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发表于 2018-5-12 10:13:08 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Small amounts of exercise could have an outsize effect on happiness.
          According to a new review of research about good moods and physical
activity, people who work out even once a week or for as little as 10 minutes a
day tend to be more cheerful than those who never exercise. And any type of
exercise may be helpful.
          The idea that moving can affect our moods is not new. Many of us would
probably say that we feel less cranky or more relaxed after a jog or visit to
the gym.
          Science would generally agree with us. A number of past studies have noted
that physically active people have much lower risks of developing depression and
anxiety than people who rarely move.
          But that research centered on the relationships between exercise and
psychological problems like depression and anxiety. Fewer past studies explored
links between physical activity and upbeat emotions, especially in people who
already were psychologically healthy, and those studies often looked at a single
age group or type of exercise.
          On their own, they do not tell us much about the amounts or types of
exercise that might best lift our moods, or whether most of us might expect to
find greater happiness with regular exercise or only certain groups of
          So for the new review, in The Journal of Happiness Studies, researchers at
the University of Michigan decided to aggregate and analyze multiple past
studies of working out and happiness.
          因此,在《幸福研究期刊》(Journal of Happiness Studies)上的这篇新综述里,密歇根大学(University of
          They began by combing research databases for relevant studies and wound up
with 23 published since 1980. Most of those were observational, meaning that the
scientists simply looked at a group of people, asking them how much they worked
out and how happy they were. A few of the studies were experiments in which
people started exercising and researchers measured their happiness before and
          The number of participants in any one study was often small, but together,
they represented more than 500,000 people ranging in age from adolescents to the
very old and covering a broad range of ethnic and socioeconomic groups.
          And for most of them, the Michigan researchers found, exercise was strongly
linked to happiness.
          “Every one of the observational studies showed a beneficial relationship
between being physically active and being happy,” says Weiyun Chen, an associate
professor of kinesiology at the University of Michigan, who, with her graduate
student Zhanjia Zhang, wrote the review.
          “每一个观察性研究都表现了身体活跃和快乐之间的正向联系,”密歇根大学(University of
          The type of exercise did not seem to matter. Some happy people walked or
jogged. Others practiced yoga-style posing and stretching.
          And the amount of exercise needed to influence happiness was slight, Dr.
Chen says. In several studies, people who worked out only once or twice a week
said they felt much happier than those who never exercised. In other studies, 10
minutes a day of physical activity was linked with buoyant moods.
          But more movement generally contributed to greater happiness. If people
exercised for at least 30 minutes on most days, which is the standard American
and European recommendation for good health, Dr. Chen says, they were about 30
percent more likely to consider themselves happy than people who did not meet
the guidelines.
          “I think the indications are strong that exercise can contribute to
happiness and, while anything helps, a bit more is probably better,” she
          But because most of the studies in this review were observational, she
says, it is not possible yet to establish whether exercise directly causes
changes in happiness or if the two just happen to occur together often. It could
be that happy people are more likely to take up exercise and continue with it
than people who feel sad. In that case, exercise would not have helped to make
people happy; rather, their happiness would have helped to make them
          Happiness also is an inherently subjective, squishy concept. The studies
analyzed in the review asked people how happy they felt. But one person’s
happiness could be another’s relative gloom, making it difficult to generalize
about how any of us might react, emotionally, to starting an exercise
          And, of course, the review did not delve into how exercise could be
influencing happiness.

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