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2017年6月英语六级阅读理解练习题:可再生能源

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发表于 2017-6-12 21:37:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Renewable Energy
          In the past century,it has been seen that the consumption of non-renewable
sources of energy has caused more environmental damage than any other human
activity. Electricity generated from fossil fuels such as coal and crude oil has
led to high concentrations of harmful gases in the atmosphere.This has in turn
led to many problems being faced today such as ozone depletion and global
warming. Vehicular pollution has also been a major problem.
          Therefore,alternative sources of energy have become very important and
relevant to today's world.These sources,such as the sun and wind,can never be
exhausted and therefore arc called renewable.They cause less emission and are
available locally.Their use can. to a large extent,reduce chemical,radioactive,
and thermalpollution. They stand out as a viable source of clean and limitless
energy.These are also known as non-conventional sources of energy.Most of the
renewable sources of energy are fairfy non-polluting and considered clean though
biomass,a renewable source,is a major polluter indoors.
          Solar Energy
          Solar energy is the most readily available source of energy.It does not
belong to anybody and is,therefore,free.It is also the most important of the
non-conventional sources of energy because it is non-polluting
and,therefore.helps in lessening the greenhouse effect.
          Solar energy has been used since prehistoric times.but in a most primitive
manner.Before 1970,some research and development was carried out in a few
countries to exploit solar energy more efficiently,but most of this work
remained mainly academic.After the dramatic rise in oil prices in the
1970s,several countries began to formulate extensive research and development
programmes to exploit solar energy.
          When we hang out our clothes to dry in the sun,we use the energy of the
sun.In the same way, solar panels absorb the energy of the sun to provide heat
for cooking and for heating water.Such systems are available in the market and
are being used in homes and factories.
          Solar energy can also be ursed to meet our electricity requirements.Through
Solar Photovoltaic(SPV)cells,solar radiation gets converted into DC electricity
directly.This electricity can either be used as it is orcan be stored in the
battery.This stored electrical energy then can be used ac night.
          Hydro Power
          Hydro power is one of the best,cheapest,and cleanest source of
energy,although,with big dams,there are many environmental and social
problems.Small dams are,however,free from these problems.This is in fact one
ofthe earliest known renewable energy sources.in the country(since the beginning
of the 20th century).
          In fact,for the last few hundred years,people living in the hills of the
Himalayas have been using water mills.or chakki,to grind wheat.Besides being
free from the problem of pollution.small hydropower plants arealso free from
issues and controversies that are associated with the bigger projects.namely
affecting the lives of thousands of people living along the banks of the
rivers.destruction of large areas under forest.and seismological threats.
          New environmental laws affected by the danger of global warming have made
energy from small hydropower plants more relevant.These small hydropower piants
can serve the energy needs of remote rural areas independently.The real
challenge in a remote area lies in successful marketing of the energy and
recovering the dues.Local industries should be encouraged to use this
electricity for sustainable development.
          It is a technology with enormous potential.which could exploit the water
resources to supply energy to remote rural areas with little access to
conventional energy sources.It also eliminates most of the negative
environmental effects associated with large hydro projects.
          Energy From the Sea-Ocean Thermal,Tidal and Wave Energy
          On an averaige,the 60 million square kilometre of the tropical seas absorb
solar radiation equivalent to the heat content of 245 billion barrels of
oil.Scientists feel that if this energy can be tapped a large source of energy
will be available to the tropical countries and to other countries as well.The
process of harnessing this energy is called OTEC(ocean thermal energy
conversion).It uses the temperature differences between the surface of the ocean
and the depths of about lOOOm to operate a heat engine.which produces electric
power.
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发表于 2017-6-12 22:42:57 | 显示全部楼层

          Energy is also obtained from wavcs and tides.In some countries such as
Japan small scale power generators run by energy from waves of the ocean,have
been used as power sources for channcl marking buoys.
          Biomass
          Biomass is a renewable energy resource derived from the carbonaceous waste
of various human and natural activities.It is derived from numerous
sources,including the by-products from the timber industry.agricultural
crops,raw material from the forest,major parts of household waste and wood.
          Biomass does not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere as it absorbs the
same amount of carbon in growing as it releases when consumed as a fuel. Its
advantage is that it can be used to generate electricity with the same equipment
of power plants that are now burning fossil fuels.Biomass is an important source
of energy and the most important fuel worldwide after coal,oil and natural
gas.
          Traditional use of biomass is more than its use in modern application.In
the developed world biomass is again becoming important for applications such as
combined heat and power generation.In addition,biomass energy is gaining
significance as a source of clean heat for domestic heating and community
heating applications.In fact in countries like Finland.USA and Sweden the per
capita biomass energy used is higher than it is in India.China or in Asia.
          Geothermal Energy
          We live between two great sources of energy,the hot rocks beneath the
surface of the earth and the sun in the sky.Our ancestors knew che value of
geothermal energy;they bathed and cooked in hot springs.Today we have recognized
that this resource has potential for much broader application.
          The core of the earth is very hot and it is possible to make use of this
geothermal energy(in Greek it means heat from the earth).These are areas where
there are volcanoes.hot springs,and geysers,and methane under the water in the
oceans and seas. n some countries,such as in the USA water is pumped from
underground hot water deposits and used to heat people's houses.
          The utilization of geothermal energy for the production of electricity
dates back to the early part of thetwentieth century.For 50 years the generation
of electricity from geothermal energy was confined to Italy and interest in this
technology was slow co spread elsewhere.In 1943 the use of geothermal hot water
was pioneered in lceland.
          Co-generation
          Co-generation is the concept or producing two forms of energy from one
fuel.One of the forms of energy must always be heat and the other may be
electricity or mechanical energy.In a conventional power plant,fuel is burnt in
a boiler to generate high-pressure steam.This steam is used to drive a
turbine.which in turn drives an alternator through a steam turbine to produce
electric power.The exhaust steam is generally condensed to water which goes back
to the boiler.
          As the low-pressure steam has a large quantum of heat which is lost in the
process of condensing,the efficiency of conventional power plants is only around
35%.In a cogeneration plant,very high efficiency levels,in the range of
75%-90%,can be reached.This is so,because the low-pressure exhaust steam coming
out of th turbine is not condensed,but used for heating purposes in factories or
houses.
          Since co-generation can meet both power and heat needs, it has otber
advantages as well in the form of significant cost savings for the plant and
reduction in emissions of pollutants due to reduced fuel consumption.
          1.High concentrations of harmful gases are resulted from______________.
          A) ozone depletion
          B) global warming
          C) the consumption of fossil fuels
          D) serious water and air pollution
          2.The sun and wind are called renewable energy because they
are____________.
          A) natural
          B) inexhaustible
          C) newly-found
          D) clean
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发表于 2017-6-12 23:02:02 | 显示全部楼层

          3.Biomass,though a renewable energy,mainly causes_______________.
          A) indoor pollution
          B) outdoor pollution
          C) industrial pollution
          D) agricultural pollution
          4.In the l970s,some countries began to be concerned about solar energy
because of___________.
          A) economic recession
          B) sharp rise in oil prices
          C) reduced oil production
          D) increased research funds
          5.In the hills of the Himalayas,“chakki”are used for_____________.
          A) purifying water
          B) keeping animals
          C) producing power
          D) exchanging goods
          6.What is recommended to be used by the remote rural areas with little
access to conventionalenergy sources?
          A) Small hydropower plants.
          B) Solar energy heaters.
          C) Wind power mills.
          D) Hot spring thermal energy.
          7.It is mentioned that,between the surface and the depth of the ocean,there
are great differences in_____________.
          A) dissolved substance
          B) natural resource variety
          C) marine life species
          D) water temperature
          8.After coal oil and natural gases,the fourth most important fuel
is_____________.
          9.ICeland was the first counfry that______________.
          10.In the conventional power plants,a large quantum of heat is lost in the
process of condensing______________.
          答案:
          1.[C][定位]根据题干中的high concentrations of harmful gases查找到第1段第2句。
          解析:选项C与题干组成的因果关系与原文该句中的因果关系虽然表述不同,但内容相同,因此选项C为本题答案。选项A和选项B是high
concentrations of harmful gases造成的结果,而非原因,因此不能选。
          2.[B][定位]根据题干中的sun,wind,renewable等词查找到第2段第2句。
          解析:选项B与原文该句中的can never be
exhausted同义,为本题答案。选项A和选项C的内容没有在原文提及,选项D不能与题干构成相应的因果关系。
          3.[A][定位]根据题干中的biomass查找到第2段最后一句。
          解析:原文该句中的a major polluter
indoors表明biomass主要引起室内的污染,选项A表达了与此相同的内容,故为本题答案。
          4.[B][定位]根据题干中的数字1970s查找到第1个小标题Solar Energy下第2段最后一句。
          解析:在四个选项中,只有选项B在原文该句中提及,其他选项都是无中生有。
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发表于 2017-6-13 00:22:56 | 显示全部楼层

          5.[C][定位]根据题干中的大写名词Himalayas和专有名词“chakki”查找到第2个小标题Hydro Power下第2段第1句。
          解析:原文该句以居住在喜马拉雅山的人们为例说明人们很早就开始“利用水力发电”了,因此,本题应选C。
          6.[A][定位]根据题干中的remote rural areas和conventional等词查找到第2个小标题Hydro
Power下第4段首句。
          解析:原文该句中的It指代hydro power,该句还是围绕“水力发电”这一话题,由此可排除B、C和D选项,正确答案为A。
          7.[D][位]根据题干中的surface,depth,ocean等词查找到第3个小标题Energy From the Sea-Ocean
Thermal,Tidal and Wave Energy下首段末句。
          解析:在原文该句中,只有选项D的内容有提及,其他内容均没有原文依据,因此选项D为本题答案。
          8.[biomass]
          [定位]根据题干中的coal,oil,gases和fourth等词查找到笫4个小标题Biomass下第2段末句。
          解析:空白处应为名词词组。题目只是将原文的主语和表语的位置倒转,由此可见,原文中的主语biomass为本题答案。
          9.[used geothermal hot water]
          [定位]根据题干中的专有名词Iceland查找到第5个小标题Geothermal Energy下末段末句。
          解析:空白处应为定语从句的谓宾部分。原文该句中的pioneered表明冰岛是首个使用地热温泉的地方,在回答问题的时候,注意that后应该是定语从句的谓语,由于事情发生在l943年,该谓语动词应为过去式。
          10.[the low-pressure steam]
          [定位]根据题干中的conventional power plants和quantum of
heat等词查找到最后一个小标题Co-generation下第2段首句。
          解析:空白处应为名词词组。在原文该句中,condensing后面并没有带任何宾语,但该段末句中的the low-pressure... is not
condensed提示了首句中condensing的宾语应该是该句开头的the low-pressure steam,这也就是本题答案。
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发表于 2017-6-13 01:58:38 | 显示全部楼层

       
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