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英语语法精讲:分词和形容词的差别

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:41:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  在英语里,形容词可以修饰名词,分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)也可以修饰名词。久而久之,很多分词已经转化为形容词。这样的形容词和修饰名词的分词,在意义和用法上,有何不同呢?
          ㈠从现在分词转化的形容词只反映名词的特点,但现在分词则表示名词的动作。例如:
          ① It is an interesting story.(有趣的)
          ② Tom spoke with trembling fingers.(颤抖的)
          第一句的“interesting”表示名词“story”的特点,所以是形容词;第二句的“trembling”表示名词“fingers”的动作,所以是现在分词。
          ㈡现在分词转化的形容词可以冠以“very, extremely, so”等程度副词(adverbs of
degree),而且还可以作比较。例如:
          ③ That was a very illuminating example.
          ④ Jim is an extremely promising young man.
          ⑤ This story book is more interesting than that one.
          ⑥ The film we saw yesterday was the most moving one we have ever seen.
          上述的程度副词和比较式不可加到现在分词去,因此⑦和⑧是错的:
          ⑦ He spoke with very trembling fingers.
          ⑧ Her right eye is more sparkling than her left eye.
          ㈢过去分词转化的形容词表示名词的特色,但过去分词修饰名词时则反映动作的结果。例如:
          ⑨ Henry is an experienced teacher.
          ⑩ There are many talented people in China.
          11 No one can enter through that locked door.
          12 Is Ng Min a spoilt child?
          ⑨和⑩是转化形容词;╆和╇是过去分词。
          ㈣由过去分词转化的形容词可以冠以程度副词“too, so, very ”等,如:
          13 Hawker centres in Singapore are very crowded places.
          14 Samual was too upset to say anything.
          15 The winner was so agitated that he could not utter a single word.
          此外,有些转化形容词还可以变成状态副词,即有“-ly”的副词,如:
          16 determinedly; confusedly; excitedly; expectedly; supposedly.
          反之,过去分词既不可以冠以程度副词,也不可变成状态副词。
          最后,有些转化形容词里的“-ed”语音和过去分词的不同,如:
          17 a.blessed/blesid/“神圣的”
          b.blessed/blest/“求神保佑”
          18a.crooked/krukid/“弯曲的”
          b.crooked/krukt/“使弯曲”
          19a.learned/l3:nid/“博学的”
          b.learned/l3:nd/“学习”
          17a, 18a和19a属转化形容词;17b, 18b和19b则是过去分词。
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