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被动语态的特殊用法讲解

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:41:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
1. take place等能用于被动语态吗
Great changes ______ in China since 1978.
A. have taken place B. took place      C. have beentaken place  D. were taken place
此题应选A。首先要排除C, D, 因为take place(发生)是不及物动词, 所以不能用被动语态;另一方面, 因为句子中的since 1978, 所以句子宜用现在完成时A。
大家知道, 不及物动词没有被动语态(因为不及物动词没有宾语,转换成被动语态便没有主语)。但这里要注意的是:由于受汉语的影响,有些不及物动词很容易被考生误认为是及物动词,从而误用被动语态。这类易用错的动词主要的有take place 发生 / happen 发生 / come about 发生 / breakout 爆发 / appear出现 / disappear 消失 / last 持续 等)。
他出什么事了?
误:What was [is] happened to him?
正:What has happened to him?
每四年举行一次选举。
误:Elections are taken place every four years.
正:Elections take place every four years.
我不知道这事是怎么发生的。
误:I don’t know how this thing was come about.
正:I don’t know how this thing came about.
夜里起了一起火灾。
误:A fire was broken out during the night.
正:A fire broke out during the night.
2. 通常不用于被动语态的静态动词
那里的人缺乏食物。
1. People there lack food. (正)
2. Food is lacked by people there. (误)
从形式上看, 句2是句1的相应的被动形式,既然句1为正句,那么句2从理论上说应该是成立的。而事实上句2却是个错句。
在英语中,并不是所有的及物动词都可以用于被动语态的, 有些动词(尤其是那些静态动词)尽管它们可以带宾语, 但却不用于被动语态, 这种动词考生容易弄错, 其中主要的有:have, lack, fit, suit, cost, let, like等:
他有一台电脑。
正:He has a computer.
误:A computer is had by him.
他当时正在洗澡。
正:He was taking a bath.
误:A bath was being had by him.
我的鞋不适合。
正:My shoes don’t fit me.
误:I am not fitted by my shoes.
这架钢琴花了她6000美元。
正:The piano cost her 6000 dollars.
误:She was cost her 6000 dollars.
误:6000 dollars was cost her.
这件衣服他穿很合适。
正:The coat suits him very well.
误:He is well suited by the coat.
3. 容易出错的被动语态时态
—Have you moved into the new house?
—Not yet. The rooms ______.
A. are being painted B. are painting     C. are painted     D. are being painting
此题选A。从句意上看, 此题应选被动式(这是显然的), 同时注意:被动语态要用现在进行时形式(这点容易忽视)。
在做动词的语态题时, 同时要注意其时态形式:
You are wanted on the phone. 有人给你打电话。(一般现在时)
When was the building completed? 这座大楼什么时候建成?(一般过去时)
You won’t be allowed to take so much luggagewith you. 不会准你带这么多行李。(一般将来时)
A new railway is now being built. 一条新铁路正在修建。(现在进行时)
The roads were being widened. 道路当时正在加宽。(过去进行时)
Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这种事以前从未听说过。(现在完成时)
有时被动式动词可与情态动词连用:
The work must be finished at once. 这工作必须马上完成。
The method can still be improved upon. 这方法还可以改进。
My umbrella may have been left on the train. 我的伞可能忘在火车上了。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 18:29:24 | 显示全部楼层

        4. 带双宾语动词的被动语态有何规律
主动:He answered me the question. (正)
被动:I was answered the question by him. (正)
被动:The question was answered me by him. (误)
本题涉及带双宾语动词的被动语态问题。这个问题可以从三个方面去概括:
一、有些带双宾语的动词转换为被动语态时,可以有两种形式(即可用直接宾语或间接宾语作主语), 这类动词主要的有:buy, give, lend, pay, show, teach, tell, offer, leave, award 等:
他给了她一些钱。
主动:He gave her some money. (正)
被动:She was given some money by him. (正)
被动:Some money was given (to) her by him. (正)
二、有些带双宾语的动词转换为被动语态时,通常要用直接宾语作主语,这类动词主要的有:do, make, pass, sell, sing, write 等:
他给她写了封信。
主动:He wrote her a letter. (正)
被动:A letter was written (to) her by him. (正)
被动:She was written a letter by him. (少见)
三、有些带双宾语的动词转换为被动语态时,通常要用间接宾语作主语, 这类动词主要的有:answer, refuse, save, spare, deny, envy 等:
他们不允许我入场。
主动:They refused me admittance. (正)
被动:I was refused admittance by them. (正)
被动:Admittance was refused me by them. (少见)
5. “get+过去分词”也是被动语态吗
Cleaning women in big cities usually get ______ by the hour.
A. pay           B. paying         C. paid           D. to pay
此题应选 C。句意为“大城市的清洁女工通常按小时计报酬”。句中的get paid也是一种被动语态。再如:
They all got punished. 他们都受到了惩罚。
How did it get broken? 它是怎样打破的?
Our house is getting painted. 我们的房子要刷漆。
They are to get married. 他们要结婚了。
关于“be+过去分词”与“get+过去分词”的区别:
1. 总的说来, 构成被动语态用be的情形多, 用get 的情形少。在现代英语中用get 构成被动语态主要见于口语或非正式文体中。
2. 从含义上看, 用get构成的被动语态多侧重指动作的结果而非动作本身, 并且这种结构尤其用于谈论一些人们未曾料到的突发事件。试体会:
The dog got killed by the car. 狗被汽车压死了。
He got caught by the police driving at 60 kmsthrough Cambridge. 他在穿过剑桥时车速为60公里, 所以被警察抓住。
有人认为用get构成的被动语态不能与by短语连用, 其实在现代英语中是可以这样用的(见上例)。
3. 另外若句中用了in the end..., at long last...等也通常可用get构成被动语态:
In the end he got invited. 最后还是邀请了他。
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 19:16:20 | 显示全部楼层

       
6. 用主动表被动的常见动词
The pen ______ quite smoothly.
A. writes         B. is written       C. has written     D. is to be written
此题应选A。英语中有些及物动词在用作不及物动词时, 虽然形式上为主动, 但意义上却是被动, 这种用法主要见于一般现在时的情况(有时也可能是将来时、进行时等):
Meat cuts easily. 肉容易切。
The book sells well. 这书销路好。
My coat caught on a nail. 我的衣服被钉子钩住了。
This kind of cloth washes very well. 这种布很经洗。
Good leather will wear for years. 好的皮革可以穿好几年。
The book is printing. 这本正在印刷。
The house is building. 房子正在建筑中。
The book is selling well. 这书销路好。
尽管以上各例有时也可以直接使用被动语态形式:
Good leather will be worn for years.
The book is being printed.
但是在实际运用中,用主动表被动的情况更普遍。不过值得注意的是:像本题所涉及的这样的例子却只能用主动表被动:The pen writes quite smoothly. (这笔写起来很流畅),因为若直接用被动语态:*The pen is written quitesmoothly. 那么它相应的主动语态即为:*He writes thepenquite smoothly. 这显然是荒唐的。
7. 这类系表结构后不定式要用主动式表被动义
This book is difficult ______.
A. to understand   B. to be understand C. to understand it  D. being understood
此题应选A。容易误选B。从意思上看, 本句主语与其后不定式有动宾关系, 所以不少考生便误选了不定式的被动式, 但是这里有一点特殊之处。
按照英语习惯, 由easy, hard, nice, difficult, amusing,
interesting, dangerous, impossible, important, pleasant, 等形容词构成的系表结构后, 接用不定式时, 通常要用主动式表示被动含义:
English is not easy to learn. 英语不容易学。
This question is difficult [hard] to answer. 这 个问题很难回答。
That bird is impossible to catch. 那只鸟不可能被抓住。
The river is dangerous to swim in. 在这条河里游泳很危险。
Football is interesting to watch. 看踢足球很有意思。
以上结构可以换成用it作形式主语的句型:
英语单词难记。
正:English words are difficult to remember.
正:It is difficult to remember English words.
写那样一本书很容易。
正:Such a book is easy to write.
正:It is easy to write such a book.
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 20:50:30 | 显示全部楼层

        8. 介绍一种特殊的被动结构
I don’t know him, but he ______ to have a lot of money.
A. says           B. said           C. is said         D. is saying
此题应选 C。这是一类比较特殊的被动语态。试比较以下各组句子:
据说他是一个诚实的人。
a. People say that he is an honest man.
b. It is said that he is an honest man.
c. He is said to be an honest man.
据说龟比象活得久。
a. People say that tortoises live longer thanelephants.
b. It is said that tortoises live longer thanelephants.
c. Tortoises are said to live longer thanelephants.
人们认为他已离开了。
a. People believe that he has left.
b. It is believed that he has left.
c. He is believed to have left.
他们认为他取得了很大的进步。
a. They think that he has made great progress.
b. It’s thought that he has made great progress.
c. He is thought to have made great progress.
常用于这类结构的动词有:say, think, believe, report等。
9. 这句谓语要主动式还是被动式
I ______ ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.
A. gave          B. was given       C. to give         D. be giving
此题应选 B。此题考察考生能否识别被动语态。一般说来, 关于这个问题请注意以下几点:
1. 只有及物动词才有被动语态。
2. 及物动词必须有宾语, 否则可考虑用被动语态。
3. “双宾动词”(即带双宾语的动词)若只有一个动词,也应考虑用被动语态。
4. 有时句子是否使用被动语态, 要从句子意思来考虑。
以下各例从各类考题中选出, 请做一做:
(1) The police found that the house ____ and a lot
of things _____.
A. has broken into; has been stolen
B. had broken into; had been stolen
C. has been broken into; stolen
D. had been broken into; stolen
(2) When and where to hold the meeting _____ yet.
A. is not decided    B. are not decided
C. has not decided   D. have not decided
(3) In some parts of the world, tea _____ with milk
and sugar.
A. is serving       B. is served        C. serves         D. served
(4) I need one more stamp before my collection___.
A. has completed                   B. completes
C. has been completed                D. is completed
答案:(1)D (2)A (3)B (4)D
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