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2018年6月英语四级阅读200篇第43篇:人工心脏

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发表于 2018-2-7 22:02:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Just seven years ago, the Jarvik-7 artificial heart was being cheered as
the model of human creativeness. The sight of Barney Clark-alive and conscious
after trading his diseased heart for a metal-and-plastic pump-convinced the
press, the public and many doctors that the future had arrived. It hadn’t. After
monitoring production of the Jarvik-7, and reviewing its effects on the 150 or
so patients (most of whom got the device as a temporary measure) the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration concluded that the machine was doing more to endanger
lives than to save them. Last week the agency cancelled its earlier approval,
effectively banning (禁止) the device.
          The recall may hurt Symbion Inc., maker of the Jarvik-7, but it won’t end
the request for an artificial heart. One problem with the banned mode is that
the tubes connecting it to an external power source createda passage for
infection. Inventors are now working on new devices that would be fully placed,
along with atiny power pack, in the patient’s chest. The first sample products
aren’t expected for another 10 or 20 years. But some people are already worrying
that they’ll work—and that America’s overextended health—care programs will lose
a precious $2.5 billion to $5 billion a year providing them for a relatively few
dying patients. If such expenditures (开支) cut into funding for more basic care,
the net effect could actually be a decline in the nation’s health.
          练习题:
          Choose correct answers to the question:
          1. According to the passage, the Jarvik-7 artificial heart proved to be
_____.
          A. a technical failure
          B. a technical wonder
          C. a good life-saver
          D. an effective means to treat heart disease
          2. From the passage we know that Symbion Inc. _____.
          A. has been banned by the government from producing artificial hearts
          B. will review the effects of artificial hearts before designing new
models
          C. may continue to work on new models of reliable artificial hearts
          D. can make new models of artificial hearts available on the market in 10
to 20 years
          3. The new models of artificial hearts are expected ______.
          A. to have a working life of 10 or 20 years
          B. to be set fully in the patient's chest
          C. to be equipped with an external power source
          D. to create a new passage for infection
          4. The word "them" in Line 7, Para. 2 refers to _____.
          A. doctors who treat heart diseases
          B. makers of artificial hearts
          C. America's health-care programs
          D. New model of artificial hearts
          5. Some people feel that ______.
          A. artificial hearts are seldom effective
          B. the country should not spend so much money on artificial hearts
          C. the country is not spending enough money on artificial hearts
          D. America's health-care programs are not doing enough for the nation's
health
          1.[A]
文章一开头说Jarvik-7以前被认为是一大技术成就,但文章第1段倒数第2句中提到,美国食品与药品管理局得出结论,认为这种仪器与其说是挽救生命,不如说是将生命置于更加危险的境地。由此可知Jarvik-7是一个技术失败,故选A。
          2.[C]
文章第2段第1句提到,要求生产人造心脏的Symbion公司召回其销售的人造心脏,这对该公来说或许是一种损失,但这一禁令不会终结人们对人造心脏的需求。从这一句可推断出应选C。原文只提到政府禁止Jarvik-7这种型号的人造心脏,A把范围扩大到了所有的人造心脏;B在原文中并未提及;D说的对象不是Symbion公司,也可排除。
          3.[B]
文章中第2段第3句提到,这种新仪器可以完全置于患者的胸腔内,B与之相符,故选B。A在文中并未提及;C、D说的对象是Jarvik-7,故也排除。
          4.[D] 从句子意思看,“向为数不多的瀕危病人提供” 的显然是上一句中的sample products,即可与电源组一并植于人体内的new
devices,故选D。
          5.[B] 第2段倒数第2句But some people are already
worrying…这句话体现了有些人已经在担心,为为数不多的垂危病人动用巨额资金购置新型的人造心脏是否合算,而由该段最后一句可以看出作者认为这样的做法是不明智的,因此B是答案。
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