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英语语法精讲:形容词从句的位置

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:41:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  在《容易犯错的形容词从句》一文里,知道形容词从句总是跟在被修饰的名词(即先行词)后面。例如:
          ① Any change which causes the formation of new matters is a chemical
change.(在主句主语的名词之后)
          ② Plastics is an important material which is widely used in
industry.(在主句补足语名词之后)
          ③ It has certain features that are easily recognised.(在主句宾语名词之后)
          在下列情况下,形容词从句和所修饰的名词隔开:
          ㈠被介词短语隔开,如:
          ④ Magnets work through lines of force that extend between the two ends of
the magnet.
          ⑤ A molecule may be defined as the smallest particle of matter that can
exist without changing its nature.
          ④里的形容词从句和先行词“lines”被介词短语“of force” 分离。⑤里的却被另一个介词短语“of matter”隔开。
          ㈡被分词短语隔开,如:
          ⑥ There is no method known to medical science today that can effectively
cure cancer.
          ⑥里的形容词从句和先行词“method”之间被过去分词短语“ known to medical science today”隔开。
          上述两种隔离情况可以理解,也被接受。
          另外还有一种分隔情况,也偶尔见到,特别在科技英语中,但这种离异法,值得商榷。
          例如:
          ⑦ Several other ideas came along that enabled engineers to design still
smaller units.
          ⑧ Ninety-six substances are known which chemists consider to be
elements.
          ⑦和⑧里的形容词从句和先行词“ideas”及“substances”之间都被主句的谓语动词“came along”和“are
known”分开。
          这类的分隔情况,多在主句谓语动词是被动语态(the passive voice)时才出现,如例⑧,但谓语动词是主动语态(the active
voice)的话,也可以,如例⑦,只是数量少些。
          为什么要把形容词从句常见的位置和先行词分开呢?主要原因是:先行词所在的主句较短,而修饰先行词的形容词从句则很长。为了平衡主句和从句,才采用这方法。虽然如此,但它和一般的形容词从句的位置有很多抵触,恐怕引起混乱。
          为了减少不必要的麻烦,最好改用别的句式。其中一个方法是将形容词从句改为另外一个独立的简单句(如例⑨&╆);另一个办法是采用并列句(如例⑩&╇):
          ⑨ Several other ideas came along. Such ideas /They enabled engineers to
design still small units.
          ⑩ Several other ideas came along and these ideas enabled engineers to
design still small units.
          ╆ Ninety-six substances are known. Chemists consider them to be
elements.
          ╇ Ninety-six substances are known and chemists consider them to be
elements.
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