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透析英语重难点语法:过去完成时

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:45:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  1) 概念:表示过去的过去
          ----|----------|--------|----> 其构成是had +过去分词构成。
          那时以前  那时 现在
          2) 用法
          a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。例如:
          She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。
          b. 状语从句
          在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。例如:
          When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。
          c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean,
suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…".例如:
          We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。
          3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as.例如:
          He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。
          By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.
到了十二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生。
          Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at
the party.
          汤姆失望了,因为他到达晚会时,大部分客人已经走了。
          典型例题
          The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the
office.
          A. had written, left B,were writing, has left  C. had written, had left D.
were writing, had left
          答案D.
"把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正忙于……"这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生。因此前一句应用过去进行时。
          注意: had hardly… when  还没等…… 就……。例如:
          I had hardly opened the door when I he hit me. 我刚打开门,他就打了我。
          had no sooner…than   刚…… 就……。例如:
          He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it. 他刚买了这辆车,转眼又卖了。
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