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2017年6月英语四级考试模拟试卷及答案(一)

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发表于 2017-6-2 20:34:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2017年6月英语四级考试模拟试卷及答案(一)
          距离2017年6月17日英语四级考试还有20多天,考生们已进入白热化的复习冲刺阶段。新东方英语四级教研组老师编写了十套2017年6月英语四级考试模拟试卷及答案给四级考生们复习自测,每天更新一套模拟试卷和答案,希望大家把握做题时间,能起到查漏补缺的作用。
           PartⅠ Writing 
          Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay.
Suppose you have twooptions upon graduation: one is to find a job somewhere and
the other to start abusiness of your own. You are to make a decision. Write an
essay to explain the reasonsfor your decision. You should write at least 120
words but no more than 180 words.
   PartⅡ listening comprehension
       
  Section A (three news reports)略
       
   Section B (two long conversations)略
       
   Section C (three passages)略
       
   PartⅢ reading comprehension
       
   Section A 
       
          Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are
required to select one wordfor each blank from a list of choices given in a word
bank following the passage. Read thepassage through carefully before making your
choices. Each choice in the bank isidentified by a letter. Please mark the
corresponding letter for each item on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through
the centre. You may not use any of the words in thebank more than once.
          Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.
  The typical preindustrial family not only had a good many children,but numerous other dependents as well—grandparents,uncles,aunts and cousins.Such “extended” families were suited for survival in slow paced __26___societies.But such families are hard to__27___.They are immobile.
       
  Industrialism demanded masses of workers ready and able to move off the land in pursuit of jobs,and to move again whenever necessary.Thus the extended family __28__ shed its excess weight and the so called “nuclear” family emerged—a stripped—down,portable family unit___29___0nly of parents and a small set of children.
       
  This new style of family, far more___30___than the traditional extended family,became the standard model in all the industrial countries.Super-industrialism,however, the next stage of ec0—technological development,___31___ even higher mobility.Thus we may expect many among the people of the future to carry the streamlining process,a step further by remaining children,cutting the family down to its more___32___components,a man and a woman.Two people,perhaps with matched careers,will prove more efficient at navigating through education and social status,through job changes and geographic relocations,than the ordinarily child—cluttered family.A___33___maybe the postponement of children,rather than childlessness.Men and women today are often torn in___34___between a commitment to career and a commitment to children.In the future,many___35___will side aside this problem by deferring the entire task of raising children until after retirement.
       

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发表于 2017-6-2 22:14:47 | 显示全部楼层
 Section B
       
       
                  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten
statements attached to it. Eachstatement contains information given in one of
the paragraphs. Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived. You
may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked with a
letter.Answer the questions by marking thecorresponding letter on Answer Sheet
2.
       
  A.Are you at a loss for creative book report ideas for your students?If yes.then this article will help you make reading and reviewing books more creative for your class.In an age of PSPs,Xbox,anime and gaming arcades,reading has lost its foothold in the list of hobbies that children tend to cite.
  Most of the reading that kids do today,comes in the form of compulsory books that they need to read for school and maybe that is the reason they find reading to be an insurmountable and boring task.If you want to inculcate the love for languages and literary masterpieces in your students and want them to devour books everyone should read,then a good way of going about the same would be to get them to start working on creative book report ideas.While working on creative ideas for book reports,your students will have to understand the book in a way that allows them to come up with new ways to present to the class,the essence of the book.
       
  B.As a teachel while egging your students to activate their creative gray cells.you will have to help them out with basic ideas that they can work on.Depending on the age bracket that your students belong to,the creative book report ideas will vary.This is so,not just because of the varying attention spans that children of various age groups posses but also because of the amount of work that kids can put into the report.While a middle school student wiIl be comfortable handling a handy cam,a student from elementary school will be more fascinated if he is working with paints and puppets.So do you want to know how to write a book report creatively?In this article.we will list out for you,a couple of good creative book report ideas for elementary students and for middle  school students.
  C.A book report sandwich is a good creative idea for book reports.As a teacher you can get drawings of a sandwich on sheets of Paper that are of the color of the ingredients of your sandwich,for example,a cream sheet of paper to resemble mayonnaise,red to represent tomato and likewise.Obviously,each ingredient should be cut in a way that when assembled together,it looks like a sandwich.Now,give each of your students one of these book sandwiches to create their book report.
       
  It can start with the name of the book and the author’s name on the top slice of the sandwich.The second ingredient can have the summary of the book on it.Each subsequent ingredient can have a description of the main characters,the setting of the book,the plot,and then his or her views about the book.Once they are done with their book reports,they can staple the book sandwich together and then,you can create a class bulletin board with all the book report sandwiches on display.
  D.One of the good techniques to retell a story,it is also one of the favorite creative book report ideas among students.The job that the student will have is to read the book and then pick a few objects at his/her home which will allow him/her to retell the story in a way that makes it interesting for his/ her audience.Every time he/she picks out an object from the bag to report the book he/she has read,there has to be a valid connection between the book and the object,which the student can first ask the audience to guess and then go ahead and explain it.This idea is spin—off on the normal show and tells and allows for an interactive book report session.
       
  E.This is one of the creative ideas for book reports in which.as the teacher, you will have to divideyour class into groups and give them one book each.The students can then read the book and get together and write a play and act it out for the class.To give a deeper insight into the book,one of the students can play the role of the author and as a group,the students can try and recreate the thought Drocess of the author.The student playing the role of the author can then interrupt the play at lmportant iunctllres and talk about the reasons for these twists in the play and how he/she came up with these plot lines.
  F.As a voung adult,your student’s fascination may go beyond the immediate concerns of the book.
       
  He/she may want to understand the circumstances in which the book was  written,the times then,the events happening in the world and get the author’s perspective about the book.Encourage your students to mink on those lines.Divide the class into pairs and give each pair one book to read.Let them then do the roles of the author and a journalist.You can have an interview session in front of the class.enabling them to dissect the book and get a peek into the author’s world.
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发表于 2017-6-2 23:33:23 | 显示全部楼层
G.In a technology—obsessed world,it maybe a very tiny minority of your class that does not get excited with the Drospect of shooting a film.One of the best creative book report ideas for middle school, you will need to divide the class into groups and give them at least two months to adapt the book that thev have been assigned,into a film.The movie should have a well—adapted screenplay,and allother prerequisites,like a lighting engineer,sound engineer, costume designer,etc.At the end of the given time,the film can be screened in front of the class and then discussed.
       
  H.If you are on the lookout for good individual creative book report ideas,then this one could be for you.Assign every student a book and then ask them to start maintaining a diary,from the author’sDoint of vie w.Ask them to come up with imaginary incidents from the author’s life and use historical events to explain why the author wrote the book in a certain manner.Alternately, you can also ask your students to give a surrogate ending to the story.
  I)、These are just few of the options that you could use to inspire your students to come up with creative book report ideas.As kids we tend to be more imaginative and creative .Encourage your students to mink om of the box and appreciate them for their efforts.This will help you have a class that is not only lively and inquisitive by nature but also a class that will cultivate a love for words.
       
  36.11eachers can create a class bulletin board to display all the book report sandwiches after their students finish their reports.
  37.Adopting the method of knowing your author,teachers can encourage students to think beyond the immediate concerns of the book.
       
  38.Asking me students to write from their own point of view is suitable for teachers who are on the lookout for good individual creative book report ideas.
  39.Retelling a story is one of the favorite creative book report ideas among students and it tells and allows for an interactive book report session.
       
  40.Nowadays,most of book children read are those they need to read for school.
  41.Teachers tend to be more imaginative and creative as kids.
       
  42.While working on creative ideas for book reports,students will have to understand the book.
  43.The creative book report ideas vary according to ages because children in different age groups have different attention span.
       
  44.If teachers ask their students to shoot a film about a book,they should give them no fewer than two months.
  45.Teachers have to divide their class into groups and give them one book each is a good creative book report ideas.
       
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发表于 2017-6-2 23:48:13 | 显示全部楼层
Section C
       
       
                  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed
by some questions orunfinished statements. For each of them there are four
choices marked A, B, C andD . You should decide on the best choice and mark the
corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
       
       
                  Passage One
       
       
                  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
       
  It‘s very interesting to note where the debate about diversity(多样化)is taking place.It is taking place primarily in political circles. Here at the College Fund,we have a lot of contact with top corporate(公司的) leaders;none of them is talking about getting rid of those instruments that produce diversity.In fact,they say that if their companies are to compete in the global village and in the global market place,diversity.In fact,they say that if their companies are to compete in the global village and in the global market place,diversity is an imperative.They also say that the need for talented,skilled Americans means we have to expand the pool of potential employees.And in looking at where birth rates are growing andat where the population is shifting, corporate America understands that expanding the pool means promotingpolicies that help provide skills to more minorities,more women and more immigrants.Corporate leaders know that if that does not occur in our society,they will not have the engineers,the scientists,the lawyers,or the business managers they will need.
  Likewise,I don‘t hear people in the academy saying.“Let’s go backward.Let‘s go back to the good old days,when we had a meritocracy(不拘一格选人才)” (which was never true-we never had a meritocracy,although we’ve come closer to it in the last 30 years.) I recently visited a great little college in New York where the campus has doubled its minority population in the last six years.I talked with an African American who has been a professor there for a long time,and she remembers that when she first joined the community,there were fewer than a handful of minorities on campus.Now,all of us feel the university is betterbecause corporate board rooms or on college campuses.
       
  Choose correct answers to the question:
  46.The word“imperative”(Line5,Para.1) most probably refers to something _____
       
  A.Superficial
  B.remarkable
       
  C.debatable
  D.essential
       
  47.Which of the following groups of people still differ in their views on diversity?
  A.Minorities.
       
  B.Politicians.
  C.Professors.
       
  D.Managers.
  48.High corporate leaders seem to be in favor of promoting diversity so as to ______
       
  A.lower the rate of unemployment
  B.win equal political rights for minorities
       
  C.be competitive in the world market
  D.satisfy the demands of a growing population
       
  49.It can be inferred from the passage that _____
  A.meritocracy can never be realized without diversity
       
  B.American political circles will not accept diversity
  C.it is unlikely that diversity will occur in the U.S. Media
       
  D.minorities can only enter the fields were no debate is heard about diversity
  50.According to the passage diversity can be achieved in American society by ____
       
  A.expanding the pool of potential employees
  B.promoting policies that provide skills to employees
       
  C.training more engineers, scientists lawyers and business managers
  D.providing education for all regardless of race or sex
       
       
               
       
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发表于 2017-6-3 01:17:32 | 显示全部楼层

                  Passage Two
       
       
                  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
       
  Many private institutions of higher education around the country are in danger.Not all will be saved,andperhaps not all deserve to be saved. There are low-quality schools just as there are low-quality business.We have no obligation to save them simply because they exist.
  But many thriving institutions that deserve to continue are threatened.They are doing a fine job educationally,but they are caught in a financial squeeze,with no way to reduce rising costs or increase revenuessignificantly.Raising tuition doesn‘t bring in more revenue,for each time tuition goes up,the enrollment goes down,or the amount that must be given away in student aid goes up.Schools are bad businesses, whether public or private,not usually because of mismanagement but because of the nature of the enterprise.They lose money on every customer,and they can go bankrupt either from too few students or too many students.Even a very good college is a very bad business.
       
  It is such colleges,thriving but threatened,I worry about.Low enrollment is not their chief problem.Even with full enrollments,they may go under.Efforts to save them,and preferably to keep them private,are a national necessity.There is no basis for arguing that private schools are inherently (固有地)better than public schools.Examples to the contrary abound.Anyone can name state universities and colleges that rank as the finest in the nation and the world.It is now inevitable that public institutions will be dominant,and therefore diversity is a national necessity.Diversity in the way we support schools tends to give us a healthy diversity in the forms of education.In an imperfect society such as ours,uniformity of education throughout the nation could be dangerous.In an imperfect society,diversity is a positive good. Enthusiastic supporters of public higher education know the importance of  sustaining private higher education.
  Choose correct answers to the question:
       
  51.According to the author‘s opinion,schools are bad businesses because of _______.
  A.mismanagement
       
  B.too few students
  C.financial squeeze
       
  D.their characteristics
  52.The author used the phrase “go under” in Para. 3 to mean “_______”。
       
  A.get into difficulties
  B.have low enrollment
       
  C.have little money
  D.bring in more money
       
  53.We can reasonably conclude from this passage that the author made an appeal to the public in order to support_____
  A.public institution
       
  B.private schools
  C.uniformity of education
       
  D.diversity of education
  54.Which of the following is NOT mentioned about private schools?
       
  A.High-quality private schools deserve to be saved.
  B.If the tuition of the private schools is raised, the enrollment goes down.
       
  C.There are many cases to show that public schools are better than private schools.
  D.Private schools are more profitable than public schools.
       
  55.Which of the following ways could possibly save private schools?
  A.Raising tuition.
       
  B.Full enrollment.
  C.National awareness and support.
       
  D.Reduction of rising costs.
       
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发表于 2017-6-3 01:37:33 | 显示全部楼层

          Part IV Translation ( 30 minutes )
          Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a
passage from Chinese intoEnglish. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet
2.
  折扇
       
  清朝末期,雕刻精美、描绘华丽的折扇大量在中国广东生产,后被西方商人青睐。运往欧洲和美国后成为西方贵妇的重要时尚配件(accessories)。中国折扇的材质多为镂雕精巧的象牙、珍珠贝壳、漆木(lacquer)。扇面上描绘了众多清朝官员及夫人的形象。因为具有神秘的东方情调,当时西方中上层贵妇人手一把,以此来炫耀自己的财富和高贵。
       
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发表于 2017-6-3 02:52:55 | 显示全部楼层

                   PartⅠ Writing 答案
       
 How to Keep Psychologically Healthy?
  One in four people will experience some kind of mental problem in the  course of a year. When you fail to manage these problems, they are likely to cause various mental illnesses.
       
  The cause of mental health problems often vary a lot from one case to  another. In today’s society, a good number of people are suffering from heavy pressure. Others lack communication skills. In addition, a lot of people are ignorant of psychological knowledge about how to keep mentally fit.
  There are a lot of ways to curb mental health problems and keep psychologically healthy. Firstly, find the real cause of your mental health problem and see whether you can do something about it. Secondly, learn to relax yourself and take exercises to release the pressure. Lastly, you may find it helpful to talk to your partner or friend about your problem, or seek support and advice form a psychological consultant.
       
  PartⅢ reading comprehension Section A 答案解析
       
  26.【解析】 J。此处应填形容词,修饰名词societies。文章第一句就说The typical pre-industrial family…“工业化之前的典型家庭模式……”,也就是“extended” family,存在于工业化之前的社会,即agricultural society。选项中的primary society“原始社会”不符合原文意思。
  27.【解析】A。由be hard to do sth.可知,此处应填动词原形。根据They are immobile“这样的家庭很 难流动”,可知只有transplant“迁居,迁移”符合文意。
       
  28.【解析】C。此处应填副词,修饰动词shed。选项中的副词有gradually和continually,原文中…and the So-called “nuclear” family emerged“所谓的‘核心家庭’便出现了”,emerge意为“浮现”,强调经过一 个过程后出现的。由此可以判断核心家庭从无到有逐渐出现,而不是连续不断地出现,故选择gradually。
  29.【解析】O。此处需填表示“包含,由……组成”的词。选项中的including和consisting均可以表示此意, 但由原文中的of可排除includin9,consist of为固定搭配。
       
  30.【解析】H。由more…than可知,此处应填形容词,构成形容词的比较级结构。前面提到the traditional extended family是immobile,那么新型的家庭模式应该更具有流动性,故应选H。
  31.【解析】M。此处缺少谓语动词。根据下文可以推测super-industrialism“(更发达的)超级工业化”需要更具流动性的家庭。空格处应填表示“需要,需求”的词。故选requires,表示出自一种迫切的需要 而提出的要求。
       
  32.【解析】E。此处应填形容词,用来修饰名词components。文中说明家庭被减缩到由男人和女人组成。选项中的E)elemental“基本的,本质的”,而N)primary“主要的,最早的”,原文强调的是男人和女人是一个家庭最basic的组成部分,故E)更符合原文意思。
  33.【解析】L。此处应填名词。晚要孩子,而不是不要孩子,是解决工作和孩子的折中的办法,故选项中的L)compromise“妥协,折中”符合文意。而solution虽然也表示解决办法,但不能表达夫妇们 无可奈何的心情,故排除。
       
  34.【解析】F。上题中已提到工作和要孩子之间存在矛盾,故选conflict。
  35.【解析】I。此处需填名词。空格后讲到养育孩子的问题,那么要解决这个问题应是夫妻两人,故这里应填I)couples。
       
  PartⅢ reading comprehension Section B答案:
       
  36.Teachers can create a class bulletin board to display all the book  report sandwiches after their students finish their reports.
  在学生完成他们的读书报告后,老师可以设立一个班级布告板,把所有的三明治读书报告展示出来。
       
  【解析】C。细节题。由句中的sandwiches after可定位到C.段,文章指出一旦学生完成了读书报告,他们可以把三明治书本装订起来,你可以在班上设立一个布告板,上面展示所有的三明治读书报告。
  37.Adopting the method of knowing your author,teachers can encourage students to think beyond the immediate concerns ofthe book.
       
  采用了了解你的作者的方法,老师应该鼓励学生不只是思考目前书中的问题。
  【解析】F。细节题。文章F)段开头指出“As a young adult,your student’S fascination may go beyond the immediate concerns ofthe book.”。也就是说学生的兴趣可能不只是在目前书本的内容上。他/她可能想理解成书的背景、时代以及当时世界上发生的事情,还想了解作者对这本书的看法。老师要鼓励学生按照这些思路去思考。
       
  38.Asking the students to write from their own point of view is suitable for teachers who are on the lookout for good individual creative book report ideas.
  让学生们用自己的观点写,适合那些关注好的个人创意读书报告想法的老师。
       
  【解析】H。细节题。H)段第一句话指出“If you are on the lookout for good individual creative book reportideas,thenthis one couldbeforyou.”,onthelookout为固定搭配,指“寻找,注视,警惕”。
  39.Retelling a story is one of the favorite creative book report ideas among students and it tells and allows for an interactive book report session.
       
  复述故事是学生最喜欢的一种创意读书报告形式,它允许有一个互动的读书报告会。
  【解析】D。细节题。文章D.段开头和结尾指出,口头复述故事是讲故事的一个很好的技巧,同时也是学生最喜欢的创意读书报告形式,它能够允许我们有一个互动的读书报告会。
       
  40.Nowadays,most ofbook children read are those they need to read for school.
  如今孩子们读的书大部分是那些他们为了学业不得不去读的。
       
  【解析】A。细节题。根据句子中的most ofbooks children read可定位到A.段第四句话,文章指出“Most of the reading that kids do today,comes in the form of compulsory books that they need to read for school”,本题是文中这句话的同义转换。
  41.Teachers tend to be more imaginative and creative as kids.
       
  老师还是孩子的时候更有想象力和创造力。
  【解析】I。细节题。根据本句中的as kids可定位到文章的I)段第二句话,文章指出“As kids we tend to be more imaginative and creative.”tend t0意为“趋向”。
       
  42.While working on creative ideas for book reports,students will have to understand the book.
  当制作创意读书报告的时候,学生们必须理解全书。
       
  【解析】A。细节题。文章A.段指出,在制作创意读书报告的时候,学生们必须用一种方式去理解书本,这让他们能够以新的方式把书中的主旨展示给同学。
  43.The creative book report ideas vary according to ages because children in different age groups have different attention span.
       
  根据年龄段的不同,创意读书报告也不同,因为不同年龄段的孩子注意力集中的时间不同。
  【解析】 B。细节题。根据本句中的vary以及age groups可定位到B.段第二、三句话,文章提到了不同年龄组的人注意力集中的时间不一样,可以完成的工作量不一样,注意这里是年龄组不是年龄点
       
  44.If teachers ask their students to shoot a film about a book,they should give them no fewer than two months.
  如果老师要求学生把书拍成电影,老师应该给他们至少两个月的时间。
       
  【解析】G。细节题。根据本句中的film以及two months可定位到小标题G)段第二句话,at least和no fewer than都表示“至少”。
  45.Teachers divide their class into groups and give them one book each and the students can then read the book and get together and write a play and act it out for the class,which is a good creative book report ideas.
       
  老师必须把班级中的学生分成若干组,并给每组一本书,学生可以一起去读书,并写一个剧本,然后在课上表演出来,这是一种创意读书报告。
  【解析】E。细节题。文章E)指出“This is one ofthe creative ideas for book reports in which.as the teacher,you will have to divide your class into groups and give them one book each.The students can then read the book and get together and write a play and act it out for the class.”。本句是文章的同义转换。
       


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发表于 2017-6-3 03:13:24 | 显示全部楼层
PartⅢ reading comprehension Section Passage One 答案解析:
       
  46.[D] 词义理解题。本句说到公司要在地球村和全球市场上竞争,多样性是imperative,由前文“没有取消引起多样性的手段”和下文提到的公司对各种各样有技能的美国人的需求可知,多样性对于企业来说应该“必需的”故D正确。
  47.[B] 事实细节题。第2段末句指出这种辩论主要存在于政治圈和媒体中,结合上句内容,可知其中的this debate指的就是关于多样性的辩论,故B正确。
       
  48.[C] 事实细节题。由第1段第4句可知,公司高层领导人促进多样化的原因是想要在全球市场上更具竞争力,C与此相符。
  49.[A] 推理判断题。第2段中提到有些人认为在没有多样性的过去照样能做到不拘—格选人才,但作者马上which was never true否定此观点,故A正确。第2段只提到多样性的辩论存在于政治圈和媒体,但并不代 表在这两个圈子里不能接受或从未出现多样性,故排除B、C;D说法过于绝对,且在文中找不到依据,也可排除。
       
  50.[D] 推理判断埋。由第1段倒数第2句可知企业expand the pool就意味着向more minorities,more women 和 more immigrants提供技能培训,而expand the pool对应的就是题干中的说的多样性的形成,D中的race 和sex分别对文中minorities和women,故正确。A泛泛而谈,没有说到点子上,不如D具体、准确;B与多样性没有关系,C是利用文中的有关职业的词拼凑而成的干扰项。
 PartⅢ reading comprehension Section Passage two 答案解析:
       
  51.[D] 事实细节题。本题考查因果关系。第2段倒数第3句中的“not because of…… but because of……”指出了nature就是原因所在,characteristics是nature的近义词,故D正确。
  52.[A] 词义理解题。通过go under所在句子中的Even with……可知,该句与上一句形成对比,这两句中的enrollment是相对应的,所以go under应该也与上文的problem相对应,由此可推断,go under就是have problem/ difficulty之义。本题最具干扰性的是C,但文中并无细节具体说明即使入学人数满额学校收人也很少的问题,因此C把problem定义得过细,不如A恰当。
       
  53.[B] 推理判断题,也是主旨大意题。文章一开头就指出“许多私立髙等学校都处于危险之中”,引起读者的关注,结尾句明确倡议支持公立髙等教育的人们应该同样支持私立髙等教育,由此可见,B是本文的目的。本题最具干扰性的是D,D的说法在最后一段中多次提到,但是作者提出办学多样性是为了说明私立教育的重要性,故D只是本文主题(私立教育)的支持性细节,并非本文的中心话题。
  54.[D] 事实细节题。可用排除法找出答案。A可从第1段推断得出;B可在第2段第3句中找到;C可从最后一段中间找到。
       
  55.[C] 推理判断题。可用排除法找出答案,根据原文,第2段第3句可证明A不可行;最后一段第3句证明B不可行;第2段第2句也指出D行不通。本文的目的是为了提高公众对私立教育的关注,由此可见,只有C是拯救私立高校的可行性方法。
       
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发表于 2017-6-3 03:51:45 | 显示全部楼层
  Part IV Translation 答案解析
 Chinese Fans
       
  During the late Qing Dynasty, a large number of Chinese fans exquisitely carved and gorgeously painted were produced in Canton (now called Guang dong).These fans later were in good graces of western merchants.After they were shipped to Europe and America, they became fashionable accessories for noblewomen.The materials used to make Chinese fans were mostly exquisitely carved ivory,pearls and shells and lacquer.These Chinese fans showed many figures of Mandarins and their consorts.Mysterious oriental sentiment as they presented, each lady in upper-middle class family at that time owned a Chinese fan to show off her wealth and nobility.
       

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