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发表于 2018-6-30 18:16:15 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



          The Senegal national football team has attracted worldwide attention in
Russia in the past few days and it wasn’t just because they’ve had the only win,
so far, for an African nation at the World Cup – a 2-1 victory over Poland in
Group H. Their manager, Aliou Cisse, is the only black person in charge of any
of the 32 nations taking part in the tournament, despite the prevalence of black
Aliou Cisse,施斯)是32支参赛球队里唯一一名黑人主教练。
          “I am the only black coach in this World Cup. That is true, but really
these are debates that disturb me,” Cisse told reporters. “I think that football
is a universal sport and that the colour of your skin is of very little
          Cisse’s uniqueness made headlines, but it is far from an exception in the
history of the tournament. It is actually the rule.
          Expansion of teams, not places
          Black managers are a rare sight in World Cups. Even the expansion of the
tournament from 24 to 32 teams has not helped.
          At France 1998, the first of the larger World Cups, there were no black
coaches, despite an increase in the number of teams from countries with a
majority black population – African nations, for example, went from three to
five spots.
          Since then, only seven black professionals have had a chance to lead a
campaign. Even the 2010 tournament, hosted by South Africa in a major victory
for football on the continent, had a 32-0 score in the dugout.
          “We can play, but not lead. Maybe the black man is only made to execute,”
Florent Ibenge, the Democratic Republic of Congo coach told news agency AFP in a
damning assessment of opportunities.
          Ibenge, who is still in charge and won the 2016 Africa Cup of Nations, was
also referring to the fact that African countries have a tradition of employing
white managers, usually seasoned European or South American professionals.
          Unconscious bias
          Dutch journalist and writer Simon Kuper, co-author of football book
‘Soccernomics’, argues that the situation is also influenced by unconscious
          “When clubs and football associations hire coaches they are also thinking
of PR. They are worried about how the manager will be received, so they go for
someone who ‘looks like a manager’ in the end,” Kuper reckons.
          “And that means a white man, 40 to 60 years old, and with an alpha male
mentality. They play safe, because if clubs or associations go outside the
template they will face criticism if results don’t go their way.”
          In the book, Simon and co-author Stefan Szymanski present findings showing
that managers are much less influential in winning matches than conventional
wisdom presumes.
          在书中,库珀与合著者西曼斯基(Stefan Szymanski)发现,教练对赢球的影响远低于传统观点。
          “Cisse did not win the match for Senegal. The players are responsible for
95% of victories. But the manager is the face of the team. Public and media
interact with the manager and see him in press conferences. Instead of colour we
should also be talking about gender. Because maybe a black woman could be a
great manager.”
          New generation
          “But people would laugh if this ever happened. It is a crazy bias, but more
unconscious. A striker is never chosen for PR reasons, but the coach or manager
is. Sadly, football is not an industry that does a lot reflection. This
situation would not stand in other fields,” Kuper says.
          Cisse would be excused for dodging controversy when asked about the matter
during a World Cup. But the Senegal coach addressed the issue on the eve of the
country’s match against Poland.
          “Football is a universal sport and I represent a new generation that would
like to have its place in African and world football. Beyond being good players,
we [Africans] are very good in our tactics and we have the right to be part of
the top international matches.”

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