious and nutritious.
          They become master(or mistress)of the situation(or the Eng-lish
language).
          Many fall victim.
          They seem to be our enemy.
          They are always the victor.
          The world appears too many for me.
          The nation is but individuals.
          Who is knocking?It seems to be John and Mary.
          She is all eyes(or all tears,all smiles).
          The room is all books and newspapers.
          The street is all loiterers and beggars.
          但:The following is my address(are their addresses).
          在某些习惯用法中补语用复数形式,动词仍与主语一致:
          He is(or becomes,makes)great friends with John.
          He is pals(or shipmates,partners) with you.
          He is enemies with everyone.
          I am quits with him.
          不定式、动名词或从句作主语时,尽管里面有复数名词,动词仍用单数形式:
          For them to tell lies is very easy.
          For us businessmen to know many people is necessary.Telling lies does not
pay.
          Visiting all European countries is my ambition.
          What we want is good roads.
          That they like power and wealth is true.
          “It pours cats and dogs”means it rains heavily.
          “Many happy returns”is a form of greeting on someboby's birthday.
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发表于 2018-7-20 01:39:12 | 显示全部楼层

          在it引起的强调某句子成分的句子中,动词用单数更好一些:
          It is they who(代表it,而不代表 they)is(比 are好)wrong.
          It is you that(代表 it,而不代表 you)often makes(比 make好) such mistakes.
          但实际上用复数的人也不少。
          2)第二大类:主语是单数还是复数?
          数词,不管是泛指还是特指,只要是指人或物,通常都跟有复数动词:
          Seven were killed.
          Two are missing.
          Few know it.
          A few have been thrown away.
          Several were wounded.
          Hundreds have become homeless.
          Both have come.
          Thousands upon thousands were starved.
          Some were killed,others were wounded.
          A large variety of umbrellas are on sale.
          A few are satisfied,but a great many are disappointed and very angry.
          The majority(or generality)of human beings are selfish.
          Fifty dozen of stockings have just arrived.
          Ten pair(s)of gloves are on display.
          Four yoke of oxen are coming.
          Twenty head of cattle are grazing.
          A number of articles are damaged.(但:The number of thir-teen is
unlucky.)
          One and a half(more than one) apples are entirely rotten.(但:One apple is
rotten.)
          No students are interested in this subject.(但:No student is interested in
it.)
          Many hours and days have been spent.(但:Many an hour and day has been
wasted.)
          More persons than one are suspected.(但:More than one per-son is
suspected.
          There is[or are]more than one person.)
          量词一般看作单数:
          So much has already been done.
          A large amount of money has been spent on agriculture.
          A large quantity of food was left rotten.
          Little has been done.
          A little is enough.
          A high degree of development is in sight.
          A great deal was lost.
          Too much vegetables(即使用复数) spoils my appetite.
          Not much clothes is on sale in this small town.
          Too much old books has been crammed into my head.
          有些单词或短语,若跟有不可数名词,则成为量词,因此是单数,如跟有可数名词,则成为数词,这时就成了复数:
          There is enough(量词)water.
          There are enough(数)rooms.
          More water is required.
          More trucks are required.
          Some coffee has been ordered.
          Some apples have been stolen.
          NO milk was sold in this store.
          No oranges were sweet in this season.
          None of the money is wisely spent.
          None of the houses are good to see.
          Most of the milk was spilled out.
          Most of the bananas were rotten.
          A lot of money has been spent.
          A lot of people have been invited.
          Abundance of meat is consumed every day.
          Abundance of watermelons are on sale.
          Plenty of water is used in this city.
          Plenty of pigs are killed every day.
          Half of the liquor is alcohol.
          Half of the inhabitants are workers.
          Part of the money is spent on the movies.
          Part of the books are damaged.
          The rest of the cost was paid by him.
          The rest of the children were still young.
          Three fourths of the earth's surface is covered by water.
          Three fourths of the residents are Chinese.
          The bulk of his property has been sold.
          The bulk of the inhabitants are Indians.
          A mass of snow lies before my door.
          A mass of people are gathering on the square.
          A large percentage of profit has come to nothing.
          A large percentage of crimes are due to alcohol.
          A large proportion of his income is spent on liquor.
          A large proportion of the residents are Arabs.
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发表于 2018-7-20 02:19:31 | 显示全部楼层

          有些指示词可以作单数也可以作复数:
          All the city is clean and very beautiful.但:All the cities are clean and
beautiful.
          Anything good is good to him.但:Any streets in this city are familiar to
him.
          Someone(or Somebody) has come.但:Some friends have come.
          Such a person is never happy.但:Such persons are always dissatisfied.
          A certain boy has broken it.但:Certain boys have done it.
          Another girl loves him.但:Other girls love him.
          Each wears a cap.但:They each wear caps.
          Either(or Neither)(作形容词)party is right.
          Either(or Neither)(作代词)of the two parties has its good leader.
          Either(or Neither)(作代词) have their good leaders.(口语体)
          Neither Jan,nor Helen,(nor) Belinda,nor Dorotby have come home.(口语体)
          What,who,which可作单数也可作复数:
          Who are(or is) waiting outside?
          Which are(or is) yours?
          What引起的从句多作单数:
          What he is doing is trivial.
          What made me sad was his unhappy marriage.
          如果补语是一个复数名词,what引起的从句也可作复数看待:
          What children like are stories.
          What seem to be boats are rocks.
          这主要得根据情况决定,试比较下面句子:
          What(= A thing that) seems to be a rat is something else.
          What(= Things that) seem to be rats are some other ani-mals.
          His family(作为整体)is large.
          集体名词可以表示一个集体,可以看作是单数,如果表示其成员,就可以作复数看待,特别是在英国:
          His family(= The members of his family) are all well.
          一个集体名词若有every,each,a,this,that修饰,常常作单数看待:
          Every family in this area is equipped with guns.
          This club is devoted to the study of photography.
          A committee is appointed to inquire into the matter.
          The committee are at dinner.
          The cavalry was repulsed.
          The cavalry wear scarlet trousers.
          This team is well organized.
          Our(而不是 These)team are good players.
          The company was organized by Mr.Johnson and they are mostly Americans.
          The mob becomes more and more violent.
          The mob were throwing up their caps and cheering.
          This hotel is by the seaside.
          All the hotel are startled at the alarm.
          This class is a small one.
          Our class are quarrelling among themselves.
          The old couple(or pair)is happy.
          The young couple(or pair) are quarrelling with each other.
          但:This twin(one of the twins)is like the other.
          These twins are like each other.
          The litter of pups was born yesterday.(动物的集体)
          The litter of pups were playing with each other.
          Every herd of elephants in this area seems to be happy and free.
          The flock of birds were flying about.
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          有些集体名词通常作复数看待,但相应表示其成员的词,却可有单数形式:
          The nobility have become poor.
          This nobleman has become poor.
          The peasantry(or tenantry,yeomanry)were underfed.
          The peasant(or tenant)was underfed.
          The gentry are rich.
          This gentleman is rich.
          The police are well-trained.
          That policeman is well-trained.
          Mankind are destroying their own civilization.
          Man is destroying his own civilization.
          Humanity is destroying its own civilization.
          The human beings are destroying their own civilization.
          The laity are not able to understand this term.
          A layman is not able to understand this term.
          The clergy are opposed to it.
          A clergywman is among us.
          The cavalry have fought bravely.
          This cavalryman has done something great.
          The infantry were defeated.
          Every infantryman was healthy and strong.
          The militia are to defend their town.
          No militiaman knows about the infiltration of the enemy.
          The youth are the future of a nation.
          A youth is waiting at the bus stop for his girlfriend.
          The British(or English,Irish,Scotch,Spanish,Dutch,French)are....
          A Briton(or
Englishman,Irishman,Scotsman,Spaniard,Dutchman,Frenchman)is....
          有些集体名词,形式上是单数,前面却可以加数词,后面跟复数动词:
          A hundred clergy are meeting.
          Twenty police(=Twenty policemen)are coming.
          Twenty thousand infantry are setting out.
          Many gentry are opposed to the measure.
          Those folk(s)(or people)are hard-headed.
          His sixteen offspring are all working with him.
          All his kindred are living in London.
          Three million population of this city are well-fed.
          Four thousand cattle are to be exported.
          有些名词经常有-s或-es词尾,它们都跟复数动词:
          The eaves are pretty.
          Riches are not always dependable.
          The odds are against us.(比较:What is the odds?——口语体)
          Thanks are expressed.
          Clothes are(Clothing is)not much needed here.
          These goods are to be delivered.
          另一些这类名词是:archives,assets,belongings,earnings,grounds,rapids,nuptials,oats,premises,procceeds,quarters,remains,savings,scales,woods,winnings
          有些疾病的名称带有-s词尾,但都作单数看待:
          The measles(or mumps,rickets,smallpox,shingles)is a disease very common in
this village.
          有些名词通常带-s或-es词尾,它们后面既可跟单数动词,也可跟复数动词:
          抽象名词:
          Every means(= method) has been used.All means(=methods) have been used.
          An alms(or Much alms)was given to the poor.
          These alms were given to the poor.
          Great(or Much,Little)pains have(or has)been taken.
          The tidings is(or are)bad.(比较:The news is—不能用are—bad.)
          His wages are 3000 dollars a month.The wages of sin is death (old usage).A
living wage is received only by a few work-ers.
          An amends is necessary.These amends are satisfactory.
          This species is rare.These species are valuable.
          A series of battles was(or were)being fought.
          Many series of battles have been fought.
          地方名称:
          The headquarters of the trade is in London.The headquarters of these
various trades are in London.
          A barracks is standing on the hill.Some barracks are the largest in this
country.
          A(general)stores is located at the corner.Several new(gen-eral)stores are
being set up.
          A glass-works is being built.These two glass-works are the best in this
area.
          A golf-links(= golf-course)is in the eastern part of the city.
          Some golf-links are very far from here.
          A crossroads is usually dangerous,but some crossroads are safe.
          A gallows is being set up.Some gallows are left idle.
          A shambles has replaced the prosperous city.Many shambles present
themselves to our eyes.
          Kensington Gardens is a nice place.There are not many botanical gardens in
this country.
          A lodgings is easy to find.Many lodgings are for rent.
          “Is there a public baths here?”“There are many public baths.”
          A kennels is where dogs are bred.Some kennels sell precious dogs.
          His whereabouts is(or are) unknown.
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          物件名称:
          The bellows(or
scissors,pincers,tongs,forceps,shoes,pants,shorts,glasses,etc.)are lying in the
corners.
          A pair of bellows(or scissors,pincers,tongs,etc.) is lying idle.
          有些动物的名字并不带-s或-es词尾,但可以用作复数或单数名词:
          Salmon(or Trout)(作为食品)is delicious.
          These salmon(or trout) are caught in that river.
          Fish(作为食品) is their only food.Three fishes are visible in the water.A lot
of fish are caught.
          Poultry(作为食品)is delicious.The poultry(作为活的动物)are drinking water.
          The sheep is(or are)sleeping.
          A deer is playing.Some deer are running.
          有些名词似乎不可数,却可有单复两种形式,有不同意义:
          His career has reached its climax.Their careers have been
suc-cessful.(一个人有一番事业。许多人有许多番事业。)
          His beard is impressive.Their beards are long.
          The mane of this horse is thin.The manes of those horses are thick.
          His offspring is healthy.Their offsprings are all soldiers.
          The population of this city is thin.The populations of these two cities are
similar.
          The language of the U.S.A.is English.The languages of Britain and the
U.S.A.are almost the same.
          The alphabet of English is twenty-six letters.
          The alphabets of English and French are a little different from each
other.
          有些学科的名称,虽以-s结尾,却都作单数看待:
          Mathematics is an important subject in schoo1.
          Economics is a study of production and consumption.
          Dramatics is his subject.And accoustics,too.
          如果一个学科名称用来表示某些实际事务,则可作为复数:
          My mathematics are poor.
          The economics of this country are stable.
          Such politics are foolish.Such tactics are ridiculous.
          Gymnastics are popular today.
          The ethics of some politicians are doubtful.
          Statistics on this subject are incorrect.
          某些以-s结尾的游戏或球类名称作为单数看待:
          Billiards(or Bowls,Dominos,Draughts)is my favourite game.
          但:Cards are not interesting to me.
          以-ese结尾的国民名称可作为单、复两种形式:
          That Japanese(or Chinese,Portuguese,Vietnamese)is my friends.
          Those Japanese(or Chinese,Portuguese,Vietnamese) are my friends.
          有些外来术语,有特别的单数及复数形式:
          This axis(or
medium,radius,larva,analysis,criterion,Phenomenon,oasis,libretto,soprano)is…(单数形式)
          Those axes(or
media,radii,larvae,analyses,criteria,phenomena,oases,libretti,soprani)are...(复数形式)
          The data is(or are)...
          由一个形容词加the来代表一类人时,都作为复数:
          The honest(= The honest people)are always trustworthy.
          The poor are to be relieved.
          The blind are unfortunate.
          The strong,the rich,the wicked are respected as the wise.
          The oppressed are to rise one day.
          有个别这类形容词代表单个的人,后面要跟单数动词(这些多为法律用语):
          The dead(or deceased,departed)was fifty years of age.
          The bereaved is(or are)still young.
          The condemned(or accused)is absent.
          His intended(or betrothed)is young.
          有些形容词加the后表示抽象概念或具体东西,但都作单数看待:
          The beautiful(= Beauty)is the ideal of life.
          The true looks less attractive than the false.
          The familiar is always more desirable than the unknown.
          The inside of the palace is more beautiful than the outside.(the inside=the
inside part)
          The white of an egg is full of protein.
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发表于 2018-7-20 05:40:05 | 显示全部楼层

          长度、重量、时间等名称多作单数看待:
          Fifty dollars(= The sum of fifty dollars)is not a large sum.
          Three yards(= The length of three yards)is not enough.
          Six months(= The period of six months)is too short a time to learn
anything.
          Five kilograms(= The weight of five kilograms)is
enough.这类带数词的名词前还可加一个指示词:
          One short seven days is like seven years.
          That three dollars(= That capital of three dollars)was the beginning of his
career.
          That second six months was happy indeed.
          Every ten minutes is a trial.
          A fortnight is not long enough to do the job.
          This two kilograms of meat is enough for ten persons.
          An estimated two thousand persons was killed in this hurri-cane.
          A good ten miles is the distance we have climbed.
          A happy three days has passed like a dream.
          Such a weary six years was to me a terrible dream.
          Ten apples(= Such a number of apples)is enough.
          Two thousand immigrants is the quota for us this year.
          如对组成部分加以强调,动词也可用复数形式:
          Fifty dollars are too expensive.
          Three yards cost thirty dollars.
          书名、电影名等,即使里面包含有复数名词,也作单数看待:
          Gulliver's Travels is my favourite book.
          City lights is a famous movie.
          Giants of the Earth is an opera.
          The Canterbury Tales is(or are)very interesting.
          复数的专有名词都在后跟复数动词:
          The Philippines have seven thousand islands in the Pacific.The Himalayas
are the roof of the world.
          The Niagara Falls are the falls on the Niagara River.
          The Great Lakes are a series of five lakes between the USA and Canada.
          The Dardonelles are a strait 40 miles long and 1—4 miles wide.
          The Pleiades are a cluster of stars in the constellation Taurus.
          The Olympics are an international athletic competition held ev-ery four
years.
          其他复数专有名词还有:the Canaries,the Solomon Islands;the Alps,the Rockies,the
Urals,the Pyrenees,the Andes;the Graces,the Fates;the Netherlands
          少数例外情况:
          The USA is a wealthy and strong country.
          The United Nations is an international organization working for the peace
of the world.
          机关、团体、地方,例如 Bank of Japan,Labour Party,Hong Kong Sport Club,Ministry of
Finance,the press,the city,the village,the
neighbourhood等既可作单数也可作复数。在美国英语中,单数的集体名词通常看作单数。在英国英语中,人或动物的单数集体名词却既可看作单数,也可看作复数,但无生命东西的集合体的单数名词,如
cluster(of grapes),collec-tion(of books),bunch(of keys),pair(of
shoes,scissors,glasses)只看作是单数。
          有些集体名词通常作复数看待,但相应表示其成员的词,却可有单数形式:
          The nobility have become poor.
          This nobleman has become poor.
          The peasantry(or tenantry,yeomanry)were underfed.
          The peasant(or tenant)was underfed.
          The gentry are rich.
          This gentleman is rich.
          The police are well-trained.
          That policeman is well-trained.
          Mankind are destroying their own civilization.
          Man is destroying his own civilization.
          Humanity is destroying its own civilization.
          The human beings are destroying their own civilization.
          The laity are not able to understand this term.
          A layman is not able to understand this term.
          The clergy are opposed to it.
          A clergywman is among us.
          The cavalry have fought bravely.
          This cavalryman has done something great.
          The infantry were defeated.
          Every infantryman was healthy and strong.
          The militia are to defend their town.
          No militiaman knows about the infiltration of the enemy.
          The youth are the future of a nation.
          A youth is waiting at the bus stop for his girlfriend.
          The British(or English,Irish,Scotch,Spanish,Dutch,French)are....
          A Briton(or
Englishman,Irishman,Scotsman,Spaniard,Dutchman,Frenchman)is....
          有些集体名词,形式上是单数,前面却可以加数词,后面跟复数动词:
          A hundred clergy are meeting.
          Twenty police(=Twenty policemen)are coming.
          Twenty thousand infantry are setting out.
          Many gentry are opposed to the measure.
          Those folk(s)(or people)are hard-headed.
          His sixteen offspring are all working with him.
          All his kindred are living in London.
          Three million population of this city are well-fed.
          Four thousand cattle are to be exported.
          有些名词经常有-s或-es词尾,它们都跟复数动词:
          The eaves are pretty.
          Riches are not always dependable.
          The odds are against us.(比较:What is the odds?——口语体)
          Thanks are expressed.
          Clothes are(Clothing is)not much needed here.
          These goods are to be delivered.
          另一些这类名词是:archives,assets,belongings,earnings,grounds,rapids,nuptials,oats,premises,procceeds,quarters,remains,savings,scales,woods,winnings
          有些疾病的名称带有-s词尾,但都作单数看待:
          The measles(or mumps,rickets,smallpox,shingles)is a disease very common in
this village.
          有些名词通常带-s或-es词尾,它们后面既可跟单数动词,也可跟复数动词:
          抽象名词:
          Every means(= method) has been used.All means(=methods) have been used.
          An alms(or Much alms)was given to the poor.
          These alms were given to the poor.
          Great(or Much,Little)pains have(or has)been taken.
          The tidings is(or are)bad.(比较:The news is—不能用are—bad.)
          His wages are 3000 dollars a month.The wages of sin is death (old usage).A
living wage is received only by a few work-ers.
          An amends is necessary.These amends are satisfactory.
          This species is rare.These species are valuable.
          A series of battles was(or were)being fought.
          Many series of battles have been fought.
          地方名称:
          The headquarters of the trade is in London.The headquarters of these
various trades are in London.
          A barracks is standing on the hill.Some barracks are the largest in this
country.
          A(general)stores is located at the corner.Several new(gen-eral)stores are
being set up.
          A glass-works is being built.These two glass-works are the best in this
area.
          A golf-links(= golf-course)is in the eastern part of the city.
          Some golf-links are very far from here.
          A crossroads is usually dangerous,but some crossroads are safe.
          A gallows is being set up.Some gallows are left idle.
          A shambles has replaced the prosperous city.Many shambles present
themselves to our eyes.
          Kensington Gardens is a nice place.There are not many botanical gardens in
this country.
          A lodgings is easy to find.Many lodgings are for rent.
          “Is there a public baths here?”“There are many public baths.”
          A kennels is where dogs are bred.Some kennels sell precious dogs.
          His whereabouts is(or are) unknown.
          物件名称:
          The bellows(or
scissors,pincers,tongs,forceps,shoes,pants,shorts,glasses,etc.)are lying in the
corners.
          A pair of bellows(or scissors,pincers,tongs,etc.) is lying idle.
          有些动物的名字并不带-s或-es词尾,但可以用作复数或单数名词:
          Salmon(or Trout)(作为食品)is delicious.
          These salmon(or trout) are caught in that river.
          Fish(作为食品) is their only food.Three fishes are visible in the water.A lot
of fish are caught.
          Poultry(作为食品)is delicious.The poultry(作为活的动物)are drinking water.
          The sheep is(or are)sleeping.
          A deer is playing.Some deer are running.
          有些名词似乎不可数,却可有单复两种形式,有不同意义:
          His career has reached its climax.Their careers have been
suc-cessful.(一个人有一番事业。许多人有许多番事业。)
          His beard is impressive.Their beards are long.
          The mane of this horse is thin.The manes of those horses are thick.
          His offspring is healthy.Their offsprings are all soldiers.
          The population of this city is thin.The populations of these two cities are
similar.
          The language of the U.S.A.is English.The languages of Britain and the
U.S.A.are almost the same.
          The alphabet of English is twenty-six letters.
          The alphabets of English and French are a little different from each
other.
          有些学科的名称,虽以-s结尾,却都作单数看待:
          Mathematics is an important subject in schoo1.
          Economics is a study of production and consumption.
          Dramatics is his subject.And accoustics,too.
          如果一个学科名称用来表示某些实际事务,则可作为复数:
          My mathematics are poor.
          The economics of this country are stable.
          Such politics are foolish.Such tactics are ridiculous.
          Gymnastics are popular today.
          The ethics of some politicians are doubtful.
          Statistics on this subject are incorrect.
          某些以-s结尾的游戏或球类名称作为单数看待:
          Billiards(or Bowls,Dominos,Draughts)is my favourite game.
          但:Cards are not interesting to me.
          以-ese结尾的国民名称可作为单、复两种形式:
          That Japanese(or Chinese,Portuguese,Vietnamese)is my friends.
          Those Japanese(or Chinese,Portuguese,Vietnamese) are my friends.
          有些外来术语,有特别的单数及复数形式:
          This axis(or
medium,radius,larva,analysis,criterion,Phenomenon,oasis,libretto,soprano)is…(单数形式)
          Those axes(or
media,radii,larvae,analyses,criteria,phenomena,oases,libretti,soprani)are...(复数形式)
          The data is(or are)...
          由一个形容词加the来代表一类人时,都作为复数:
          The honest(= The honest people)are always trustworthy.
          The poor are to be relieved.
          The blind are unfortunate.
          The strong,the rich,the wicked are respected as the wise.
          The oppressed are to rise one day.
          有个别这类形容词代表单个的人,后面要跟单数动词(这些多为法律用语):
          The dead(or deceased,departed)was fifty years of age.
          The bereaved is(or are)still young.
          The condemned(or accused)is absent.
          His intended(or betrothed)is young.
          有些形容词加the后表示抽象概念或具体东西,但都作单数看待:
          The beautiful(= Beauty)is the ideal of life.
          The true looks less attractive than the false.
          The familiar is always more desirable than the unknown.
          The inside of the palace is more beautiful than the outside.(the inside=the
inside part)
          The white of an egg is full of protein.
          长度、重量、时间等名称多作单数看待:
          Fifty dollars(= The sum of fifty dollars)is not a large sum.
          Three yards(= The length of three yards)is not enough.
          Six months(= The period of six months)is too short a time to learn
anything.
          Five kilograms(= The weight of five kilograms)is
enough.这类带数词的名词前还可加一个指示词:
          One short seven days is like seven years.
          That three dollars(= That capital of three dollars)was the beginning of his
career.
          That second six months was happy indeed.
          Every ten minutes is a trial.
          A fortnight is not long enough to do the job.
          This two kilograms of meat is enough for ten persons.
          An estimated two thousand persons was killed in this hurri-cane.
          A good ten miles is the distance we have climbed.
          A happy three days has passed like a dream.
          Such a weary six years was to me a terrible dream.
          Ten apples(= Such a number of apples)is enough.
          Two thousand immigrants is the quota for us this year.
          如对组成部分加以强调,动词也可用复数形式:
          Fifty dollars are too expensive.
          Three yards cost thirty dollars.
          书名、电影名等,即使里面包含有复数名词,也作单数看待:
          Gulliver's Travels is my favourite book.
          City lights is a famous movie.
          Giants of the Earth is an opera.
          The Canterbury Tales is(or are)very interesting.
          复数的专有名词都在后跟复数动词:
          The Philippines have seven thousand islands in the Pacific.The Himalayas
are the roof of the world.
          The Niagara Falls are the falls on the Niagara River.
          The Great Lakes are a series of five lakes between the USA and Canada.
          The Dardonelles are a strait 40 miles long and 1—4 miles wide.
          The Pleiades are a cluster of stars in the constellation Taurus.
          The Olympics are an international athletic competition held ev-ery four
years.
          其他复数专有名词还有:the Canaries,the Solomon Islands;the Alps,the Rockies,the
Urals,the Pyrenees,the Andes;the Graces,the Fates;the Netherlands
          少数例外情况:
          The USA is a wealthy and strong country.
          The United Nations is an international organization working for the peace
of the world.
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