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哈佛科学家:做到这五点可延寿10年

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发表于 2018-6-30 18:16:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Want to live 10 years longer? You may have to revamp your lifestyle.
          想多活10年?那你可能需要改变一下自己的生活方式。
          There are five habits that, when done together, could add more than a
decade to your life expectancy, according to a study released Monday by the
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The good news: 10 years is a lot of
extra time. The bad news: You’ll have to cut out junk food and being a couch
potato.
          哈佛陈曾熙公共卫生学院(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public
Health)5月份发布的一份研究显示,一个人若能养成并长期保持五个生活习惯,其寿命预期将增加10年不止。好消息是,多10年真的多出不少时间。坏消息是,你得戒掉垃圾食品,不能再做沙发土豆。
          Here’s what the study recommends you do:
          以下是来自该研究报告的建议:
          Eat a healthy diet
          坚持健康饮食
          Exercise 30 minutes or more a day
          每天至少锻炼30分钟
          Maintain a healthy weight (Specifically, a body mass index between 18.5 and
24.9 - you can find yours here.)
          保持健康体重(将体重指数BMI控制在18.5-24.9之间,BMI=体重(kg)/身高的平方(m2))
          Don’t drink too much alcohol (No more than one 5 oz. glass of wine per day
for women, and two glasses for men)
          饮酒要适量(女性每天不超过一杯葡萄酒(5盎司,约为142毫升),男性不超过两杯)
          .Don’t smoke (ever)
          (永不)不抽烟
          Men and women who followed the healthiest of lifestyles were 82% less
likely to die from cardiovascular disease and 65% less likely to die from cancer
compared with people who lived unhealthy lifestyles over the course of 30 years,
according to the study, published online in the journal Circulation.
          那份发表在美国心脏协会医学期刊《循环》(Circulation)网站上的研究显示,相比那些以不健康的生活方式过了30年的人,遵循健康生活方式的人死于心血管疾病的几率要低82%,死于癌症的几率低65%。
          The researchers analyzed 34 years of data from more than 78,000 women and
27 years of data from more than 44,000 men. The researchers estimated the women
who adopted these five habits would see 14 more years of life, and men would add
12 years.
          研究人员对超过7.8万名女性持续34年的习惯数据和超过4.4万名男性持续27年的习惯数据分别进行了分析。据研究人员估计,女性养成这五个好习惯,寿命可增加14年,男性可增加12年。
          The healthy habits that the Harvard researchers pinpointed may sound
obvious, but they’re not easy to adopt. For starters, that recommended BMI might
be difficult for many Americans. The average BMI for the average American man is
28.6, up from 25.1 in the early 1960s. Anything over 24.9 is considered
overweight and a BMI over 30 is regarded as obese.
          哈佛研究人员指出的这些健康习惯看似并无新奇之处,但要内化成自己的生活方式也着实不易。以BMI推荐值为例,很多美国人可能就难以达到。美国男性的平均BMI目前是28.6,高于上世纪60年代初的25.1。超过24.9属于超重,超过30属于肥胖。
          There are a few ways to slowly make them a part of your life however,
according to the National Institutes of Health. Become aware of your bad habits,
whether they’re dipping into the office vending machine at 3 p.m. or staying out
late and giving the gym a miss the next morning.
          不过,美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of
Health)称,有几个办法可以帮你养成这些习惯,并使之慢慢成为你生活的一部分。同时要警惕坏习惯,不要在下午3点跑到办公室的自动售货机前买买买,也不要熬夜不睡,错过第二天早上的健身房锻炼。
            
            
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发表于 2018-6-30 18:41:10 | 显示全部楼层

          Also, don’t do it alone. Ask friends and family to try these healthy
challenges with you. The National Institutes of Health also suggests looking
ahead and imagining how you’ll feel when you accomplish your goals. “You’re
never too out of shape, too overweight, or too old to make healthy changes,” the
organization’s monthly newsletter suggests.
          还有,不要一个人闷头坚持。让家人和朋友与你一同接受挑战。美国国立卫生研究院建议人们向前看,想象自己完成目标后的感觉。该研究院的内部通讯月刊中提到,“永远不要认为自己身材太差、体重太重或年龄太大的情况已无可救药。”
          There are other factors to consider if you want to add years to your life
or, at the very least, not shorten it. Along with exercising and eating
nutritious meals, people need to have active social lives and get enough sleep,
studies suggest. More than 40% of adults in the U.S. suffer from loneliness,
which is linked to depression, dementia, anxiety and cardiovascular diseases.
Insufficient sleep also lead to hypertension, diabetes and obesity.
          想要延长(或至少不要缩短)自己的生命旅程,还需考虑其他一些因素。研究显示,除锻炼身体和健康饮食外,人们还要积极参加社交活动,保证充足的睡眠。在美国,超过40%的成年人备尝孤寂之苦,而孤单寂寞可能诱发抑郁、痴呆、焦虑和心血管疾病。睡眠不足还可能引发高血压、糖尿病和肥胖症。
          Take into consideration what happens when you do the opposite of the
Harvard study’s recommended habits:
          如果你现在的生活习惯和哈佛研究报告的建议相反,不妨看看你的坏习惯会导致哪些后果:
          .Poor diet leads to one in five deaths, according to a study by researchers
at the University of Washington and published by the journal Lancet. A poor diet
can also cause high blood pressure and diabetes, which are linked to eating the
wrong foods. (The right diet, the study found, is one that incorporates whole
grains, fruit, nuts and seeds).
          华盛顿大学研究人员撰写的一份发表于《柳叶刀》(Lancet)的研究论文显示,每五个死亡案例中,就有一例是因为饮食不良导致的。此外,不良饮食还可能引发高血压和糖尿病,这两种疾病的发生都和糟糕的食物有关。(研究发现,合理的饮食应包括全谷物、水果、坚果和种子。)
          .Not exercising also leads to high blood pressure and diabetes, and people
who are physically inactive are more likely to develop anxiety, depression,
coronary heart disease and even cancer, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine.
          不锻炼也可能引发高血压和糖尿病。约翰霍普金斯医疗集团(Johns Hopkins
Medicine)称,身体不爱动的人容易焦虑、抑郁、得冠心病甚至是癌症。
          Falling below or above your proper BMI isn’t safe. Being underweight, where
your BMI is below average, signals malnutrition and increases the risk of
osteoporosis, a decreased immune function and fertility issues, according to
Healthline. Having a higher BMI or having obesity causes chronic health
conditions, such as asthma and bone problems.
          BMI水平低于或高于推荐值都不安全。美国医疗健康信息平台Healthline称,如果你的BMI低于平均水平,说明你体重过轻,而这不仅预示着你身体营养不良,患骨质疏松的风险会增加,还涉及免疫功能减退和生育问题。BMI过高或肥胖则会引发哮喘和骨骼疾病等慢性病。
          Overindulging in alcohol can lead to cancer, even a light intake, according
to the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
          美国临床肿瘤协会(American Society of Clinical Oncology)称,不仅过度饮酒会致癌,小酌亦会如此。
          .Smoking has killed more than one in 10 people worldwide, according to a
study published in Lancet - 11.5% of global deaths were attributed to
smoking.
          《柳叶刀》上刊登的一份研究显示,全球11.5%的死亡都是吸烟所致。也就是说,全世界每10个人离世,就有超过一人是被吸烟害死的。
          Given all that, those 5 good habits may not seem so bad, after all.
          这样看来,还是应该坚持那五个好习惯。
            
            
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