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双语:我国进入流感高发期 做好预防很重要

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发表于 2018-1-13 13:30:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  国家卫计委发布的信息称,近期我国南北方均已进入流感冬季流行病高发期,门诊、急诊流感病例高于过去3年同期水平,流感病毒检测阳性率已达往年高峰水平,并且仍在呈上升趋势。
          A child with the flu is given an intravenous drip at the First Hospital of
Hebei Medical University in Shijiazhuang, Hebei province, on Friday. Hospitals
in many parts of China have seen a rising number of people seeking treatment for
cold. [Photo/China News Services]
          Flu outbreaks are up across China compared with previous years, but the
epidemic remains at normal levels and is much less severe than the SARS
outbreak, said He Xiong, deputy director of the Beijing Center for Disease
Control and Prevention.
          北京市疾病预防控制中心副主任贺雄表示,全国范围内流感爆发的病例数量与往年相比有所增加,但是疫情仍在正常水平,其严重程度与SARS相去甚远。
          季节性流感病毒(seasonal influenza virus)分为甲型(Influenza A viruses)和乙型(Influenza B
viruses),其中甲型分为甲1型(H1N1)和甲3型(H3N2),乙型分为B/Yamagata(BY))和B/Victoria系(BV)。根据国家卫计委信息显示,目前我国三种型别的流感病毒同时流行,包括H1N1、H3N2和乙型BY系,以乙型BY系为主。
          据世界卫生组织官网的介绍,季节性流感是一种急性病毒感染(an acute viral infection),很容易在人与人之间传播。
          季节性流感的症状有:
          a sudden onset of fever, cough (usually dry), headache, muscle and joint
pain, severe malaise (feeling unwell), sore throat and a runny nose. The cough
can be severe and can last 2 or more weeks. Most people recover from fever and
other symptoms within a week without requiring medical attention.
          突发高热,咳嗽(通常是干咳),头痛,肌肉和关节痛,严重身体不适(感觉不适),咽痛和流鼻涕。咳嗽可以很严重,可持续两周或两周以上。多数人在一周内康复,发热和其它症状消失,无需就医。
          各类人群均有可能感染流感病毒,但是以下这些高危人群感染病毒以后病情加重或发生并发症的风险更高(at greater risk of severe
disease or complications when infected):
          pregnant women, children under 59 months, the elderly, individuals with
chronic medical conditions (such as chronic cardiac, pulmonary, renal,
metabolic, neurodevelopmental, liver or hematologic diseases) and individuals
with immunosuppressive conditions (such as HIV/AIDS, receiving chemotherapy or
steroids, or malignancy).
          孕妇、5岁以下儿童、老年人、慢性病患者(比如,慢性心脏病、肺病、肾病、代谢疾病、神经发育疾病、肝病或者血液病)以及抑制免疫类疾病患者(比如,艾滋病患者、化疗病人或服用类固醇的患者、恶性肿瘤患者)。
          此外,每天接触大量患者的医务人员(health care workers)也是感染流感病毒的高危人群。
          疾控专家表示,当前的季节性流感与SARS在病原(pathogen)、传播力(transmissibility)、致死力(lethality)方面都有所不同,“今年乙型流感堪比SARS”的说法并不靠谱。
          如何防控流感
          世界卫生组织官网表示,预防流感最有效的方式就是接种疫苗(vaccination),感染病毒以后要根据实际情况考虑进行抗病毒治疗(antiviral
treatment)。
          日常的个人防护措施(personal protective measures)包括:
          Regular hand washing with proper drying of the hands
          多洗手并注意擦干
          Good respiratory hygiene – covering mouth and nose when coughing or
sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them correctly
          注意呼吸系统卫生——咳嗽或打喷嚏时遮掩口鼻,用过的纸巾要妥善处理
          Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other
symptoms of influenza
          出现身体不适或发烧等流感症状时尽早进行自我隔离
          Avoiding close contact with sick people
          避免与感染流感患者密切接触
          Avoiding touching one’s eyes, nose or mouth
          避免接触眼口鼻
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