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英语语法指导:初中英语【语法】学习提纲

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:40:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  一、词类、句子成分和构词法:
          1、词类:英语词类分十种:
          名词、形容词、代词、数词、冠词、动词、副词、介词、连词、感叹词。
          1、名词(n.): 表示人、事物、地点或抽象概念的名称。如:boy, morning, bag, ball, class, orange.
          2、代词(pron.): 主要用来代替名词。如:who, she, you, it .
          3、形容词(adj..):表示人或事物的性质或特征。如:good, right, white, orange .
          4、数词(num.): 表示数目或事物的顺序。如:one, two, three, first, second, third, fourth.
          5、动词(v.): 表示动作或状态。如:am, is,are,have,see .
          6、副词(adv.): 修饰动词、形容词或其他副词,说明时间、地点、程度等。如:now, very, here, often, quietly,
slowly.
          7、冠词(art..):用在名词前,帮助说明名词。如:a, an, the.
          8、介词(prep.): 表示它后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。如in, on, from, above, behind.
          9、连词(conj.): 用来连接词、短语或句子。如and, but, before .
          10、感叹词(interj..)表示喜、怒、哀、乐等感情。如:oh, well, hi, hello.
          2、句子成分:英语句子成分分为七种:主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语、表语、宾语补足语。
          1、主语是句子所要说的人或事物,回答是“谁”或者“什么”。通常用名词或代词担任。如:I’m Miss Green.(我是格林小姐)
          2、谓语动词说明主语的动作或状态,回答“做(什么)”。主要由动词担任。如:Jack cleans the room every day.
(杰克每天打扫房间)
          3、表语在系动词之后,说明主语的身份或特征,回答是“什么”或者“怎么样”。通常由名词、代词或形容词担任。如:My name is Ping ping
.(我的名字叫萍萍)
          4、宾语表示及物动词的对象或结果,回答做的是“什么”。通常由名词或代词担任。如:He can spell the word.(他能拼这个词)
          有些及物动词带有两个宾语,一个指物,一个指人。指物的叫直接宾语,指人的叫间接宾语。间接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面。如:He wrote me a
letter . (他给我写了一封信)
          有时可把介词to或for加在间接宾语前构成短语,放在直接宾语后面,来强调间接宾语。如:He wrote a letter to me .
(他给我写了一封信)
          5、定语修饰名词或代词,通常由形容词、代词、数词等担任。如:Shanghai is a big city .(上海是个大城市)
          6、状语用来修饰动词、形容词、副词,通常由副词担任。如:He works hard .(他工作努力)
          7、宾语补足语用来说明宾语怎么样或干什么,通常由形容词或动词充当。如:They usually keep their classroom
clean.(他们通常让教室保持清洁) / He often helps me do my lessons.(他常常帮我做功课) / The teacher
wanted me to learn French all by myself.(老师要我自学法语)
          ☆同位语通常紧跟在名词、代词后面,进一步说明它的情况。如:Where is your classmate Tom ?(你的同学汤姆在哪里?)
          3、构词法:英语构词法主要有:合成法、派生法和转换法。
          1、合成法:如:spaceship, headache, basketball, playground等等。
          2、派生法:(1)派生名词:①动词+er/or ②动词+ing ③动词+(t)ion ④形容词+ness ⑤其他,如:inventor,
learner, swimming, congratulation, kindness, carelessness, knowledge
          (2)派生形容词:①名词+y ②名词+ful ③动词+ing/ed ④friendly ⑤dangerous ⑥Chinese; Japanese
⑦English ⑧French ⑨German ⑩国名+(i)an 如:snowy, sunny, hopeful, beautiful,
interesting, follwing, daily(每日的),nervous, delicious
          (3)派生副词:①形容词+ly ②其它,如:slowly, angrily, full→fully, good→well,
possible→possibly等等。
          3、转换法:
          (1)形容词→动词,如:dry(干燥的)→dry(弄干), clean(干净的)→clean(打扫,弄干净),等等。
          (2)动词→名词,如:look, walk, rest, work, study, swim, go, talk等等。
          (3)名词→动词,如:hand(手)→(传递),face(脸)→(面对)等等。
          (4)形容词→副词,如:early→early, fast→fast等等。
          (5)副词→连词,如:when(什么时候)→(当……时候),等等。
          (6)介词→副词,如:in(到……里)→(在里面;在家),on(在…上)→(进行,继续),等等。
          二、名词:
          1、英语名词可分专有名词和普通名词两大类:
          (1)专有名词是个别的人、地、物、团体、机构等的专用名称。
          专有名词中实词的第一个字母要大写。
          如:Beijing, Tom, the People’s Republic of China(中华人民共和国)
          专有名词如果是含有普通名词的短语,则必须使用定冠词the。如:the Great Wall(长城)
          姓氏名如果采用复数形式,则表示该姓氏一家人(复数含义),如:the Greens( 格林一家人)。
          (2)普通名词是许多人或事物的共有名称。如:pupil, family, man, foot.
          普通名词又分为可数名词和不可数名词。
          ▲可数名词是可以用简单的数词进行计数的名词,如: box, child, orange;
          ▲不可数名词是不可以用简单的数词进行计数的名词。如:water, news, oil, population, information .
          2、英语可数名词的单复数:英语可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。
          (1)名词由单数变复数的基本方法如下:
          ①在单数名词词尾加s。如:map → maps,boy→ boys,horse→ horses, table→ tables.
          ②s,o,x ,sh,ch结尾的词加es.如:class→classes, box→boxes, hero→heroes, dish→dishes,
bench→benches.
          [注]:少数以o结尾的词,变复数时只加s。如:photo→photos, piano→pianos.
          ③以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i,再加es。如:family→families, city→cities, party→parties.
          ④以f或fe结尾的名词,变f或fe为v,再加es。如:shelf→shelves, wolf→wolves, life→lives,
knife→knives.
          (2)不规则变化:man→men, woman→women, sheep→sheep,tooth→teeth, fish→fish,
child→children, ox→oxen, goose→geese
          不可数名词一般没有复数形式,说明其数量时,要用有关计量名词。如:a bag of rice→two bags of rice, a piece of
paper→three pieces of paper, a bottle of milk→five bottles of milk.
          3、名词所有格:名词所有格表示所属关系,相当于物主代词,在句中作定语、宾语或主语。其构成法如下:
          (1)表示人或其它有生命的东西的名词常在词尾加’s。如:Childern’s Day(儿童节), my sister’s
book(我姐姐的书)
          (2)以s或es结尾的复数名词。只在词尾加’。如:Teachers’ Day(教师节)
          (3)有些表示时间、距离以及世界、国家、城镇等无生命的名词,也可在词尾加’s. 如:
          today’s newspaper(今天的报纸), ten minutes’ break(十分钟的课间休息),
          China’s population(中国的人口).
          (4)无论表示有生命还是无生命的东西的名词,一般均可用介词of短语来表示所有关系。如:
          a fine daughter of the Party(党的好女儿).
          [注解]:① ‘s还可以表示某人的家或者某个店铺,如:my aunt’s (我阿姨家), the doctor’s(诊所)
          ② 两人共有某物时,可以采用 A and B’s 的形式,如:Lucy and Lily’s bedroom(露西和丽丽合住的卧室)
          ③ “of+名词所有格/名词性物主代词”,称为双重所有格,如:a friend of my father’s(我父亲的一位朋友), a friend
of mine(我的一位朋友)
          4、名词或代词作主语时和谓语之间的单复数的一致问题:
          (1)谓语和谓语基本保持单复数的一致,即:主语是可数名词单数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式:如:The computer was a great
invention.(计算机是个了不起的发明)The water in the glass is very cold.(玻璃杯里的水很冷)
          (2)集体名词(如family, class, team, group, row, police, school等)做句子主语时,
          ① 如果表示整体概念,则谓语用单数形式,如:Class Three is a very good class.(三班是好班)
          ② 如果表示其中的所有成员时,则谓语用复数形式,如:Class Three have a map of China.(三班有张中国地图)
          (3)Chinese, Japanese, fish, sheep, people等表示单个时谓语用单数,表示许多时,谓语用复数。如:There is
a sheep in the yard.(院子里有只绵羊) / There are some sheep in the yard.(院子里有一些绵羊)
          (4)maths, news等虽然有s结尾,但不是复数,因此谓语仍用单数:The news is very exciting.
(这个消息令人兴奋)
          (5)glasses, shoes, socks, trousers, gloves等名词往往用复数形式,故谓语用复数。如:
          The trousers are very cheap and I want to take them.(裤子很便宜,我想买)
          (6)a lot of 后跟名词复数时谓语用复数形式,跟不可数名词时谓语用单数形式。如:A lot of students are playing
baseball now.(现在有许多学生在打垒球) A lot of time was wasted on that
work.(大量的时间花在了那个工作上)(被动句)
          (7)and 连接两个名词做主语时,谓语原则上用复数,但是两个名词若构成一个整体事物时,谓语则用单数。如:The teacher and his
son are picking apples now.(老师和他的儿子在摘苹果) / Fish and chips is very famous food.
(鱼和薯条是一种出名的食品)
          (8) there be 句型中be的单复数一般由靠近的名词决定。如:There is a table and four chairs in the
room.(房间里有一张桌子和四张椅子)
          (9)用both…and…连接两个事物做主语时,谓语一般用复数。如:Both you and I are required to be here
tomorrow.(你和我明天要求都来)
          (10)主语中含有with的短语时,谓语单复数由with之前的人物决定。如:A woman with a 7-year-old child was
standing at the side of the road. (一名妇女带着一个七岁的孩子(当时)就站在路边)
          (11)either…or…或者 neither…nor…连接两个人物做句子主语时,谓语采用就近原则。如:Either you or he is
right.(要么是你对,要么是他对。/你和他有一个人是对的) / Neither you nor I am going
there.(你和我都不打算去那里)
          (12)表示一段时间或长度概念的复数名词做主语时,谓语一般用单数。如:Two months is not a short
time.(两个月不是个短时间)Two thousand kilometers is quite a long
distance(距离).(两千千米是相当长的一段距离)
          (13)主语中含有half of… / (three quarters)of… / all (of) the
….等词语时,谓语的单复数由名词确定,如:Over three quarters of the information on the Internet is
in English.(因特网上四分之三以上的信息是用英语写的) / A third of the students were playing near the
lake.(学生的三分之一(当时)正在湖边玩耍) / All of the water in these rivers has been
polluted.(这些河流中的水已经被污染了)(被动句)
          但是,population一词又有特殊情况: What’s the population of China?(中国人口是多少?)(句子用单数) /
Three quarters of the population in this city are
Arabs(阿拉伯人).(这个城市四分之三的人口是阿拉伯人)(句子用复数)
          5、部分名词用法辨析:
          (1)sport、game、match、race
的区别:sport通常指“户外运动”,以锻炼为主,概念较大;game意思是“运动、比赛”,不管户内户外还是脑力体力,指以胜负为主的运动;match意为“竞赛、比赛”,多指正式比赛;race主要表示“赛跑、赛马、赛车”。如:People
all around the world enjoy sports.(全世界的人都喜爱运动) / The 2008 Olympic Games will be
held in Beijing.(2008奥运会将在北京举行)(被动句) / Our school football team won the league
match(联赛).(我们学校足球队取得了联赛冠军) / They were strong and won the boat
race.(汤他们很棒,赢得了划艇比赛)
          (2)festival、holiday、vacation的区别:festival“节日”,指喜庆的日子或持续一段时间的文娱活动;holiday(假日、休息日),指法定假日或风俗习惯,复数可以表示一个较长的假期;vacation“假期”,指学习或工作中一段长时间的休息。如:The
Shanghai Television Festival will be held next month.(上海电视节将在下个月举行) / Sunday is
a holiday and most people do not work.(星期天是个假日,多数人不工作) / What are you going to
do during the summer vacation/holidays?(在暑期你打算做什么事情?)
          (3)journey、tour、trip、travel的区别:journey指在陆地上(或海上或空中)进行的长途旅行,不知终点,含有辛苦的意思;tour指途中作短期逗留的巡回旅行,强调游览多处,常用来指观光等;trip通常指往返定时的短途旅行,如出差度假等;travel多指长期或长途的观光旅行,尤其指到国外,没有明确目的地,也作不可数名词,指旅行这一行为。如:He
made up his mind to make the journey to Dunhuang.(他拿定主意要去敦煌旅行)/ He has gone on a
walking tour.(他步行观光去了) / He took several trips to Shanghai last
yeaar.(去年他去了上海好几次) / Did you go to Santiago(圣地亚哥) during your
travels?(旅行期间你去圣地亚哥了吗?) / Travelling through thick forests is
dangerous.(在密林里边穿行是很危险的)
          (4)sound、noise、voice的区别:sound指各种声音;noise主要指“噪音”;voice指人的“嗓音”。如:The noise of
the street kept me awake in the night.(街上的喧嚣声让我彻夜难眠) / All of a sudden there was
the sound of shots and a cry.(突然间传来几声枪响和一声尖叫) / The singer has lost her ringing
voice as a result of a bad cold.(因为感冒的缘故,这个歌唱家失去了她银铃般的嗓音)
          (5)fish的问题:指许多条鱼且不管种类时,用fish,单复数相同;fishes 指许多种类的鱼;fish指“鱼肉”时是不可数名词。如:There
are many kinds of fishes in the pool. (池子里有很多种类的鱼)/ I prefer fish to
meat.(与肉相比我更喜欢鱼)
          三、代词:
          1、代词的分类:英语中代词分为:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、关系代词、疑问代词、连接代词和不定代词等等。
          2、人称代词:人称代词代替人和事物的名称,分为主格和宾格两种形式。
          (1)主格用来作句子的主语、表语。如: I often go shopping on Sundays.(星期天我常去购物) / Are they
from Brazil?(他们是巴西人吗?) / Where have they gone?(他们上哪儿去了?) / That’s it.(就那么回事) /
It’s he!(是他!)
          (2)宾格用来作及物动词或者介词的宾语。如:Who teaches you English this year?(今年谁教你们的英语?) / Help
me!(救救我!) / We often write letters to her.(我们常给他写信)
          (3)人称代词作表语或者放在比较状语从句连词than或as之后时,可以用主格形式,也可以用宾格形式,口语中大多用宾格。如:--Who is
it?(是谁?) ?It’s I/me.(是我。)
          (4)三个不同人称同时出现,或者主语中包含“我”时,按照“you→he→I”的顺序表达。如:
          Both he and I are working at that computer company.(我和他都在那家电脑公司上班) ?Who
will go there?(谁要去那儿?) ?You and me.(你和我)
          (5)人称代词it除了可以指人指物之外,还可以表示“时间、天气、温度、距离、情况”等含义,此外还可以作“非人称代词”使用,替代作主语或者宾语的不定式、动名词或者名词性从句。如:--What’s
the weather like today?(今天天气怎样?)—It’s fine.(天气晴好) / --What’s the time?(几点啦?)
?It’s 12:00.(12点) / It’s a long way to go.(那可要走好长的路) / It took him three days to
clean his house.(打扫屋子花了他三天的时间) / It is very clear that the public want to know
when these men can go into space.(很显然,公众想知道这些人什么时候能进入太空) / We found it very
difficult to learn a foreign language well.(我们发觉要学好一门外语是非常困难的)
          3、物主代词:说明事物所属关系的代词,分为形容词性和名词性两种。
          1、形容词性物主代词只能作句子中名词的修饰语,后面要跟名词。如:
          Is that your umbrella?(那是你的伞吗?) / I often go to see my aunt on
Sundays.(我经常在星期天去看望阿姨) / They are their books.(是他们的书)
          2、名词性物主代词相当于名词,既代替事物又表明所属关系,在句子中往往独立地作主语、宾语或者表语,后面千万不可以跟名词。如:
          This is your cup,but where is mine?(这是你的杯子,可我的在哪儿?) / Your classroom is
very big, but ours is rather small.(你们的教室很大,我们的相当小)
          3、“of + 名词性物主代词”称为双重所有格,作定语时放在名词的后面。如:
          A friend of mine came to see me yesterday.(我的一个朋友昨天来看我了)
(指若干朋友中有一个来看我。)
          [试比较] My friend came to see me yesterday.(我的朋友昨天来看我了)(指我的那个特定的朋友来看我。)
          4、反身代词:表示谓语的动作与主语有关或者宾语补足语的动作与宾语有关。
          1、反身代词在句子中作宾语表示反射(指一个动作回到该动作执行者本身)。如:
          Don’t play with the knife, you might hurt yourself.(不要玩刀子,那会割伤你的)
          2、在句子中作同位语表示强调(即用来强调名词或代词的语气)。如:
          The story itself is good. Only he didn’t tell it well.(故事本身是好的,只是他没有讲好)
          5、指示代词: 指示说明近处或者远处、上文或者下文、以前或者现在的人或事物。
          单数 复数 含义
          this(这个) these(这些) 指较近的人和物
          that(那个) those(那些) 指较远的人和物
          such (这样的人/物) 指上文提过的人和物
          same (同样的人/物) 指和上文提过的相同的人和物
          it (这人/这物) 指不太清楚是谁或者是什么时
          指示代词既可以单独使用做句子的主语、宾语或表语,也可以作定语修饰名词。如:
          What’s this?(这是什么?) / That model plane is made of
plastic.(那只模型飞机是塑料做的)(被动句) / Remember never to do such things.(记得永远不要做这样的事情) /
Do the same as the teacher tells you. (按老师说的做)/ ---Who is it?(是谁?) ---It’s
me!(是我!)
          6、关系代词:用来引导定语从句的代词叫关系代词,参见后面的定语从句。
          1、关系代词who 、which、 that 、whom
等,将定语从句和主句连接起来。英语中的关系代词一方面在从句中担任一定的成分,另一方面又起连接作用。
          如:The student who is drawing a picture is in Grade One.(正在画画的学生是一年级的)
          2、关系代词who / whom指人,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。如:
          Do you know the man who is wearing a red hat? (你认识那个戴着红帽子的男人吗?)
          3、关系代词which 指物,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。如:Have you found the book which you lost
several days ago?(你找到几天前丢失的那本书了吗?)
          4、关系代词that既可指人也可指物,如果作从句的宾语,则有时省略。如:Can you see the man/dog that is running
along the river bank ?(你看得见顺着河跑的男人/狗了吗?)
          7、连接代词:用来引导宾语从句、主语从句或表语从句的连接词称连接代词。
          英语中连接代词主要有:what(什么),who(谁),whom(谁),which(哪个),whose(谁的)。详见相应从句。
          8、不定代词:代替或修饰不特指的人或事物的代词叫不定代词。
          单数
          含义 some
          any no
          none / / each
          (every) one either,
          neither so the other,
          another 复合不
          定代词
          不可数
          含义 much little,
          a little all / / / / /
          复数
          含义 many few,
          a few ones both others,
          the others
          ※ 注:复合不定代词有12个:something(某事), someone(某人), somebody(某人), anything
          (任何事), anyone(任何人), anybody(任何人), nothing(没事),nobody(没有人), no one(没有人),
everything(一切), everyone(每个人), everybody(每个人).
          (1)some和 any 的用法:
          some一般用于肯定句中,意思是“几个”、“一些”、“某个”作定语时可修饰可数名词或不可数名词。如:I have some work to do
today. (今天我有些事情要做)/ They will go there some day.(他们有朝一日会去那儿)
          some 用于疑问句时,表示建议、请求或希望得到肯定回答。如:Would you like some coffee with
sugar?(你要加糖的咖啡吗?)
          any 一般用于疑问句或否定句中,意思是“任何一些”、“任何一个”,作定语时可修饰可数或不可数名词。如:They didn’t have any
friends here. (他们在这里没有朋友)/ Have you got any questions to ask?(你有问题要问吗?)
          any 用于肯定句时,意思是“任何的”。Come here with any friend.(随便带什么朋友来吧。)
          (2)no和none的用法:
          no是形容词,只能作定语表示,意思是“没有”,修饰可数名词(单数或复数)或不可数名词。如:There is no time left. Please
hurry up.(没有时间了,请快点) / They had no reading books to lend.(他们没有阅读用书可以出借)
          none只能独立使用,在句子中可作主语、宾语和表语,意思是“没有一个人(或事物)”,表示复数或单数。如:None of them is/are in
the classroom.(他们当中没有一个在教室里)
          I have many books, but none is interesting.(我有很多的书,但没有一本是有趣的)
          (3)all和both的用法:
          all指三者或三者以上的人或物,用来代替或修饰可数名词;也可用来代替或修饰不可数名词。
          both指两个人或物,用来代替或修饰可数名词。all和both在句子中作主语、宾语、表语、定语等。如:I know all of the four
British students in their school.(他们学校里四个英国学生我全认识) / --Would you like this one
or that one? ?Both.(你要这个还是那个?两个都要。)
          all和both既可以修饰名词(all/both+(the)+名词),也可以独立使用,采用“all/both + of the
+名词(复数)”的形式,其中的of 可以省略。如:All (of) (the) boys are naughty.(是男孩都调皮)
          (4)every和each用法:
          every是形容词,只能作定语修饰单数名词,意思是“每一个”,表示整体概念;
          each是形容词、代词,可用作主语、宾语、定语等,意思是“每个”或者“各个”,表示单个概念;each可以放在名词前,可以后跟of短语,与动词同时出现时要放在“be动词、助动词、情态动词”之后或者行为动词之前
          every和each都用作单数理解,但是下文中既可以用单数的代词(如he/him/his)也可以用复数的代词(如they/them/their)替代。如:Every
one of the students in his class studies very hard.(他班上每个学生学习都很用功) / They are
very busy. Each of them has something to do.(他们很忙,人人都有事干)
          (5)either和neither的用法:
          either意思是“两个中间的任何一个”;neither是either的否定形式,意思是“两个都不”。
          neither和either在句子中可作主语、宾语和定语等,都用作单数。如:I don’t care much for what to drink.
Either of the two will do. (我不介意喝些什么,两个之中随便哪个都行) / --Will you go there by bus or
by car? ?Neither. I will go there by train.(你坐公车去还是坐轿车去?一个都不坐,我坐火车去。)
          (6)other、the other和another的用法:
          other意思是“另一”、“另一些”,有复数形式。在句子中可作主语、宾语和定语。another意思是“另外”、“又一个”,表示增加,在句中可作宾语和定语。如:
          Some girls are singing under the big apple tree and others are sitting on
the grass talking.(有些女孩在大苹果树下唱歌,别的就躺在草地上说话) / You have had several cakes. Do you
really want another one?(你已经吃了好几块饼子了,你真的还要一块?) / I want another four
books.(我还要四本书)
          another(另外的,再一,又一)与the other(另外的一个) 主要从数量上区分,只有两个时用the
other,在原先基础上增加用another。如: This is one of your socks. Where is the other
one?(这是你的一只袜子,还有一只呢?) / I have eaten 4 cakes, but I still want
another.(我已经吃了4块蛋糕,但是我还要以块。)
          others与the others的主要区别:others指“剩余的人/物”(指大部分);the others指“其余的人/物”,(指全部)。如:A
few students are playing soccer while others are watching
them.(有几个学生在踢足球,其他一些人在观看) / Two of the ten boys are standing and the others are
sitting round them.(十个男孩中有两个站着,其他人都围着他们坐着。)
          (7)many和much的用法:
          many意思是“很多”,与可数名词复数连用;much意思是“很多”,与不可数名词连用。它们在句中可作主语、宾语和定语等。如:I don’t have
many friends here.(在这里我没有很多的朋友。) /Many died in the bus accident.(许多人在公交车祸中丧失) /
We can learn much with the help of him.(在他的帮助之下我们能学到很多)
          many和much一般用于否定句,肯定句中通常用a lot of 或者lots of; many /
much用于肯定句时可以在前面加上so、very或too.如: There are a lot of people on the
playground.(操场上有许多的人)/ They haven’t got much work to do.(他们没有多少事情可做) / There are
too many people in the room.(房间里人太多了。)
          (8)few、little、a few、a little的用法:
          few、little意思是“很少几个”、“几乎没有”,有否定的意思,a few、a little意思是“有几个”、“有些”,有肯定的意思 ;few、a
few与可数名词连用或代替可数的事物, little、a little与不可数名词连用或代替不可数的事物。它们在句中可作主语、宾语和定语。如:
          He is very poor and he has little money.(他很穷,几乎没有什么钱。) / Don’t worry. There
is still a little time left.(别着急,还有一点儿时间呢。) / In that polar region there live
few people.(在那个极地地区几乎不住人) / You can get a few sweets from
him.(你可以从他那儿弄到一些糖果)
          (9)复合不定代词somebody ,something ,anything, nothing ,everything,
everybody等是由some , any ,no ,every, 加上body, thing 构成的,叫做复合不定代词,在句子中当单数使用。
          somebody, something, someone 一般用于肯定句中;anything,
anybody,anyone一般用于疑问句、否定句和条件状语从句中。修饰复合不定代词的定语,应放在它们的后面。如:Hey,Lily. There is
someone outside the door.(嗨,丽丽,门外有人。) /Di(每个人)d you meet anyone when you came to
school last Sunday?(上个星期天你来学校时见到什么人了吗?)/He has nothing much to do
today.(他今天没有多少事情做)
          (10)one与ones用来代替上文的一个或多个人或事物,前面可以加冠词、形容词、指示代词、which等。如: Which jacket would
you like, this one or that one?(你要哪件夹克,这件还是那件? / I don’t like the green
ones.(我不喜欢绿色的那些)
          (11)so可以代替一件事情,作句子的宾语或表语。如: I don’t think so.(我认为不是这样的。) / He lost a book.
So did I.(他丢失了一本书,我也是。)
          (12)a lot of、lots of、a number of( /large numbers of)、a great deal of、plenty
of的区别:五个“名词+介词”短语都表示“大量,许多”,a lot of(或lots
of)既可以修饰不可数名词也可以修饰可数名词的复数形式,可以相应地换为much和many;plenty
of“足够、大量”,既可以修饰不可数名词也可以修饰可数名词的复数形式。a number of / large numbers
of只可以修饰可数名词复数形式(它修饰的词作主语时谓语用复数形式)可以换为some、many、a lot of、plenty of。 a great deal
of只可以修饰不可数名词(它修饰的词作主语时谓语用单数形式)可以换为much。
          如:A lot of people think that time is money.(许多的人认为时间就是金钱。) / I don’t have
to do it in a hurry because I have plenty of time.(我用不着赶忙,因为我有充足的时间。) / I have a
number of letters to write today.(今天我有好多信要写) / I spend a great deal of
time/money on shopping.(在购物方面我花费了大量的时间/金钱。)
          (13)none、no one、nobody的区别:no one和nobody都表示“没有人”,仅指人,后面不跟of
短语,作主语时谓语用单数形式;none表示“没有一个人/物”,可指人也可以指物,后面可跟of短语,作主语时谓语可用单数也可用复数。如:No one knows
how he managed to get the ticket.(没有人知道他是怎样搞到那张票的) / Nobody handed in his/their
composition(s) yesterday.(昨天没有一个人交作文。) / None of my friends came to see me that
day.(那天没有一个朋友来看我。)
          9、相互代词:表示相互关系的词叫相互代词。
          each other ,one another是相互代词,译成“互相”,可以通用。each other表示两者之间,而one
anther表示许多人之间。它们有所有格形式each other’s ,one another’s。如: We must help each other
when we are in trouble.(我们身处困境时要互相帮助。) / They sat there without talking to one
another / each other.(他们坐在那儿,互相都不说话。)
          10、疑问代词:用来提出问题的代词称为疑问代词。
          1、who、whom、whose、what、which、whoever、whatever、whichever主要用于特殊疑问句中,一般放在句首。口语中也常用who代替whom作宾语,但在介词后则只能用whom。如:
          Who(m) did you invite to your birthday party?(你都邀请了谁参加你的生日聚会的?) / What does
she want to be when she grows up?(她长大了想干什么?)
          2、who
和whom只能独立使用,其中who可以作句子的主语、表语或动词的宾语,whom只能作谓语动词的宾语;而what、which、whose等既可以独立使用作主语、表语和宾语,也可以与名词构成疑问短语。如:
Who is that man?(那男的是谁?) / What colour are their hats?(他们的帽子是什么颜色?) / Which car
was made in Germany?(哪辆车是德国造的?)(被动句)
          注意这个提问:The man in the car is my father.(车里的男人是我父亲)
          →Which man is your father?(哪个男人是你的父亲?)
          3、which除了可以询问指代的情况之外,还可以针对说明人物的时间、地点、岁数、颜色、大小、状况等进行提问。如:People there live a
very sad life.(那里的人生活凄惨) →Which people live a sad life? (哪些人生活凄惨?)/ --Which
hotel have you booked for your holiday?(为了度假你预订了哪家旅馆?)—The biggest one in
Haikou.(海口最大的那家旅馆)
          4、疑问代词不分单复数,视它所替代的人或事物决定单复数,但是通常用单数;如果修饰名词,则以名词的单复数为准。如:Who is (are) in
that playhouse?(谁在游戏房里?) / What is that? (那是什么?)/ What are those? (那些是什么?) /
What colours do they have?(它们有哪些颜色?)
          四、数词:
          1、分类:数词有基数词和序数词两种。英语的数词可以作句子的主语、宾语、表语和定语。
          2、基数词:表示数目的词叫基数词。
          1、 英语中常用的基数词有:
          2、[注]:(1)百位与十位之间要加and;十万位和万位,亿位和千万位之间通常也要加and。
          (2)英语用千、百万等单位计数,大数字从右向左看,
每隔三位划一逗号,倒数第一个逗号之前要用thousand,倒数第二个逗号之前要用million,倒数第三的逗号之前要用billion表示。
          (3) hundred、 thousand、 million作数词时,不用复数,前面可以加上one, two,
…等其它数词。用作名词时复数表示“成…上…”,后面必须要有of,前面可以加上some,many,several等词。如:five hundred(五百),
hundreds of(成百上千的), ten thousand(一万), thousands of(成千上万的), millions of(成百万的)
          3、序数词:表示顺序的数词叫序数词。
          1、 英语的序数词基本变法:
          (1) 一般在基数词后加th,(2)-ve结尾的改为-fth,(3)-ty结尾的改为-tieth,(4)熟记特殊词。
          2、序数词如下:1000th→one thousandth, 1000000th →one millionth., 第703→the seven
hundred and third,
          第5480→the five thousand four hundred and eightieth.
          3、注:(1)两位以上的序数词仅个位数部分用序数词,其余部分仍用基数词。如:thirty-sixth,
          (2) 使用序数词时一般加定冠词the. 如:I’m in the third grade.
          (3) 序数词作“几分之几”讲时,有复数形式。如:1/5→one fifth ; 2/3→ two thirds ; 4/7→ four
sevenths ; 1/2→ a half ; 1/4→a quarter ; 3/4→ three quarters ; 50%→ fifty
hundredths ( fifty per cent).
          4、数词的用法:
          1、表示年份:2002: twenty thousand and two ; 1976 : nineteen seventy-six.
          2、表示日期: 12月1日: Dec.1st或the first of December;2002年11月8日: Nov. 8th,
2002.
          3、表示时刻: 5:15→ five fifteen或a quarter past five ; 8:30→ eight thirty或half
past eight ; 10:45→ ten forty-five或a quarter to eleven.
          4、表示编号:Room 105→Room one 0 five; Bus No.13→Bus Number Thirteen; P.5→Page
Five; Tel.No.7658659→Telephone Number seven-six-five-eight-six-five-nine
          5、小数的读法:5.7→ five point seven, 0.16 →zero point one six.
          6、“半”的表达: 1/2→half, 半小时→half an hour, 1.5小时→one and a half hours或one hour
and a half.
          7、序数词前面加the时,表示顺序,加a/an时表示“再一、又一”。如:The third lesson is rather
difficult.(第三课相当难)/ Shall we read the text a third time?(我们把课文读第三遍,好吗?)
          五、冠词
          1、冠词分类及读法:英语中冠词有不定冠词和定冠词两种,常放在名词的前面,用来限定名词的意义,起泛指或特指的作用。
          定冠词the读法:单独念时读[Ti:],在句子中常发[Ti ](元音之前)或者[T[](辅音之前);
          不定冠词a/an的读法:单独念时读 [ei ]/[An ];在句子中常发 [[]/[[n]。
          2、不定冠词a / an的用法:
          不定冠词a / an用在单数名词的前面,a用在辅音开头的词前面; an用在元音开头的词的前面。
          不定冠词的基本用法:
          (1) 表示某一个人或东西,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:There is a dog lying on the
ground.(有一只狗躺在地上。)
          (2) 表示某类人或事物,以区别于其他种类。如:A elephant is much stronger than a
man.(大象比人强壮多了。)(不能译为:一头大象比一个人强壮。)
          (2) 表示某类人或事物中的任何一个。如:He is a teacher of English.(他是英语教师。)
          (4) 表示“一”这个数量。如:There is a table and four chairs in that
dining-room.(在那个餐厅里有一张桌子和四把椅子。)
          (5) 几个用不定冠词的习语:a bit(一点), a little(一点), a few(几个), a lot (许多), a kind
of(一种), a pair of(一副、一双), a number of(大量的), a piece of (一张、一片), half an
hour(半小时), have a good time(玩得开心), have a cold(感冒), make a noise(发出嘈杂声),
have/take a (rest等)(休息)一会儿,等等。
          3、定冠词the的用法:定冠词the用在可数名词的单数或复数或不可数的名词前面。
          定冠词的基本用法:
          (1) 表示特指的人或事物。如:The man with a flower in his hand is
Jack..(手上拿着一朵花的男人是杰克)
          (2) 指谈话双方都熟悉的人或事物。如:Look at the blackboard,Lily.(莉莉,请看黑板。)
          (3) 复述前面提到过的人或事物。如:There is a man under the tree. The man is called
Robert.(树下有个人, 那个人叫罗伯特。)
          (4) 表示世界上独一无二的事物。如:The earth turns around the sun.(地球绕太阳旋转。)
          (5) 用在表示方位的名词前面。如:There will be strong wind to the south of the Yangtze
River.(长江以南地 区将会刮大风。)
          (6) 在序数词和形容词最高级的前面。如:Who is the first one to go?(谁第一个去?) / Of all the
stars, the sun is the nearest to the earth.(在所有的恒星之中太阳离地球最近)
          (7) 常用在乐器名称的前面。如:He began to play the violin at the age of
5.(五岁时他开始拉小提琴)
          (8) 用在江河、海洋、山脉等名称的前面。如:I have never been to the Himalaya
Mountains.(我从来没有去过喜马拉雅山)
          (9) 用在含有普通名词的专有名词的前面。如:He is from the United States of
America.(他来自美利坚合众国)
          (10)用在姓氏之前表示一家人。如:The Greens are going to Mount Emei next
month.(下个月格林一家要去峨眉山)
          (11)same之前一般用the。如:Lucy and Lily look the same.(露西和莉莉看上去长得一样)
          (12)几个用定冠词的习语:at the same time (与此同时),make the bed(铺床),in the end(最后),all
the time(一直),by the way(顺便说一下),on the way(在路上)等等。
          4、一些不用冠词的情况:
          (1) 专有名词和(第一次使用)一些不可数名词时前面通常不用。如:China is a very large country.(中国是个大国) /
Man needs air and water.(人类需要空气和水)
          (2) 名词前已有指示、物主或不定代词作定语时不用。如:My pen is much more expensive than
yours.(我的钢笔比你的昂贵多了)
          (3) 周名,月名或季节名前一般不用。如:He was born on Monday, February
18,1995.(他出生在1995年二月十八日,星期一) / They usually plant trees on the hills in
spring.(春天他们通常在山上植树)
          (4) (第一次使用)复数名词表示人或事物的类别时不用。如:Men are cleverer than monkeys.(人比猴子聪明)
          (5) 三餐饭前不用。如:We have breakfast at home and lunch at
school.(我们在家吃早饭,在校吃午饭)
          (6) 节、假日前一般不用。如:On Children’s Day the boys often get presents from their
parents.(在儿童节,这些男孩经常得到父母的礼物)
          (7) 球类名词前不用。如:The children play football on Saturday
afternoons.(孩子们星期六下午踢足球)
          (8) 城市的重要/主要建筑物名称前不用。如:They are now at People’s Cinema.(他们此刻在人民电影院)
          (9) 一些习惯用语中不用。如:⑴ at / to / from / out of / after / for school; ⑵ in / to /
for / after class; ⑶in / to / out of / into bed; ⑷ after / at/ from / out of /
to work; ⑸ at / to sea; ⑹ in / from / down / to town; ⑺ at / from home; ⑻ at /
for / to breakfast/lunch/supper; ⑼ at night/noon/midnight; ⑽ on foot; ⑾ go to
school/bed; ⑿ on top of; ⒀ in front of; ⒁ on show/display/duty/watch; ⒂ in / out
of hospital; ⒃ at all; ⒄ on/in time; ⒅ at first/last/once; ⒆ in
Chinese/English,etc.; ⒇ take care of
          六、形容词、副词:
          1、形容词:用来说明或修饰名词、代词的词称为形容词。
          1、形容词的句法作用:作句子中名词的定语、句子的表语以及宾语补足语。
          2、形容词在句子中的位置:
          ⑴作定语时放在名词的前面,且音节少的词放在音节多的词之前。如:a big yellow wooden wheel(一个黄色的大木轮)
          ⑵作表语时放在连系动词之后。如:The price sounds reasonable.(这个价格听起来算是合理)
          ⑶作宾语补足语时放在宾语之后。如:We must try our best to keep our environment
clean.(我们必须尽力保持我们的环境清洁)
          ⑷后置的情况:
          ①修饰复合不定代词时放在代词之后。如:Something serious has happened to him.(他发生了严重的事故)
          ②与表示“长、宽、高、重、老、远离”的词连用时形容词后置。如:He’s 1.8 metres tall.(他身高1.8米。)The moon is
about 380,000 kilometres away from the earth.(月球离地38万公里)
          3、有关形容词的用法辨析:
          ⑴ whole与all:记住两个词序:① the whole + 名词; ②all (of) the + 名词。如:He was busy the
whole morning.(整个早晨他都很忙) / He can remember all the words he
learns.(他能记住学过的所有单词)
          ⑵ tall与high, short与low:指人的个子时用tall与short;指其他事物时一般用high与low。如:He’s very
tall/short.(他个子高/矮) / Tall trees are standing on both sides of that
avenue.(大道的两侧有高大的树木) / A few people live on high mountains.(少量的人住在高山上)
          ⑶ real与true:real一般指东西的真假,译为“真的”;而true则指事情或消息的可靠性,译为“真实的”。如:This is a real
diamond(钻石) and it’s very expensive.(这是货真价实的钻石,非常贵) / --Is that true?—Yes. I
heard it with my own ears.(那真实吗? 是的,我亲耳所听)
          ⑷
interested与interesting的区别:interesting指人或东西“有趣的”,作定语或表语,而interested则表示人对别的事物“感兴趣的”,只能作表语。如:The
man is very interesting and all the children like him. (这个人很有趣,孩子们都喜欢他)/ This
book is interesting and you can really enjoy yourself.(这本书很有趣,你会真正获得享受) / I am
interested in science.(我对自然科学感兴趣)
          ⑸ such用法: such + a(n) + 名词(单数)(+that从句)。如:I have never seen such a
foolish(愚蠢的) boy.(我从来没有见过这么蠢的男孩) / He had such a terrible accident that he could
never forget it.(他遭遇了这么可怕的事故,他永远也不会忘记)
          ⑹ good与well:表示“好”时,作定语或表语用good,作状语用well;表示“(身体)好”时用well.如:Doing sports is
good for us.(进行运动对我们有益) / Study well and make progress every day.(好好学习,天天向上) /
--How are you?—I am very well.(你好吗?我很好。)
          ⑺ nice与fine:的区别:nice表示令人愉快的,可以指东西、人物外表等;fine一般指身体或天气好。如:Let’s go and
share(分享) the nice cake.(我们去分享那块美味的蛋糕吧) / She is a nice girl.(他是个漂亮的姑娘) / What a
fine day!(多好的天气!) /He’s fine recently(最近).(近来他身体不错)
          ⑻ too much与much too:too much表示“太多的”,修饰事物数量;much too表示“太过,过分”,修饰形容词或副词。如:I
am full because I have had too much rice.(我饱了,因为我吃了太多的米饭) / That coat is much
too dear.(那件大衣太贵了)
          ⑼
quick、fast与soon:quick与fast基本同义,quick往往指反应速度快,fast往往指运动速度快,而soon则表示时间上很快即将发生。如:After
a quick breakfast, he hurried to school leaving his bag at
home.(匆匆地吃过早饭,他朝学校赶去,却把书包忘记在家) / A train is much faster than a bus.(火车比公共汽车快得多)
/ His father will be back to China very soon.(他父亲很快就要返回中国)
          ⑽lonely与alone:lonely是表示心理活动的形容词,意思是:“孤独的,寂寞的”,作定语或表语;alone的意思是:“独自的,单独的”,指无人陪伴,仅作表语,(作为副词的alone可作状语)。如:He
lives alone but he doesn’t feel lonely.(他一人独住,但是并不感到孤独)/ He is a lonely person.
You can not easily get on well with him.(他是个孤独的人,你要和他相处好实在不易)
          ⑾
other与else的区别:两个词都可以作形容词,但是用法不同,other放在名词前;else修饰不定代词、疑问词、little、much,后置,另外,or
else表示“否则”,是连词。如:The other students are on the playground.(其他学生在操场上) / Who else
can work out this maths problem?(还有谁能解出着道数学题?) / This is nobody else’s money.
It’s mine.(这不是别的什么人的钱,是我的。) / Do you have anything else to say for
yourself?(你还有什么要为自己说的吗?
          ⑿
special与especial的区别:表示事件不同寻常、过分或特殊时,两个词可互换,但special较为常用。另外,special还可以表示特别的目的。如:
She pays (e)special attention to clothes.(她非常注重着装) / These are special chairs
for small children.(这些是专门给小孩子的椅子)
          ⒀
gone、lost、missing的区别:gone表示“丢了,没了”,含一去不复返的意思,也可以表示“死了”,作表语或宾补,不可以作定语;lost表示“丢失”,含难以找回的意思,可作定语、表语或宾补;missing表示“失踪了,不见了”,强调某人物不在原处,可作定语、表语或宾补。如:My
fever(高烧) is gone, but I still have a cough.(发烧消退了,但我仍然咳嗽) / The parents found
the lost child at last.(家长终于找到了迷路的孩子) / My dictionary is missing.Who’s taken it
away?(我的字典不见了,谁拿走了?) / For more detailed information(详情) of the missing girls,
please visit our website(网址).(如果想知道失踪女孩们的详情,请访问我们的网站)
          ⒁ living、alive、live、lively的区别:四个词都来源于动词live“生活、居住”。
          living读[‘liviN]有三个意思:①“活着的、现存的”,作表语或定语,②“一模一样的、逼真的”,③相当于lively,意思是“强烈的、活泼的”;
          live读[laiv],指东西“活的”,可以替换为living;
          alive读[[‘laiv]作表语,指人“活着的”,如果作定语,则放在名词的后面;
          lively读[‘laivli]有三个意思:①有生气的、活泼的、快活的,②(色彩)鲜艳的,③生动的、真实的。
          例如:A living language should be learned orally(口头上).(活的语言应该从口头上学)(被动句) / We
have a living hope that you will succeed.(我们强烈地希望你能成功) / Is she still
alive?(她还活着吗?) / They are the happiest children alive.(他们是活着的最开心的孩子) / This is a
live fish.(这是条活鱼) / A live wire(电线) is dangerous.(有电的电线是危险的) / She is as lively
as a kitten(小猫).(她像小猫一样可爱) / He gave a lively description of the football
match.(他生动地描述了那场足球赛)
          ⒂ sick与ill区别:sick和ill都表示“生病的”,但是,sick可以做定语、表语,而ill只能做表语。如:He has been
ill/sick for a long time and he is very weak now.(他病了很久,现在非常虚弱) / Vets help
treat sick pets and most of the pets’ owners like
them.(兽医帮助诊治患病的宠物,很受宠物主人们的喜爱)
          ⒃ the poor(穷人们) / the rich(富人们)等用法:“the+形容词”这一结构可以表示一类人物,复数含义。如:We must try
our best to help the poor.(我们应该尽力帮助穷人们) / The rich never know how the poor are
living.(有钱人哪知穷人怎么过日子)
          2、副词:用来说明事情发生的时间、地点、原因、方式等含义或说明其它形容词或副词程度的词叫做副词。
          1、副词的分类:(见下表)
          时 间 副 词 频度副词 地点/方位副词 程度副词 方式副词 疑问/连接副词 其他副词
          today, tomorrow, once, here, there, very, too, well, how, too, also,
          yesterday, now, twice, home, below, enough, hard, where, nor, so,
          then, early, late, always, anywhere, rather, quite, alone, when, as,
on,off,
          once, soon, just, usually, above, outside, how, so, fast, why, either,
          tonight, long, often, in, inside, out, much, just, together, whether yes,
no,
          already, yet, before, sometimes, back, up, down, nearly, only suddenly,
however, etc. not, neither
          ago, later, ever since never, away, off, far, almost, hardly, -ly结尾 关系副词
maybe,
          after, whenever (seldom), near, nearby, as long as等, 的副词 where,
perhaps,
          first, someday, ever, wherever even, all,   why, how certainly,
          sometime, last,   everywhere, a little, a bit   when,
          2、副词在句子中的位置以及作用:
          ⑴作状语:
          ①
时间副词:一般放在句首或句尾,注意,early、late、before、later、yet等一般放在句尾,already、just一般放在动词的前面。如:We
will visit the Great Wall tomorrow.(我们明天要去参观长城) / They have already been to the
UK twice.(他们去过英王国两次) / Soon the lost boy found his way back
home.(不久迷路的孩子找到了回家的路)
          ②
频度副词:一般放在be动词之后或者助动词与主要动词之间,但sometimes、often等还可以放在句首或句尾,usually可放在句首,once可放在句尾,twice、three
times等一般放在句尾。如:Sometimes I get up early.(我有时起得早)/ The workers usually have lunch
at the factory.(工人们通常在厂里吃午饭) / Take this medicine twice a day.(这种药一天吃两次)
          ③ 方式副词:一般放在行为动之后,suddenly可以放在句首、句尾或动词之前。如:Old people can hardly walk as
quickly as young people.(老年人几乎不可能走得和年轻人一样快) / Suddenly he saw a light in the
dark cave(山洞).(突然,在黑黢黢的山洞里,他看见了一丝亮光)
          ④ 地点副词:一般放在句尾,但here、there还可放在句首。如:There you can see thousands of bikes
running in all directions(方向).(在那里,你可以看到成千上万的自行车朝各个方向流动) / The frightened wolf
ran away.(受到惊吓的狼逃开了)/ He walked out quietly and turned back
soon.(他悄悄地走了出去,很快又返回)
          ⑤
程度副词:修饰动词时,放在动词之前;修饰形容词或副词时,放在形容词或副词之前。但注意,enough总是放在被修饰的形容词或动词的后面;only位置比较灵活,总是放在被修饰的词的前面。如:I
nearly forgot all about it if he did not tell me again.(如果他不再次告诉我,我几乎把那事全忘了) /
It was so strange that I could hardly believe my ears.(它那么奇怪一直我都不能相信我的耳朵) / She
got to the station early enough to catch the first bus.(她早早地赶到车站赶上了首班车)
          ⑥ 疑问副词:用于对句子的状语进行提问,位置总是在句首。如:When and where were you born?(你何时何地出生?)/ Why
did little Edison sit on some eggs?(小爱迪生为什么要坐在鸡蛋上?)/ How do you do?(你好!)
          ⑦ 连接副词:用来引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句,在从句中作状语。How I am going to kill the cat is still a
question.(我打算怎样杀死那只猫还是个问题)/ That is why everyone is afraid of the
tiger.(那就是人人都害怕老虎的原因) / He wondered how he could do it the next
day.(他不知道第二天怎样做那事)
          ⑧ 关系副词:用来引导定语从句,在从句中作状语。如:This is the place where Mr Zhang once
lived.(这就是张先生曾经住过的地方)/ Please tell me the way how you have learned English so
well.(请告诉我你的英语是怎样学得这么好的方法)
          ⑨ 其它副词:too“也”,用在句尾;also放在动词前;either
“也不”,放在句尾;nor“也不”,放在句首;so“如此,这样”,放在形容词、副词前;on/off“开/关”放在动词之后;not放在be之后、助动词之后、不定式或动名词之前;maybe/perhaps放在句首;certainly放在句首或动词之前。如:He
went to the Palace Museum and I went there,too.(他去了故宫博物院,我也去了) / Maybe your
ticket is in your inside pocket.(也许你的票就在你的里边衣袋里) / --Tom doesn’t have a
computer. ?Nor do I.(汤姆没有计算机,我也没有。)
          (2)作表语:地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之后,说明人物所处的位置。如:I’m very sorry he isn’t in at
the moment.(很抱歉,他此刻不在家)/ I have been away from my hometown for nearly 20
years.(我离开家乡有将近20年了) / Jim is over there.(吉姆就在那边)
          (3)作定语:时间副词(如now、then)以及许多地点副词都可以作名词的定语,放在名词的后面。如:People now often have
their festival dinners at restaurants.(现在的人们经常在餐馆里吃节日晚宴) / Women there were
living a terrible life in the 1920s.(在二十世纪20年代那儿的女人过着可怕的日子)
          (4)作宾语补足语:地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语。如:Put your dirty socks away, Jim! They are giving
out bad smell!(吉姆,把你的脏袜子拿开!它们在散发着臭气。) / Father kept him in and doing his
lessons.(父亲把他关在家里做作业)
          [注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该放在代词之后。如:He wrote down the word.(他写下了那个词。)→He
wrote it down.(他把它写了下来。)
          3、有关副词的重要注释:
          ⑴ as…as…常构成一些词组:as soon as…(一旦…就…), as well as…(同样), as+形容词/副词+as
possible(尽可能……地)。如:Please ring me up as soon as you get to
Beijing.(请你一到北京就给我写信。)/ Miss Gao hurried to the school gate as quickly as
possible.(高小姐尽快地赶到了校门口。)
          [注释] “as long / much as + 名词”可以表示“长达/多达…”的含义。如:The house costs as much as
five hundred thousand yuan.(那幢房子花费高达50万元。)/ They stayed in the cave(山洞)as long
as two weeks.(他们呆在山洞里长达两周。)
          ⑵
later、after、ago、before的用法:①“一段时间+later/ago”分别表示“(多久)以后/以前”,主要用于过去时态。②“after/before+某个时刻”分别表示“在某时刻之后/之前”,此时两个词是介词。③ago与before:ago只能用于过去时,before用于完成时。如:He
had an accident a week ago.(一周前出了一个事故)/ Some years later, the boy became a very
famous singer.(数年后这个男孩成了著名的歌唱家)/ Have you been there before?(你从前到过那儿吗?)/ After a
few years he gave up smoking.(过了几年他戒了烟。)
          ⑶ above、below、over、under的用法:在上下方用above和below,在高低处用over和under.如:The stars
are high above in the sky.(星星高挂在空中) / A plane flew over quickly.(一架飞机从头顶飞过。)
          当above、below、over、under是介词性质时,意义相似。
          ⑷
too、also、either、nor的用法:too(“也”)用于肯定句和疑问句的末尾,且用逗号隔开;also(“也”)用于肯定句句子谓语动词之前;either(“也”)用于否定句末尾,也用逗号隔开;nor(“也不”)用于倒装句句首;如:Are
you American,too?(你也是美国人吗?)/ He is not happy and I am not happy,
either.(他不愉快,我也不。) / He didn’t watch the football game. Nor did
I.(他没有看足球赛,我也没有。)/ You can also find the market is very good.(你还可以发觉那个市场很好。)
          ⑸ enough、too、so、very、quite、very much的用法: enough
(“足够,十分”)放在形容词或副词之后;too(“太”)、very(“非常”)、quite(“相当”)、so(“如此地”)等放在形容词或副词之前,very
much(“非常”)放在动词之后。如:It’s too/so/very/quite expensive.(它太贵/那么贵/非常贵/相当贵。)/ I don’t
like sweets very much.(我不很喜欢糖果)
          [注意] very与
much的区别:very修饰形容词、副词的原级和现在分词形容词,much修饰形容词和副词的比较级;much还可以修饰疑问句和否定句中的动词,very不可以。如:He
is very stupid.(他很笨)/ The film was very moving and everyone
swept.(电影非常动人,大家都哭了)/ You must work much harder or you will fail to enter the
good school.(你得学习更努力,不然你考不进那所好学校)/ I don’t like him much.(我不太喜欢他)
          ⑹ sometimes、 sometime、 some times 、some time的用法:sometimes(有时)用于一般现在时、
sometime(在将来某时)用于将来时、 some times(数次)表示次数、some time(一些时间)表示一段时间。如:Sometimes they
go hiking in the mountains.(他们有时徒步旅行到山里去)/ I will stay here some
time.(我会在这儿呆些时候的。)/ I will meet your father sometime.(我什么时候要见见你的父亲。)
          ⑺ how、what用于感叹句的用法:对句子中的形容词或副词感叹时用how,对人或事物(可能含有形容词作修饰语)进行感叹用what. 如:What a
fine day (it is) today!(今天天气真好!) / How difficult (the problem is)!((问题)真难呀!)
          ⑻ already、yet的用法:在完成时中,already一般用于肯定句,yet一般用于否定句和疑问句。如:Have you done it
already?(你已经做好了?) / I have not had my breakfast yet.(我还没有吃早饭呢。)
          ⑼
hard与hardly的用法:hard作为副词意思是:“努力地,猛烈地”,hardly是否定词,意思是:“几乎不”,一般与情态动词can/could连用。如:They
study English very hard.(他们英语学得很刻苦)/ You can hardly see a person spit in a
public place.(在公共场所你几乎看不到一个人随地吐痰)
          ⑽ like...very
much、like...better(=prefer)、like...best的用法:三个短语分别表示“非常喜欢”、“更喜欢”、“最喜欢”。如:I like
baseball very much.(我非常喜欢棒球)/ Do you like butter better than cheese?( / They
like hamburgers best.
          ⑾“quite/what+a+形容词+名词”的用法:记住:①quite/such/what...+a+形容词+名词;②too/so/how+形容词+a+名词;③rather+a+形容词+名词
= a+ rather+形容词+名词。如:I have never seen such a strange guy(家伙).(我从未见过这样奇怪的家伙) /
It is quite a nice day for a walk.(这真是散步的好日子)
          ⑿ how 的几个短语:how often“多常,每隔多久”,用于一般时态,对表示频度的词语进行提问; how soon“多久以后”,用于将来时态;
how long“多久”,用于过去时、完成时或其他时态; how many times“多少次”,用于过去时或完成时,对总计次数进行提问; how
much“多么,多少”,对程度进行提问,也可以对数量(不可数)或金钱进行提问。如:How long have you been like
this?(你这样已经多久了?)/ How often does he wash his face?(他每隔多久洗一次脸?)
          ⒀
much、more与most的用法:这三个词除了是形容词作名词的修饰语之外,还是程度副词,much表示“很”,修饰原级形/副,more表示“更”用来构成多音节形/副的比较级,most表示“最”用来构成多音节形/副的最高级。此外,much也可以修饰比较级形/副。如:This
park is much more beautiful than that one.(这个公园比那个漂亮多了)/ It is the most
instructive film I have ever seen.(这是我看过的最有教育意义的电影)
          ⒁ no more、no longer、not...any more、no...any longer的用法:表示时间,可以用no
longer、not...ny more、no...any longer,而且no longer只能放在谓语动词之前;表示程度,可以用no
more、not...any more.如:He no longer lived there.(他不再住在那里) / Tom wanted no more
cakes.(他不想再要蛋糕) / He didn’ t smoke any more/longer.(他不再抽烟)
          ⒂ 被动语态中,方式副词一般放在be与谓语动词之间。如: The runner was badly hurt.(赛跑运动员受了重伤) /
English is widely spoken in the world today.(如今世界上英语说得很广泛)
          ⒃
too...to...与so...that...的问题:副词too/so后面跟形容词或副词,to后面跟动词,that后面跟从句。Too...to...
(“太.……以致不……”)是否定的结构,用于简单句;so...that...(“如此…以致…”)是肯定结构,用于复合句。如:The child is too
young to join the army.(这孩子年龄太小还不能参军)/ He is so strong that he can lift the
heavy box.(他这么强壮,搬得动那个重箱子。)
          ⒄ 既是形容词也是副词的单词有:early, late, long, last, next, first, near, enough, much,
all, hard, alone, fast, slow, high, low, straight等等。如:It was a long
holiday.(那是个长假)/ He stayed there very long.(他在那儿呆了好久)/ Think hard then you will
find a way.(好好想你就会找到办法)/ He is a very hard(难对付的) person.(他是个难玩的家伙)
          ⒅
farther与further的用法区别:表示地点、方向或距离时两个词同义,意思为“更远、较远”,但是further还表示“更多、进一步、额外”等意思,此时不能换为farther.
如:They decided to go farther/further the next day.(他们决定第二天走得再远些)/ This problem
will be further discussed.(这个问题还要进一步讨论)/ Every one of them had their further
studies after they left college.(他们每个人大学毕业后继续进修)
          ⒆
rather与quite的用法区别:同very一样,两个词都表示形容词或副词的程度,quite表示“不到最高程度但是比预料的好”,rather比quite更接近very的含义,含有令人惊讶的意思。见下图对“nice”程度的描绘:
          not nice (fairly) nice quite nice rather nice very nice
          如:It’s quite a nice film.(这是部好片子)。(可能意味着不是一部最好的电影) / It’s rather a nice
film.(这是部很不错的电影。)(意味着比大多数电影都好)
          [注意]注意quite与rather后面的次序词序。
          ⒇
maybe、possibly、perhaps的区别:maybe“可能、也许”,比另外两个词更不正式、更随便、可能性不大;possibly“可能地、或者、也许”,可能性较大,在否定句和疑问句中表示“无论如何”;perhaps“可能”,较为常用而且正式,可能性也不大。如:You
could put it over there,maybe.(也许你可以把它放在那边) / I couldn’t possibly have finished
such a long book in such a short time.(我不可能在这么短的时间内完成这么长的一本书)/ I thought perhaps
it was the letter you have been expecting.(我以为那也许就是你期盼的信件)
          (21)
most、mostly的区别:most作为形容词和名词时意思是“大多数的、大部分的”,作为副词时意思为“最,十分、很”;mostly仅为副词,意思为“主要地、多半地、大部分地”。如:I
was at home most of the time when I was free.(我有空时大部分时间都在家)Most children are
naughty.(大部分的孩子都淘气)/ This is the most exciting part of the
film.(这是电影中最令人兴奋的部分)/She is mostly out on Sundays.(星期天她一般不在家)
          (22) (be) worth、(be) worthy
of的区别:worth一般被看作是介词,后面接名词或者动名词,用主动表示被动含义,还可以用副词well修饰;worthy
of表示“值得的、配得上的”,后面跟动名词的被动形式。如:What is worth doing at all is worth doing
well(凡是值得做的,就值得好好去做). / The house is worth ¥300,000.(房子价值30万元)/ This book is
well worth reading several times.(这本书
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