英语学习论坛

 找回密码
 立即注册
查看: 120|回复: 1

2017年6月大学英语四级考试CET4考前冲刺模拟预测试卷及答案解析一

[复制链接]

1

主题

3

帖子

397

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
397
发表于 2017-6-6 14:57:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

大学英语四级考试考前冲刺试卷(一)


Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)


    Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Stopping or Going-on. You should start your essay with a brief description of the picture and give your comments. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180    words.
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1 上作答。


 

PartⅡ Listening  Comprehension (25 minutes)


    Section A
    Directions: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the  four  choices  marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1 上作答。
    Questions 1 and 2 will be based on the following news item.
    1.A) Alcohol abuse. B) Smoking.
    C) Depression. D) Schizophrenia.
    2.A) To prevent patients from smoking.
    B) To better understand patients.
    C) To get patients occupied.
    D) To teach patients some skills.
    Questions 3 and 4 will be based on the following news item.
    3.A) There were important space missions.
    B) The space agency lacked funding for the program.
    C) The current shuttle missions would continue.
    D) Congress failed to pass President Obama’s budget.
    4.A) To set up a moon colony by 2020.
    B) To send astronauts again to the moon by 2020.
    C) To continue the current shuttle missions till 2020.
    D) To create more jobs for NASA till 2020.
    Questions 5 to 7 will be based on the following news item.
    5.A) Foreign investment.
    B) Donor support.
    C) Price control.
    D) Bank prediction.
    6.A) 20 million percent.
    B) 2.2 million percent.
    C) 11.2 million percent.
    D) Over 11.2 million percent.
    7.A) Tougher times will wait for Zimbabwe.
    B) The inflation situation will be eased.
    C) The future of the inflation is not clear.
    D) It was not mentioned in the news.
    Section B
    Directions: In  this  section,  you  will  hear  two  long  conversations.  At  the  end  of  each  conversation,  you  will  hear  four  questions.  Both  the  conversation  and  the  questions  will  be  spoken  only once.  After  you  hear  a  question,  you  must  choose  the  best  answer  from  the  four  choices  marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。
    Conversation One
    Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
    8.A) At home. B) In the office.
    C) In a computer store. D) In a bar.
    9.A) Chicago. B) Hong Kong.
    C) San Francisco. D) Illinois.
    10.A) Stay at home.
    B) Attend a computer course.
    C) Celebrate his mother’s birthday. D) Go to San Francisco.
    11. A) World Wide Web is the Internet.
    B) The first thing the man did when he got up was to turn on the computer.
    C) Today is the birthday of the man’s mother.
    D) The woman is not good at computer.
    Conversation Two
    Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
    12.A) How to deal with the aggravating people.
    B) How to deal with bosses.
    C) How to manage the subordinates.
    D) How to change yourself.
    13.A) In the office.
    B) At home.
    C) In a library.
    D) In a book store.
    14.A) It is easier to change others than change yourself.
    B) What is a most common annoying type of boss like.
    C) How to keep a relationship with your co-workers.
    D) Stop complain and do something.
    15.A) She is interested in this book.
    B) She is the author of this book.
    C) She is an expert in this field.
    D) She is a great boss.
    Section C
    Directions: In this section, you will hear three short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you
    hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C)   and
    D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1 上作答。
    Passage One
    Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
    16.A) Vanilla.
    B) Chocolate or syrup.
    C) Food.
    D) Nuts, fruit and whipped cream.
    17.A) Nobody knows.
    B) One Sunday in the 1890s.
    C) In the 1890s.
    D) In the 1980s.
    18. A) Sunday.
    B) The name of the customer.
    C) The name of the owner.
    D) The name of the ice-cream parlor.
    Passage Two
    Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
    19.A) American’s art music.
    B) American’s street music.
    C) American’s black music.
    D) American’s classic music.
    20.A) Harmony and melody are from Africa and rhythm from Europe.
    B) Harmony and melody are from Europe and rhythm from Africa.
    C) Harmony and rhythm are from Africa and melody from Europe.
    D) Melody and rhythm are from Europe and harmony from Africa.
    21.A) The player invents the music in advance.
    B) The player makes up the music while playing.
    C) A good jazz player plays the same music twice.
    D) It’s like hearing a piece of music that was written long ago.
    Passage Three
    Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
    22.A) The role of Florida in the American Revolution.
    B) The discovery of Florida by Ponce de Leon in 1513. C) The history of the cultivation of oranges in Florida.
    D) The popularity of Florida oranges in London in the 1770’s.
    23. A) London. B) St. Augustine. C) The Antilles. D) New York.
    24. A) Jesse Fish. B) Ponce de Leon.
    C) Columbus. D) British sailors.
    25.A) Because oranges tended to dry out during shipping.
    B) Because Florida oranges were very small.
    C) Because there was no great demand for oranges in Europe.
    D) Because oranges were plentiful in their home country.

Part Ⅲ Reading  Comprehension (40 minutes)


    Section A
    Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the blank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
    Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.
    It has been said that everyone lives by selling something. In the light of this statement, teachers live by selling  _26_ , philosophers by selling wisdom and priests by selling  _27_  comfort. Though it may be possible to measure the value of _28_ good in terms of money, it is extremely difficult to estimate the true value of the services which people perform for us. There are times when we would _29_ give everything we possess to save our lives, yet we might grudge paying a surgeon a high fee for offering us precisely this service. The conditions of society are such that _30_ have to be paid  for in the same way that goods are paid for at a shop. Everyone has something to sell.
    Tramps (流浪汉) seem to be the only  _31_  to this general rule. Beggars almost sell themselves as human being to _32_ the pity of passers-by. But real tramps are not beggars. They have nothing to sell and require nothing from others. In seeking independence, they do not _33_ their human  dignity. A tramp may ask you for money, but he will never ask you to feel sorry for him. We often speak of tramps with _34_ and put them in the same class as beggars, but how many of us can honestly say that we have not felt a little  _35_  of their simple way of life and their freedom from care?
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。


    Section B
    Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
    Want to Know Your Disease Risk? Check Your Exposome
    A) When it comes to health, which is more important, nature or nurture? You may well think your genes are a more important predictor of health and ill health. Not so fast. In fact, it transpires(得知)that our everyday environment outweighs our genetics, when it comes to measuring our risk of disease. The genome  (染色体组,基因组)is out—welcome the exposome  (环境暴露).
    B) “The exposome represents everything a person is exposed to in the environment, that’s not in the genes,”says  Stephen  Rappaport,  environmental  health  scientist  at  the  University  of  California, Berkeley. That includes stress, diet, lifestyle choices, recreational and medicinal drug use and in- fections, to name a few. “The big difference is that the exposome changes throughout life as our bodies, diets and lifestyles change,”he says. While our understanding of the human genome has been growing at an exponential(迅速发展的) rate over the last decade, it is not as helpful as we hoped in predicting diseases. “Genes only contribute 10 percent to the overall disease burden,” says Rappaport. “Knowing genetic risk factors can prove absolutely futile (无用的),” says Jere- my Nicholson at Imperial College London. He points to work by Nina Paynter at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, who investigated the effects of 101 genetic markers implicat-ed in heart disease. After following over 19,000 women for 12 years, she found these markers were not able to predict anything about the incidence of heart disease in this group.
    C) On the other hand, the impact of environmental influences is still largely a mystery. “There’s an imbalance between our ability to investigate the genome and the environment,” says Chris Wild,director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, who came up with the idea of the exposome. In reality, most diseases are probably caused by a combination of the two, which is where the exposome comes in.   “The idea is to have a comprehensive analysis of a person’s full exposure history,” says Wild. He hopes a better understanding of exposures will shed a brighter light on disease risk factors.
    D) There are likely to be critical periods of exposure in development. For example, the time from birth to 3 years of age is thought to be particularly important.  “We know that this is the time when brain connections are made, and that if you are obese  ( 过 度 肥 胖 的 )by this age, you’ll have problems as an adult,” says Nicholson. In theory, a blood or urine sample taken from an in- dividual could provide a snapshot of what that person has been exposed to. But how do you work out what fingerprints chemicals might leave in the body? The task is not as formidable (艰难的) as it sounds. For a start, researchers could make use of swatches  (样本)of bio-bank information that has already been collected.   “There has been a huge international funding effort in adult co鄄 horts  ( 一 群 )like the UK Bio-bank already,” says Wild.  “If we improved analysis, we could apply it to these groups.”
    E) Several teams are also working towards developing wearable devices to measure personal expo- sure to chemicals in the environment. “We can put chemicals in categories,” says Rappaport. “We could start by prioritizing toxic chemicals, and look for markers of these toxins in  the blood, while hormones and metals can be measured directly.” Rappaport is looking at albumin(白蛋白), a common protein in the blood that transports toxins to the liver where they are pro- cessed and broken down. He wants to know how it reacts with a range of chemicals, and is mea- suring the products. “You can get a fingerprint—a display of all the products an individual has been exposed to.”
    F) By combining this information with an enhanced understanding of how exposure affects health,the exposome could help better predict a person’s true disease risk. And we shouldn’t have to wait long—Rappaport reckons we can reap the benefits within a generation. To this end, the US National Institutes of Health has set up an exposure biology program.   “We’re looking for inter- actions  between  genes  and  exposure  to  work  out  an  individual’s  risk  of  disease,”  says  David Balshaw, who manages the program. “It would allow you to tailor (使合适) the therapeutic re- sponse  to  that  person’s  risk.”  An  understanding  of  this  interaction,  reflected  in  a  person’s metabolic (新陈代谢的) profiles (数据图表), might also help predict how they will respond to a drug. Nicholson has been looking for clues in metabolite profiles of urine samples.
    G) Last year, his research group used these profiles to predict how individuals would metabolise paracetamol (扑热息痛). “It turned out that gut  (肠子) microbes (微生物) were very impor- tant,” says Nicholson. “We’ve shown that the pre-dose urinary metabolite profile could predict the metabolism of painkilling drugs, and therefore predict drug toxicity.” The findings suggest that metabolic profiles of exposure could help doctors tailor therapies and enable them to pre-scribe personalized medicines. Justin Stebbing at Imperial College London has already shown that metabolic profiles of women with breast cancer can predict who will respond to certain ther-apies. It is early days, but the initial findings look promising. “We’re reaching the point where we’re capable of assessing the exposome,” says Balshaw. With the implications for understand- ing disease causes and risks, and a real prospect of developing personalized medicine, the expo- some is showing more promise than the genome already, he adds.
    H) How does air pollution or stress leave a trace in the blood? The US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, is trying to find out. One group funded by the NIH and led by Nongjian Tao at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute in Tempre is developing wearable wireless sensors to monitor an individual’s exposure to environmental pollutants. Tao’s team started by creating software for Windows phones  (视窗话筒), but they are working on apps  (应用程序) that could be used on any smart phone. In theory, anyone could pop on (戴) a sensor and down-load an app to receive real-time information on exposure to environmental pollutants. At the same time, smart phones monitoring your location can combine the level of pollution with an ex- act time and place. Tao presented his sensor at the Circuits and Systems for Medical and Envi- ronmental Applications Workshop in Yucatan Mexico last week.
    I) “We’re now moving  prototypes (原 型, 样 品) into human studies, and progressing those proto-types into products,” says David Balshaw of the NIH. Earlier this year, Tao’s group tried out the sensor on individuals taking a stroll around Los Angeles, California. They were able to measure how exposure to pollutants changed as each person wandered near busy roads and petrol stations.
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。
    36. Theoretically speaking, we can know what one has been exposed to from his blood samples.
    37. Chris Wild put forward the conception of exposome.
    38. Rappaport has confidence in the realization of exposome’s helping better predict people’s true disease risk.
    39. Jeremy Nicholson said, knowing genetic risk factors of health turned out to be completely use- less.
    40. When measuring the risk of disease, one should consider the influence of exposome first.
    41. The albumin in our blood plays the role of conveying toxins to the liver.
    42. The metabolic profiles of individuals can reflect the interaction between genes and exposure.
    43. According to the findings of Nicholson’s research group, doctors can give a prescription of per- sonalized medicines with the help of metabolic profiles of exposure.
    44. Nicholson says that one’s period from birth to the age of three is a period that forms his brain connections.
    45. The wearable wireless sensors being developed by Tao’s research group are used to detect the exposure to environmental pollutants of individuals.
    Section C
    Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the  centre.
    Passage One
    Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
    Man is endlessly inventive. But his greatest invention is non-invention, the skill of transmitting intact (完美无损的) and unchanged from one generation to the next the fundamental ways of doing things which he learned from the generation which preceded him. Children are conceived and reared, houses built, fish caught, and enemies killed in much the same way by most of the members of any society; and these patterns are maintained for relatively long periods of time. From the perspective of those in each new generation, and for the society as an enduring, historical entity (统 一的), this process of cultural transmission yields enormous economy. Thanks to it, each generation need not rediscover at great cost in time and subject to great risk of failure, what those coming before have already learned. Not only is knowledge thus conserved, but the basis for communal life, resting on common information and understanding is thus established. Since all those in each generation receive more or less the same cultural heritage  from the preceding generation, they can more easily relate to one another and more effectively coordinate their actions.
    The grand total of all the objects, ideas, knowledge, ways of doing things, habits values, and attitudes which each generation in a society passes on to the next is what the anthropologist often refers to as the culture of a group. The transmission of culture is man’s substitute for the instincts( 本 能 ) whereby most other living creatures are equipped with the means for coping with their environment and relating to one another. Yet it is more flexible than instinct, and can grow; that is, it can store new information, infinitely more rapidly than the process of mutation and biological evolution can enrich the instinctual storehouse of any other species.
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。
    46. What does the passage mainly discuss?
    A) The relation between culture and invention. B) The transmission of human culture.
    C) The history of human civilization.
    D) The biological evolution of man.
    47. Which of the following is NOT included in the meaning of culture according to the passage? A) Knowledge of various disciplines.
    B) Production technology.
    C) Ways of living, life habits and values. D) Biological instincts.
    48. The word “heritage” used in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to________.
    A) history B) civilization
    C) tradition D) feature
    49. According to the first paragraph, all of the following statements can be accepted EXCEPT that________.
    A) man is always inventive
    B) learning from the preceding generation saves much effort
    C) non-invention is a technique of learning skills from the preceding generation D) non-invention is always contrary to invention
    50. In the last sentence of the passage, the author implies, but does not directly state, that________.
    A) human culture can further develop and grow
    B) biological evolution can improve the instinct of creatures
    C) human culture is more flexible and can store new information far more rapidly than instinct 
    D) the instinct of living creatures may also grow, but at a much slower pace
    Passage Two
    Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
    Although the top men in smuggling business must work together, most of a syndicate’s small fry, specially the mules, know only their immediate contacts. If caught there is little they can give away. A mule probably will not even know the name of the person who gives him his instructions, nor how to get in touch with him. Usually he even does not know the person to whom he has to make delivery. He will be told just to sit tight in a certain hotel or bar until someone contacts him. In this way if he is blown, coming through airport customs he cannot unwittingly lead  agents  to  the next link in the chain.
    All that the person at the receiving end do is to hang  around  the  airport  among  the    waiting crowd, and see that the mule comes through safely. If he does not, he is dimply written off as a loss. To make identification of mules easier, several syndicates have devised their own “club ties” so that a mule wearing one can immediately be picked out. Mules often receive careful training before embarking on their first journey. One Beirut organization, for example, uses a room with three airline seats in it. There the trainee mules sit for hours on end wearing weighted smuggling vests beneath their clothes, so that they become accustomed to standing up after a long flight in a natural way, and without revealing what they are carrying.
    An outfit in Brussels maintained a comfortable apartment where the mules could relax and get a firm grip on themselves on the night before their first journey; they were helped to dress before setting out for the airport in the morning. More often than not a courier will not know precisely where he is going or what flight number is until he is actually handed his tickets at the airport. This prevents the careless boast in some bar or to a girl friend the night before.
    Mules occasionally run off with the goods to keep the profit themselves. As insurance against this, a syndicate often sends a high-up on the same plane to keep a wary eye on couriers, particularly new ones. Even then things can go badly wrong. One international currency smuggler who was having trouble getting money out of Britain was offered help by a group of men who said they were in a position to “fix thing”—for a fee of course. Foolishly, the smuggler agreed to accept their   help. When  he  got  to  London’s  Heathrow  Airport,  he  handed  over  to  one  of  the  men  a  black  suitcase containing nearly $90,000 in cash, destined for Frankfurt. Just to keep an eye on things, the smuggler went along on the same plane. When they landed at Frankfurt he was handed back his suitcase. He beat a straight path to the men’s toilet, opened the case, and found only old clothes. The courier had switched suitcase en route, but the smuggler could hardly run to the police and complain that “the man who was smuggling money out of England for me has stolen it.”
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。
    51. How does a mule work?
    A) Jointly. B) Independently.
    C) Consciously. D) Separately.
    52. What is a “mule”?
    A) A person who sends smuggling goods for a syndicate is called mule. B) A person in charge of smuggling goods is called mule.
    C) A person who receives instructions from a smuggler and makes delivery for a syndicate is called mule.
    D) A person who receives instructions from a smuggler is called mule.
    53. The sentence “if he is blown” is closest in meaning to________.
    A) if he is arrested
    B) if he is recognized, but not necessarily arrested C) if he is recognized and arrested
    D) if he runs away
    54. Which of the following is true about mules? A) Mules do not have their own wearing.
    B) Mules need to wear weighted smuggling vests every day.
    C) Mules may receive training before their first delivery. D) Mules need not to relax before their first journey.
    55.Why does the author give an example in the last paragraph?
    A)To show how a smuggler is caught.
    B)To show a smuggler is afraid of the police.
    C)To show to keep a wary eye on couriers is useless.
    D)To show mules may keep the profit for themselves.

Part Ⅳ Translation (30 minutes)


    Directions: For  this  part,  you  are  allowed  30  minutes  to  translate  a  passage  from  Chinese  into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
    皮影(shadow play)是中国民间广为流传的道具戏之一。 它是借助灯光把雕刻精巧的皮影人映照在屏幕上,由艺人们在幕后操动皮影人,伴以音乐和歌唱,演出一幕幕妙趣横生的皮影戏。 皮影戏历史悠久,相传萌芽于汉,发展于唐,至宋已十分兴盛。 陕西皮影分东、西路,不仅唱腔种类繁多,表演技术高超,而且皮影人的雕镂技艺达到了很高的水平。
    注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。

回复

使用道具 举报

1

主题

3

帖子

397

积分

管理员

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

积分
397
 楼主| 发表于 2017-6-6 14:57:31 | 显示全部楼层

大学英语四级考试考前冲刺试卷(一)答案详解


    答案速递
    1~5 BCBBC 6~10 AABCD 11~15 ADDAB 16~20 DCAAB 21~25 BCDBD
    26~30 BGEJK 31~35 NADOI 36~40 DCFBA 41~45 EFGDH 46~50 BDCDD
    51~55 DCBCD   
    Part Ⅰ Writing
    写作思路
    第一段对图片进行简要的描述,即从图中你能看到什么。
    第二段对图片中所反映的现象进行解释。
    第三段总结图片中的现象。
    范文及点评
    Stopping or Going-on?
    (1) As is shown in the picture, a boy is riding upwards along the hill. (2) He has successfully settled the puzzle of “stopping or going-on” which might have confused many people.
    (3) With the increasing pace of modern life, perhaps no  change  has  characterized  the  past  decades  more dramatically than that of people’s view on their own life. It  is  generally  agreed  upon  that  people  have  to  adjust themselves to this new changeable world.  (4) On the one hand, there is no doubt that people will gain a lot by setting new goals in  their  daily  life.  Take  the  famous  scientist Thomas Edison for example, he had done very well  in innovational areas in his early life. However, he continued to pursue something more excellent and set new targets in the rest of his life. Finally, he was credited for contributing to  various  inventions,  including  the  photograph,  the electric  lamp  and  the  autographic  printer.  (5)  On  the other hand, if one were obsessed with the success he has achieved,  he  would  lose  the  chance  to  pursue  greater achievements. What is more, he may become the slave of his success.
    Generally speaking, no matter what kind of difficul- ties and obstacles one meets in life, he should maintain a positive attitude and continuously explore life. Just as Thomas Carlyle said, “cease to struggle and you cease to live.”
    (1)是看图作文的经典开头,文章开头便直击主题,描述了从图片中看到的内容。
    (2)该句的亮点在于  which 引导的定语从句修饰stopping or going-on。
    (3)该句是一句精彩句型,通常用来引出作者想要表达的内容。
    (4)(5)层次分明地阐述了人生路是追求卓越的过程。
    闪光词汇
    puzzle n. 迷惑;难题
    pursue v. 追求
    maintain positive attitude    保持积极的态度
    dramatically adv. 戏剧地;显著地
    make achievements 取得成就
    maintain v. 保持
    重要句型
    1. As is shown in the picture ... 正如图画描述的那样……
    2. With the increasing pace of modern life, perhaps no change has characterized the past decades more dramatically than that ... 随着现代生活节奏的加快,也许没有什么比……更加显著地反应过去十年的变化。
    3. It is generally agreed upon that ... 人们普遍认为……
    4. take ... for example 以……为例
    Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension
    Section A News Item 1
    In Dakar, mental patients attend regular art treatment classes to help treat mental disorders. The treatment can be a useful technique to make up traditional forms of mental treatment. Psychiatrists in the Senegalese capital's main hos- pital see it as an essential part of the healing process. Art as mental treatment is still relatively new in Senegal. Dr.
    Tabara Sylla, the hospital’s chief psychiatrist, uses art treatment, medication and classical forms of mental treatment
    in her practice, treating everything from chronic depression to alcohol abuse and schizophrenia. At first the project started as a way to keep patients busy in the afternoon, rather than have them sitting around smoking. It soon became clear that art was creating a communication bridge between patient and doctor. More and more now, she says, art workshops have become essential treatment—so much that she cannot imagine this psychiatric unit without them.
    1. According to the news item, which one is not included in the problems that doctors use art treatment to treat?
    2. Why did doctors introduce art treatment in the first place?
    1. 【答案】B
    【解析】信息明示题。 由... treating everything from chronic depression to alcohol abuse and schizophrenia.可知,医 生采用艺术疗法来治疗很多疾病,比如慢性抑郁症、嗜酒和精神分裂症。       并没有涉及对吸烟者的治疗,故选B。
    2. 【答案】C
    【解析】信息明示题。 由 At first the project started as a way to keep patients busy 可知,起初这个项目开始于如何 使病人保持忙碌状态。     也就是说,当医生介绍这个项目时,首先要做的是使病人保持忙碌状态,故选  C。
    News Item 2
    American astronauts would not return to the moon as planed if US congress passes president Obama’s proposed budget. Obama’s budget which aims to cut funding in certain areas while increasing money used to create jobs would cancel NASA’s Constellation Programme. The programme has sought to send astronauts back to the moon by 2020. NASA’s programme also intended to study the idea of establishing a moon colony. The programme was set to follow the US space agency’s shuttle missions which are due to end in September. On its website, the White House Budget Office says the programme to send astronauts to the moon is behind schedule, over budget and overall less important than other space investments.   “Using a broad range of criteria, an independent review panel determined that even if fully funded NASA’s programme to repeat many of the achievements of the Apollo era, 50 years later was the least at- tractive approach to space exploration as compared to potential alternatives.” the site says.
    3. Why would NASA’s Constellation Programme be cancelled?
    4. What did NASA’s Constellation Programme originally plan to do? 3. 【答案】B
    【解析】细节推断题。  由 Obama’s budget which aims to cut funding in certain areas while increasing money used to create jobs would cancel NASA’s Constellation Programme.可知,奥巴马政府的预算旨在减少在某些领域的 开支,比如取消美国宇航局的星座项目,同时也会增加创造工作机会的开支。 也就是说,美国宇航局的项目被 取消的原因是没有获得奥巴马总统预算的支持,故选 B。
    4. 【答案】B
    【解析】信息明示题。 由 The programme has sought to send astronauts back to the moon by 2020 可知,该项目是 为了在 2020 年把宇航员送回月球,也就是说,该项目的原始目的是为了在 2020 年把宇航员送回月球,故选B。
    News Item 3
    Zimbabwe’s inflation rate has increased sharply in the past three months and is now at 11.2 million percent, the highest in the world, according to the country’s central statistical office. Official figures dated Monday show inflation has increased from the rate of 2.2 million percent recorded in May, despite the government’s price controls. The coun- try’s finance minister believed the new figure in an interview but said the rising inflation rate was not confined in Zimbabwe alone. In February, the price of a loaf of bread in the country was less than 200,000 in Zimbabwe dollars. On Monday, that same loaf of bread cost 1.6 trillion Zimbabwe dollars. Analysts have said that this Zimbabwean gov- ernment official inflation rate figures are conservative. Last week, one of Zimbabwe’s leading banks, Kingdom Bank, said the country’s inflation rate was now more than 20 million percent. The locally-owned bank predicted tougher times ahead for Zimbabwe in the absence of donor support in falling investment in an economy that has been in free fall for almost a decade.
    5. Which of the following is mentioned as the government’s measure to control inflation?
    6. According to Kingdom Bank, what is the current inflation rate in Zimbabwe?
    7. What will Zimbabwe experience according to the locally-owned bank’s predication?
    5. 【答案】C
    【解析】  细节推理题。  由 Official figures dated Monday show inflation has increased from the rate of 2.2 million percent recorded in May, despite the government’s price controls.可知,周一官方更新的数据显示,即使政府已 经采取了价格控制的措施,通货膨胀率已经突破了五月份所记录的百分之二百二十万。  也就是说,政府应对 通货膨胀的措施是控制价格,故选 C。
    6. 【答案】A
    【解析】信息明 示 题 。  由 Kingdom Bank, said the country’s inflation rate was now more than 20 million.可知 ,Kingdom 银行认为本国的通货膨胀率目前已经超过了两千万。 故选 A。
    7. 【答案】A
    【解析】信息明示题。 由 The locally-owned bank predicted tougher times ahead for Zimbabwe.可知,一些当地银 行预测,津巴布韦还要经历一段艰苦时光,也就是说,津巴布韦的未来还是很艰难的,故选A。
    Section B Conversation One
    W: So this is the Internet?
    M: Well, it’s the World Wide Web, which is part of the Internet. W: Wow ... and, uh, what do you use it for?
    M: Oh, well, I can sit here in my office and do almost anything. W: Well, like what?
    M: Well, this morning, the first thing I did when I got up was to turn on the computer. In a couple of minutes, I was reading the newspaper from Illinois.
    W: Wow.
    M: Yeah, you can read hundreds of newspapers from around the world. W: That’s amazing.
    M: That’s just the start. Then I checked my e-mail. There was a message from my dad in Chicago, one from my sister, and a message from my brother in Hong Kong. My dad’s message was to tell me not to forget my mom’s birth- day. So then I sent her an electronic birthday card.
    W: An electronic birthday card? M: Uh huh.
    W: Fantastic.
    M: My sister wanted to know if I was planning to visit her in San Francisco during my vacation. W: So ..., are you?
    M: Well, I checked an airline reservation service. I looked at the schedule and picked a flight, booked it, and sent the information to my sister. After about an hour she sent me a reply saying she’d pick me up at the airport.
    W: Oh, my god! You can book a ticket through your computer? M: Absolutely. Sure. Amazing, isn’t it?
    Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
    8.Where does this conversation take place?
    【答案】B
    【解析】信息明示题。 男士在证明万维网的有用之处时说 I can sit here in my office and do almost anything,可见 男士是在办公室里面,故选 B。
    9.Where does the man’s sister live?
    【答案】C
    【解析】细节推断题。 男士在谈论妹妹来的信时说 My sister wanted to know if I was planning to visit her in San Francisco during my vacation,可见他的妹妹生活在 San Francisco。 故选 C。
    10.What is the man most probably going to do during his vacation?
    【答案】D
    【解析】 细节推断题。男士在介绍了妹妹的来信后说I checked an airline reservation service. I looked at the schedule and picked a flight, booked it, and sent the information to my sister。可见他是准备去看妹妹的。 其他三个选项虽也有可能,但  D  是唯一可以推断出的,故选 D。
    11.Which statement is incorrect according to the conversation?
    【答案】A
    【解析】信息明示题。  B 和 C 在对话中都有所提及,而从文章中,男士一直在向女士介绍万维网,可以推断出 女士并不擅长电脑操作,故 D 内容正确。  而在对话一开始,男士就说到 it’s the World Wide Web, which is part of the Internet。  可知两者并不相等,A 内容错误,故选 A。
    Conversation Two
    W: Interested in this book? This is our bestseller this week.
    M: Bestseller? I am considering what new ideas it gives about how to deal with the aggravating people.
    W: It asks people to quit complaining and do something. What surprises many people about this book is that it sug- gests that the best thing to do is to change yourself because you are not going to change the other person.
    M: Really? It’s “me” that has to change instead of other person?
    W: Well, have you ever changed anybody?
    M: I’ve tried many times. It’s not really possible though. W: That’s right.
    M: But how can I change myself?
    W: The book is here. Bring it back home and read it and you can find the answer.
    M: Before I pay my money I should be clear that this book is useful for me. I don’t want to waste my money.
    W: This book is definitely worth the money. The book even tells you how to deal with different types of workers, co-workers and bosses, from the most common annoying type to the worst kind.
    M: Tell me more about it.
    W: Again, sir, the book is here. Bring it back and read for the answer.
    M: It seems you know a lot about this book. Can I draw the conclusion that you fancy it? W: Well, frankly, I am the author.
    Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
    12.What is the new idea that the book gives according to the woman?
    【答案】D
    【解析】细节推断题。 根据对话信息,男士认为这本书呈现出来的新观点是关于如何与生气的人相处,而女士 则说,这本书是关于如何消除抱怨,并改变自己的,故选 D。
    13.Where does this conversation probably take place?
    【答案】D
    【解析】细节推断题。 对话中男士和女士一直在谈论的是书,由此可以锁定答案为 C 或 D,又由对话中不断出 现的 bestseller, pay, money 可知需要花钱买书,故选 D。
    14.What information cannot be found in this book?
    【答案】A
    【解析】信息明示题。 选项的 B、C、D 都可以在文中找到,只有 A 项说反了,原文为 it suggests that the best thing to do is to change yourself because you are not going to change the other person,故选 A。
    15.Why does the woman know so much about this book?
    【答案】B
    【解析】信息明示题。 在结尾处,男士问女士为什么这么熟悉这本书,女士说 Well, frankly, I am the author,故 选 B。
    Section C Passage One
    The ice-cream sundae is an original American dish. Ice cream is not an original American food and chocolate syrup is not an original American food. But an American put the two together and started the ice-cream sundae.
    An ice-cream sundae is ice cream with chocolate or other syrup over it. There are many kinds of toppings today.
    You put the toppings on top of the syrup. These can be nuts, fruit, and whipped cream.
    Ice-cream sundaes started in the 1890s. At that time people went to ice-cream parlors to eat ice cream. One day in Wisconsin a customer went to an ice-cream parlor. He wanted chocolate syrup on his vanilla ice cream. The owner of the parlor said this was a bad idea. But the customer insisted and finally got what he wanted. Soon many customers wanted syrup on their ice cream. Other ice-cream parlors started to have this new ice-cream dish.
    The sundae got its name from an ice-cream parlor in another town in Wisconsin. Here the owner of an ice-cream parlor only served the unusual ice-cream dish on Sundays. The ice-cream with the syrup was a special order and it was more expensive. It was a Sunday special. That is how it got the name sundae. Nobody knows why the spelling changed from Sunday to sundae.
    Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
    16. What makes up sundae toppings?
    【答案】D
    【解析】信息提示题。短文中第二段指出 These can be nuts, fruit, and whipped cream,由此可知 sundae toppings
    包括 nuts, fruit, and whipped cream。 故选 D。
    17. When did the ice-cream sundae start?
    【答案】C
    【解析】事实细节题。 短文第三段第一句指出 Ice-cream sundaes started in the 1890s. 故选 C。
    18. What did the name “Sundae” come from?
    【答案】A
    【解析】细节辨认题。短文最后一段指出It was a Sunday special. That is how it got the name sundae,圣代冰淇 淋最早只在星期日 Sunday 供应,因此取名“Sundae”。  由此可知A正确。
    Passage Two
    Jazz began in the early 20th century as a music of African Americans. It was intended for singing, for dancing, for entertainment at parties and social gatherings.
    Jazz has continued to develop and has produced some of the United States leading singers, instrumentalists, and
    composers. Today, it is considered by many to be American’s art music. It has already influenced almost every other kind of music in America, Europe, and even Asia.
    The origin of the word “jazz” is not known, but the term came into common use after the first photograph records
    of Jazz were made in 1917. Jazz represents a mixture of musical elements from Africa and from Europe. Jazz uses some European ideas of harmony and melody, but the rhythms are more African in origin. It is usually said to be irreg- ular in rhythm. And jazz uses many rhythms around one basic rhythm. Another important feature of jazz is that players can invent music while they are playing. This is the way jazz is usually played. Jazz musicians can make up excellent melodies as they play. A good jazz player seldom plays anything the same way twice. Thus, listening to jazz is not like hearing a piece of music that was written long ago. It is like being there when the music is first being made.
    Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
    19. What is Jazz considered now by many Americans?
    【答案】A
    【解析】信息明示题。  短文中提到 it is considered by many to be American’s art music.由此可知爵士乐被很多 美国人认为是艺术音乐。  故选 A。
    20. How does Jazz include the elements from Africa and Europe?
    【答案】B
    【解析】事实细节题。 短文中提到 Jazz uses some European ideas of harmony and melody, but the rhythms are more African in origin.故选 B。
    21. What do you know about Jazz according to the passage?
    【答案】B
    【解析】细节辨认题。 短文最后一段提到爵士乐的另一个特征是演奏者在演奏的过程中创作音乐,而不是提 前创作出来,所以选项 A 错误,B 正确。 短文中提到对于同一支爵士乐曲子,优秀的演奏者在第二次演奏时 很少会用同样的方式。 故 C 错误。 短文最后一段倒数第二句还提到听爵士乐绝不像听一支很早之前被创作 出来的曲子,所以选项 D 错误。 故选 B。
    Passage Three
    Decades before the American Revolution of 1776, Jesse Fish, a native New Yorker, retreated to an island off St. Augustine, Florida, to escape unhappy family situation. In a time he became Florida’s first orange baron and his or-anges were in great demand in London throughout the 1770’s. The English found them juicy and sweet and preferred them to other varieties, even though they had thin skins and were hard to peel.
    There would probably have been other successful commercial growers before Fish if Florida had not been under Spanish rule for some two hundred years. Columbus first brought seeds for citrus trees to the New World and planted them in the Antilles. But it was most likely Ponce de Leon who introduced oranges to the North American continent when he discovered Florida in 1513. For a time, each Spanish sailor on a ship bound for America was required by law to carry one hundred seeds with him. Later, because seeds tended to dry out, all Spanish ships were required to carry young orange trees. The Spaniards planted citrus trees only for medicinal purpose, however, they saw no need to start commercial groves because oranges were so abundant in Spain.
    Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
    22. What is the main topic of the passage?
    【答案】C
    【解析】主旨大意题。 短文第一段主要讲 Jesse Fish 成为佛罗里达州第一个桔子大亨,接着第二段又讲了在西 班牙的统治下,殖民者在佛罗里达州种满了桔子树。 由此可知短文主要讲了佛罗里达州桔子种植的历史。 故 选 C。
    23. Where did Jesse Fish come from?
    【答案】D
    【解析】信息明示题。 根据短文第一句指出 Jesse Fish, a native New Yorker,可知他来自纽约。 所以选 D。
    24. By whom were oranges most probably introduced to Florida?
    【答案】B
    【解析】信息明示题。 短文第二段指出 it was most likely Ponce de Leon who introduced oranges to the North Ameri- can continent when he discovered Florida in 1513.由此可知 Ponce de Leon 将桔子引进了佛罗里达州。 故选 B。
    25. Why did the Spaniards not grow oranges commercially in the New World?
    【答案】D
    【解析】事实细节题。 根据短文最后一句 they saw no need to start commercial groves because oranges were so abundant in Spain 可知当时西班牙桔子丰富多产,所以西班牙人在新大陆并没有开始商业种植桔子,只是利 用桔子树的药用价值。 故选项 D 正确。
    Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
    Section A
    参考译文
    据说每个人都靠出售某种东西为生。 根据这种说法,教师靠出售知识为生,哲学家靠出售智慧为生,牧师靠 出售精神安慰为生。 虽然物质产品的价值可以用金钱来衡量,但是要衡量别人为我们提供的服务的价值却是非 常困难的。 有时候,为了挽救我们的生命,我们愿意付出所拥有的一切。 然而在外科大夫给我们提供了服务后, 我们却可能会为昂贵的费用而抱怨。 社会上的情况就是这样,技术必须花钱去买,就像商店里的商品要花钱买 一样。  每个人都有东西可以出售。
    在这条普遍的规律面前,似乎只有流浪汉是个例外。 乞丐几乎是靠出售他们本人来引起过路人的怜悯。 但 真正的流浪汉并不是乞丐,他们没有东西可出售,也不从别人那儿索取什么。 在追求独立自由的同时,他们并不 牺牲自己的人格尊严。 流浪汉可能会向你讨钱,但他们从来不要你可怜他们。 说起流浪汉,我们常常带有轻蔑的 口气,并把他们与乞丐归为一类。 但我们中又有多少人能够坦率地说,我们没有羡慕过流浪汉那种简单的生活 方式和无忧无虑的自由呢?
    词汇解析
    philosophy n. 哲学
    priest n. 神父
    grudge v. 不满,怨恨,嫉妒
    surgeon n. 外科医生
    precisely adv. 精确地,恰好地
    tramp n. 流浪汉
    dignity n. 尊严,自豪
    envious adj. 羡慕的,嫉妒的
    参考答案与解析
    26. 【答案】B
    【解析】作者在这里举例说明人们总是在通过卖什么而活,如哲学家靠卖自己的智慧等,由此推测老师是靠 卖知识而活,故选B。
    27. 【答案】G
    【解析】同上一题,牧师靠________的慰藉而活,这里是一个形容词,在选项的所有形容词中只有“精神上的慰藉”意义正确。
    28. 【答案】E
    【解析】此词后面接的是 good,名词,意为“产品,商品”,故此处用形容词修饰。  material good 意为“物质产品”。
    29. 【答案】J
    【解析】此处应该填副词,修饰的是我们对于给予拥有的一切来换取我们生命的行为,选项中只能用   willing-ly。 这样也符合一般常识。
    30. 【答案】K
    【解析】此题应该填名词,应该是可以卖的,且前面一直在说人的技术,故选 skills。
    31. 【答案】N
    【解析】根据后面的 they have nothing to sell 可知流浪汉是不卖什么的,也就是唯一的例外,故选 exception。
    32. 【答案】A
    【解析】此处需要一个动词,可以猜到文章的意思是乞丐卖自己是以激起路人的同情,故选  arouse。
    33. 【答案】D
    【解析】 此词应该为动词。 独立的意思即为保持自己的尊严,不牺牲自己的尊严,故选 sacrifice。
    34. 【答案】O
    【解析】从前面可以看出作者认为乞丐是在出卖自己,可见作者对于乞丐的态度是轻蔑的,故选  contempt。
    35. 【答案】I
    【解析】后面提到流浪汉的自由,而通常人们是喜欢自由的,可见人们会对他们的生活感到羡慕,故选    envious。
    Section B
    参考译文
    想知道你的患病风险吗?  请检查你暴露的环境
    A) 说到健康,先天和后天哪个更重要呢? 也许你认为基因更能决定身体是否健康。 别急! 实际上,对于患病风 险的预测,生活环境比基因更重要。   基因组出局了,那么我们来说一说环境暴露。
    B) “环境暴露指的是一个人在所处环境中接触的所有东西,和基因无关。 ”加州大学伯克利分校的环境健康科 学家斯蒂芬•拉帕波特说。 环境暴露包括压力、饮食、生活方式的选择,例如娱乐和使用药物与各种感染。 “最 大的区别就是环境暴露在人的一生中,随着身体、饮食和生活方式的改变而改变。 ”他说。 虽然在过去的十年 里,我们对人类基因组的了解程度迅速加深,但是它在预测患病风险方面并没有想象中的那么有用。 “基因 只占疾病总负担的 10%。 ”拉帕波特说。 “知道基因的患病因素一点用都没有。 ”伦敦帝国学院的杰里米•里科尔森说。 他提到了波士顿布莱根妇女医院妮娜•佩因特的研究,佩因特研究了心脏病隐含的101组遗传标记的影响。 但是在跟踪调查了超过 19 000 位妇女 12 年之后,她发现这些遗传标记根本无法预测任何关于研 究人群中心脏病的问题。
    C) 然而,环境影响的作用仍然是个谜。 国际癌症研究机构主任克里斯•怀尔德说:“我们研究基因和研究环境的 能力是不均衡的。 ”就是他提出了环境暴露的理念。 事实上,大多数疾病是由基因和环境暴露二者共同引起 的,这就是为什么要提出环境暴露的概念。 “环境暴露就是要对人的整个接触史进行全面的分析。 ”怀尔德 说。 他希望对接触的深入了解能给患病影响因素的研究带来曙光。
    D) 环境暴露在人的成长过程中有几个重要的阶段。 例如,从出生到 3 岁这段时间是非常重要的。 “我们知道大 脑连接发生在这个时期,而且在这个时候如果过度肥胖,长大后就会出现问题。 ”尼科尔森说。 从理论上来 说,一个人的血样或尿样就可以体现出这个人在什么样的环境下暴露过。 但是你又如何知道化学物质会在 体内留下什么样的印记呢? 这其实没有听起来那么难。 开始的时候,研究人员可以利用已有的生物信息库样 本,“还有巨额国际资金投资的成人支持者,和已有的英国生物信息库一样。”怀尔德说,“如果我们进一步分析,就可以将分析结果运用到这些群体中。”
    E) 还有几个小组在研究能够测量人对环境中化学物质接触情况的可穿戴设备。 “我们可以把化学物质分类,” 拉帕波特说,“优先从有毒化学物质开始,寻找血液中这些毒素的标志,激素和金属元素可以直接检测到。 ” 拉帕波特在观察白蛋白,这是血液中常见的一种蛋白质,它将毒素运送到肝脏,这些毒素在肝脏中被处理并 分解掉。 他想知道它如何与一系列的化学物质反应,因而他在测量接触产物。 “我们能够采到指纹,从指纹可 以看出一个人的所有接触产物。 ”
    F) 环境暴露通过将这一信息和接触对健康的影响结合起来,能够更好地预测一个人真正的患病风险。 我们不会 等太久,拉帕波特估计下一代人就能受益。 为此,美国国家卫生研究院成立了一个接触生物学计划。 该计划 的负责人大卫•巴尔肖说:“我们在探索基因和接触之间的相互作用,从而得出一个人的患病风险。 ”“这可以 使得治疗手段与患病风险相适合。 ”一个人的新陈代谢数据图表可以反映出这种相互作用,而对这种相互作 用的认识也许有助于预测它们对药物的反应。  尼科尔森正在尿样的新陈代谢数据图表中寻找线索。
    G) 去年,他的研究小组运用这些数据图表来预测个人如何代谢扑热息痛。 “结果表明肠道微生物非常重要。 ”尼科 尔森说,“我们的研究发现前剂量尿样新陈代谢数据图表可以预测止痛药的代谢,从而预测药物毒性。 ”研究结 果显示接触的新陈代谢数据图表可以帮助医生匹配合适的治疗方法,也有助于个性化用药。 伦敦帝国学院的 贾斯汀•斯特宾也表明, 患乳腺癌妇女的新陈代谢数据图表有助于预测哪些患者适合哪种治疗方法。 现在还 早,但是初步调查结果看起来很有希望。 “我们现在已经有能力对环境暴露进行评估了。 ”巴尔肖补充说,在患 病缘由和患病风险的理解方面,以及在个性化用药方面,环境暴露比基因组的作用更大。
    H) 那么环境污染和压力会在血液中留下怎样的印迹呢? 位于马里兰州贝塞斯达的美国国家卫生研究院正在探 索答案。 由国家卫生研究所资助,亚利桑那州立大学生物设计研究院陶农建领导的小组,正在研发可穿戴式 无线传感器,以监测个人对环境污染接触的情况。 陶的小组最初是制作视窗话筒软件,现在在做适用于所有 智能手机的应用程序。 从理论上来说,任何人都可以戴上传感器,然后下载一个应用程序来接收接触环境污 染的即时信息。 同时,智能手机通过监测你的位置可以获得在准确时间和地点下的污染程度。 上周,在墨西 哥尤卡坦半岛举行的医学和环境电路与系统应用研讨会上,陶展示了他的传感器。
    I) “我们现在在将样品运用到人类研究中,并将这些样品加工成产品。 ”国家卫生研究所的大卫•巴尔肖说。 今 年早些时候,陶的小组已经尝试让个人戴着传感器在加利福尼亚的洛杉矶散步,他们能够测出每个人走到 繁忙路段和加油站附近时污染接触的变化。
    词汇解析
    outweigh v. 比……重要;超过
    wearable n. 衣服;adj. 耐用的
    reckon v. 估计;计算;猜想
    detect v. 察觉;发现;探测
    参考答案与解析
    36. 【答案】D
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:理论上来说,我们可以通过一个人的血液样本来判断他曾经暴露在什么环境下。 题干关键词:Theoretically speaking,exposed 和 blood samples。 文中 D 段第四句提到,从一个人身上提取的血 样或者尿样,可以提供一个简单印象,那个人到底曾经暴露在什么环境下。   与题干意思吻合,故选 D。
    37. 【答案】C
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:Chris Wild 提出了环境暴露的概念。 题干关键词:Chris Wild,put forward 和 con- ception of exposome。 文中 C 段第二句提到,国际癌症研究机构主任克里 斯•怀 尔德说:“我们研究基因和研 究环境的能力是不均衡的。 ”就是他提出了环境暴露的理念。 与题干意思吻合,故选   C。
    38. 【答案】F
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:Rappaport 相信环境暴露可以帮助人们更好地预测人们真正的疾病风险。 题干关 键词: Rappaport,exposome’s helping better predict 和 true disease risk。 文中 F 段第一句提到,环境暴露通过 将这一信息和接触对健康的影响结合起来,能够更好地预测一个人真正的患病风险。 第四句,该计划的负责 人大卫•巴尔肖说:“我们在探索基因和接触 之间的相互作用,从而得出一个人的患病风险。 ”与题干意思吻 合,故选 F。
    39. 【答案】B
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:根据 Jeremy Nicholson 的观点,了解健康的基因风险因素变得完全无效了。 题干关 键词:Jeremy Nicholson 和 completely useless。 文中 B 段倒数第三句提到,Jeremy Nicholson 说了解基因风险 因素被证明是完全没用的。  与题干意思吻合,故选 B。
    40. 【答案】A
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:当测量疾病风险时,你应该首先考虑暴露环境的影响。 题干关键词:measuringtherisk of disease,influence of exposome 和 first。 文中 A 段第四句提到,实际上,当测量疾病风险时,我们每天的环境比基因 对我们的影响更大。  接下来又说,关注基因过时了,考虑一下环境暴露问题吧。  与题干意思吻合,故选 A。
    41. 【答案】E
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:血液中的白蛋白充当把身体里的毒素带到肝脏的角色。 题干关键词:albumin,con- veying the toxins 和 liver。 文中 E 段倒数第三句提到,Rappaport 在观察血液中一种很常见的蛋白质,白蛋白, 它负责传输毒素到肝脏,并被肝脏处理掉。  与题干意思吻合,故选 E。
    42. 【答案】F
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:个人的代谢数据图表可以反映基因和暴露环境的相互作用。 题干关键词:metabolic profiles 和 interaction between genes and exposure。 文中 F 段第四句提到,负责该项目的 David Balshaw 说“我 们在寻找基因和环境暴露之间的相互作用,来计算人们得病的风险”。 下面接着提到,明白这种反应在一个 人的新陈代谢数据图表中的相互作用,或许也可以预测一个人对药物的反应。 题干是对这两句话的概括,故选F。
    43. 【答案】G
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:根据 Nicholson 研究小组的发现,医生可以根据暴露环境的代谢数据图表,开针对 个 人 的 药 方 。 题 干 关 键 词 :Nicholson’s research group,personalized medicines 和 metabolic profiles of expo- sure。 文中 G 段第四句提到,发现预测代谢数据图表可以帮助医生采取合适的治疗,并且开出针对个人的药 方。 与题干意思吻合,故选 G 。
    44. 【答案】D
    【解析】信息明示题。 题干:Nicholson 说一个人出生到 3 岁之间是大脑联系的形成时期。 题干关键词:Nichol- son, birth to the age of three 和 forms his brain connections。 文中 D 段第二句和第三句提到,从出生到 3 岁的 时间是非常重要的。 这个时期大脑各部分之间开始建立联系,如果这个时期过度肥胖,成年以后就会出现问 题。 与题干意思吻合,故选 D。
    45. 【答案】H
    【解析】信息明示题。  题干:陶农建的研究小组开发的耐用的无线传感器,被用于检测个人的环境污染的暴 露。  题干关键词:wearable wireless sensors,Tao’s research group 和 detect the exposure to environmental pollu- tants。  文中 H 段第三句提到,在亚利桑那州大学由陶农建带领的小组,在开发耐用的无线传感器,用于监测 个人在环境污染物下的暴露。  与题干意思吻合,故选 H。
    Section C Passage One
    参考译文
    人类富有无穷的创造力。 但其最伟大的发明是没有发明,将从上一代学到的做事的基本方式完美无损地传 给下一代。 社会的大部分成员几乎是用相同的方式生育孩子、建造房屋、钓鱼、杀敌。 这些方式保留了相对较长 一段时间。 从新一代人的角度和社会是一个历史统一体的角度来看,文化传播的过程产生了巨大的经济效应。 多亏了它,每代人无需付出巨大代价重新发现上一代人已经学会的做事方式,也不需要面临巨大风险,不仅知 识保存了下来,公共生活的基础也得以保存,因此建立了共同的信息和理解。 因为所有这些从上一代得到的或 多或少相同的文化遗产,使得他们可以更容易互相理解并有效地协调行动。
    社会中的每一代传递给下一代的所有物体、思想、知识、做事的方法、习惯价值观和态度的总量就是人类学 家通常所指的群体文化。 文化传播是人类本能的替代品,大多数其他生物运用本能应对环境和相互之间进行联 系。 然而,文化传播比本能更灵活,而且可以发展;也就是说,它可以存储新信息,比基因突变过程更迅速,并且 进化过程可以丰富其他物种的本能库。
    词汇解析
    endlessly   adv. 不断地;无穷尽地
    precede v.  领先;在……之前;优于,高于
    inventive  adj. 发明的;有发明才能的;独出心裁的
    conceive v. 构思;构想;考虑
    flexible adj. 灵活的;柔韧的;易弯曲的
    参考答案与解析
    46. 【答案】B
    【解析】主旨题。  通读全文可发现,文章主要在谈论“人类文化传播”,且文中多处提到 transmitting, cultural transmission, the transmission of culture 等关键词。  故选项 B 正确。
    47. 【答案】D
    【解析】细节题。 根据短文第二段第一句 The grand total of all the objects, ideas, knowledge, ways of doing things, habits values, and attitudes which each generation in a society passes on to the next is what the anthropologist of- ten refers to as the culture of a group.可知选项 A、B、C 中提到的知识、生产技术、生活方式、价值观念都属于 文化概念的范畴。 而 D 项. biological instincts(生物本能)不属于文化范畴。 故选 D。
    48. 【答案】C
    【解析】含义题。 根据句子意思并且联系上下文可知,可传给下一代的并且与文化有关的事物很可能是“文化 遗产或传统习俗”。  故选项 C 正确。
    49. 【答案】D
    【解析】细节题。 短文第一段第一、二句指出 Man is endlessly inventive. But his greatest invention is non-inven- tion, the skill of transmitting intact and unchanged from one generation to the next the fundamental ways of doing things which he learned from the generation which preceded him.由此可知选项 A、B、C  均符合文中表述,故选D。
    50. 【答案】D
    【解析】推断题。 短文最后一句 Yet it is more flexible than instinct, and can grow; that is, it can store new information,infinitely more rapidly than the process of mutation and biological evolution can enrich the instinctual storehouse of any other species.看出选项 A、B、C 表述的内容都是作者明确指出的,而选项 D. the instinct of living crea- tures may also grow, but at a much slower pace 作者并没有明确提出,只是一种暗示。 故选 D。
    Passage Two
    参考译文
    虽然走私业务中的顶级人士必须共同努力,但大部分贩毒集团的小鱼苗,特别是骡子(走私集团交货人的 称呼),只知道他们的直接联系。 如果被抓住,他们几乎也泄露不了什么。 骡子可能甚至不知道给他指示的人的 名字,也不知道如何与他取得联系。 通常他甚至不知道他必须把货交给谁。 他会被告知在某个酒店或酒吧静静 等待,直到有人与他联系。 这样,一旦在他通过机场检查处时出事,他不可能愚蠢地把检查事务官引到锁链的下 一个环节。
    接收端的所有人要做的就是待在机场的等候人群中,并且看着骡子安全通过。  如果没能顺利通过,他就被 悄悄地丢弃了。  为了更容易识别骡子,几个集团设计了自己的“俱乐部领带”,以便可以立即找出系着领带的骡 子。  骡子在开始第一次旅行之前经常会受到精密的训练。  例如,一个贝鲁特组织使用一个拥有三个航空公司座 位的房间。 那里,受训骡子连续坐几个小时,衣服里面穿着加重走私背心,通过这种方式让他们习惯在长时间的 飞行后能够自然地站起来,而不会表现出他们携带着东西。
    布鲁塞尔的一个贩毒集团有一个舒适的公寓,在那里骡子可以放松一下,并且第一次旅程之前的夜晚属于 他们自己;他们早上出发去机场前会穿上走私背心。 通常情况下,骡子不会准确地知道他要去哪里,或者航班号 是多少,直到他真正地在机场拿到机票。 这样避免了他在前一天晚上去一些酒吧自吹自擂泄露风声或去找他的 女朋友。
    骡子偶尔会跑掉货物来维护自己的利益。  为了保证这一点,一个集团经常在同一架飞机上发出高层信号, 以保持对骡子,特别是新骡子的警惕。 即使这样,事情也会出现严重差错。 有一个国际货币走私者在英国拿到资 金时遇到困难,是由一群男子提供帮助的,他们说当时有能力“解决事情”。 走私者愚蠢地同意接受他们的帮助。 当他到达伦敦的希思罗机场时,他把一个黑色的手提箱交给了一个男人,这个手提包里装满了近 9 万美元的现 金,然后去往法兰克福。  只是为了确认交货,走私者登上了同一架飞机。  当他们到达法兰克福时,他移交了他的 手提箱。  他径直走到了男厕,打开箱子,只找到了旧衣服。  骡子在途中转移了手提箱,但走私者几乎无法向警方 投诉,并抱怨说:“为我从英格兰偷钱的人偷走了钱”。
    词汇解析
    smuggle v. 走私
    mule n. 骡子
    embark v. 上船
    occasionally adv. 偶然
    syndicate n. 财团
    unwittingly adv. 茫然地
    trainee n. 被训练者
    complain v. 抱怨
    参考答案与解析
    51. 【答案】D
    【解析】细节题。 根据题干意思,可定位到第一段第一句 Although the top men in smuggling business must work together, most of a syndicate’s small fry, specially the mules, know only their immediate contacts. 关 键 词 know only 意为“仅仅知道”,可知他们是各司其职。  A 选项中的“共同地”,B 选项中的“独立地”及 C 选项中的“有 意识地”都不符合文意。  选项 D 意为“分开地”,较 B 选项“独立地”更符合文意,故选项 D 正确。
    52. 【答案】C
    【解析】细节题。  根据第一段的大意可知,mule  既需要从上级接收命令,又需要把到手的货物送出去。  所以 C选项正确。  A 选项“是为走私集团运送走私货物的人”,但是他们只运送不交货,不能成为骡子,故 A 选项错误。 B 选项“负责走私货物的人”也不对,负责者不一定运送和交货。 D 选项“从走私者那里接受指示的人”更 不对,故选项 C 正确。
    53. 【答案】B
    【解析】含义题。 blown 原意为“欠账了的;被炸毁的;坏了”等。 这里指走私分子在过海关时,在机场检查处出 事,不一定被逮捕。  A 选项中的“逮捕”,C 选项中的“认出,逮捕”以及 D 选项中的“逃跑”都不符合 blown 原 意,故选项 B 正确。
    54. 【答案】C
    【解析】细节题。 因为文章都是围绕 mule 展开,所以题干中的关键词不能帮我们把答案锁定到唯一位置。 所 以,需要利用选项来筛选答案。 A 选项来自于第二段第三句,与文章意思相反,故不正确。 B 选项来自于第二 段第六句,文章中没有提及 mule 是不是每天都需要穿很重的走私衣,故不正确。 C 选项来自于第二段第四 句 Mules often receive careful training before embarking on their first journey. D 选项来自于第三段第一句,其 信息与文章不符。 故选项 C 正确。
    55. 【答案】D
    【解析】例证题。答案来自于最后一段第一句 Mules occasionally run off with the goods to keep the profit themselves. 即“骡子偶尔会跑掉货物来维护自己的利益。 ”故 D 选项正确。 A 选项“为了表明走私者如何被捕”,例子中没有 提及。 走私者不去警察局报案,并不一定是害怕警察局,而是报不了。 故 B 选项错误。 C 选项中的“为了表明监 督毫无用处”也不符合题意,故选项 D 正确。
    Part Ⅳ Translation
    难点词汇
    借助 with the aid of 轮廓 / 剪影 silhouette
    映照 cast upon 兴盛 flourish
    Shadow play is one of the most popular plays   per-formed among people in China. With the aid of lamp light, the silhouettes of finely-cut leather figures are cast upon a screen. The figures, manipulated by actors from behind the scene and accompanied with music and singing, give many vivid and interesting shadow perfor- mances. The play has a long history. According to leg- end, it came into being in the Han Dynasty. It was de- veloped further in the Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Song Dynasty. Shaanxi shadow play may be divided into eastern and western schools. They not only vary in the accompanying music skill of acting, but also in the superb skill of the artistic carving of leather-figures.
    1.“借助” 可译为 with the aid of 。
    2. 原文第一句中含有多段信息, 因此要进行适当 的断句。   第一个逗号前可以独立成句。
    3. 第二句中,增译了“silhouette”,因为原文的意思是剪影或轮廓映在了屏幕上。“映照”可译为cast upon。
    4. 第三句,中心动词是“give”, 中间部分是对其表 演方式的补充。
    5.“萌芽” 可译为 come into being。
    6.“兴盛” 可译为 flourish。
    7. “东、西路”是指皮影不同的派别所以可译为eastern and western schools。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|新都网 ( 京ICP备09058993号

GMT+8, 2017-10-18 00:41 , Processed in 0.250212 second(s), 17 queries , Wincache On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表