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2018年6月英语四级阅读200篇第41篇:海洋学的历史

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发表于 2018-2-7 22:02:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Oceanography has been defined as “The application of all sciences to the
study of the sea”.
          Before the nineteen century, scientists with an interest in the sea were
few and far between. Certainly Newton considered some theoretical aspects of it
in his writings, but he was reluctant to go to sea to further his work.
          For most people the sea was remote, and with the exception of early
intercontinental travelers or others who earned a living from the sea, there was
little reason to ask many questions about it, let alone to ask what lay beneath
the surface. The first time that question “What is at the bottom of the oceans?”
had tobe answered with any commercial consequence was when the laying of a
telegraph cable from Europe to America was proposed. The had to know the depth
profile(起伏形状)of the route to estimate the length of cable that had to be
manufactured.mote, and with the exception of early intercontinental travelers or
others who earned a living from the sea, there was little reason to ask many
questions about it, let alone to ask whatlay beneath the surface. The first time
that question “What is at the bottom of the oceans?” had to be answered with any
commercial consequence was when the laying of a telegraph cable from Europe to
America was proposed. The engineers had to know the depth profile(起伏形状)of the
route to estimate the length of cable that had to be manufactured.
          It was to Maury of the US Navy that the Atlantic Telegraph Company turned,
in 1853, for information on this matter. In the 1840s, Maury had been
responsible for encouraging voyages during which soundings(测身) were taken to
investigate the depths of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Later, some of
his findings aroused much popular interest in his book The Physical Geography of
the Sea.
          The cable was laid, but not until 1866 was the connection made permanent
and reliable. At the early attempts, the cable failed and when it was taken out
for repairs it was found to be covered in living growths, afact which defied
contemporary scientific opinion that there was no life in the deeper parts of
the sea.
          Within a few years oceanography was under way. In 1872 Thomson led a
scientific expedition(考察), which lasted for four years and brought home
thousands of samples from the sea. Their classification and analysis occupied
scientists for years and led to a five-volume report, the last volume being
published in 1895.
          练习题:
          Choose correct answers to the question:
          1. The proposal to lay a telegraph cable from Europe to America made
oceanographic studies take on ______.
          A. an academic aspect
          B. a military aspect
          C. a business aspect
          D. an international aspect
          2. It was ______ that asked Maury for help in oceanographic studies.
          A. the American Navy
          B. some early intercontinental travelers
          C. those who earned a living from the sea
          D. the company which proposed to lay an undersea cable
          3. The aim of the voyages Maury was responsible for in the 1840s was
______.
          A. to make some sounding experiments in the oceans
          B. to collect samples of sea plants and animals
          C. to estimate the length of cable that was needed
          D. to measure the depths of the two oceans
          4. “Defied” in the 5th paragraph probably means “______”.
          A. doubted
          B. gave proof to
          C. challenged
          D. agreed to
          5. This passage is mainly about ______.
          A. the beginnings of oceanography
          B. the laying of the first undersea cable
          C. the investigation of ocean depths
          D. the early intercontinental communications
          1.[C] 亊实判断题。文章第3段第2句提到,这个问題的解答是具有商业结果的。C中的business为原文中commercial
同义改写,故选C。
          2.[D]
细节题。文章第4段首句为一个强调句,强调的是宾语。题干也是一个强调句型,但强调的是主语。如果把原文的强调句型改为一般的句型,就知道向Maury寻求帮助的是the
Atlantic Telegraph
Company.故答案为D。A是Maury的工作单位,可以排除;原文只提到对于一些早期的穿越洲际的旅行家和依靠海洋维持生计的人,海洋并不遥远,故B、C与题意不符。
          3.[D] 亊实判断题。文章第4段提到,19世纪40年代,Maury负责推动进行测深工作的海上航行,以此来探测北大西洋与太平洋的深度.故选D。
          4.[C]
词义推断题。当时的科学观点是海洋较深的地方不存在生命,而事实上在电缆表面发现了活的生物.由此可知这一亊实对当时的科学观点提出质疑,故答案为C。
          5.[A] 主旨题。通读全文可知,oceanography(海洋学)是全文的中心词,本文主要讲述海洋学是如何起步的,故答案为A
。B、C只表述了原文中个別细节,并非主题;D跟全文无关。
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