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英语语法指导:大学英语四级语法精要

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:40:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  大学英语四级语法精要
          Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)
          时
          1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成):
动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束.
          I’ve been writing letters for an hour.
          I’ve been sitting in the garden.
          2)过去完成进行时(由had been + ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作
          I’d been working for some time when he called.
          We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.
          3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作.
          By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years.
          In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years.
          4)将来完成时(由shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时会业已发生的事.
          I shall have finished this one before lunch.
          They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October.
          1. 语态
          1) 可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如:
          He was said to be jealous of her success.
          It was said that he was jealous of her success.
          能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.
          It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.
          The ship is supposed to have been sunk.
          担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:
          Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the
speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制)
          2) 双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态
          a) 双宾语结构的被动语态:
双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.
          He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.
          Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations.
          b) 宾补结构的被动语态:
          She was called Big Sister by everybody.
          Then he was made a squad leader.
          He was considered quite qualified for the job.
          The room was always kept clean and tidy.
          2. 短语动词
          1) Vi + adv
          The plane took off two hours late.
          2) Vi + prep
          They looked round the Cathedral.
          3) Vi + prep (有被动语态)
          She’s looking after her sister’s children.
          The children were always well looked after.
          4) Vi + adv + prep
          I began to look forward to their visits.
          5) Vt + O + adv
          Some women choose to stay at home and bring up their children.
          The children were brought up by their mother.
          They took him on.
          6) Vt + adv + O (无被动语态)
          I am trying to give up smoking.
          7) Vt + O + prep
          We talked Donald into agreement.
          3. 省略
          1) 在以as, than, when, if, unless等引导的从句中的省略:
在有些状语从句中,如果谓语包含有动词be,主语又和主句的主语一致a),或者主语是it
b),就常常可以把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(特别是动词be)省略掉.
          a) Look out for cars when crossing the street.
          When taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effects.
          While there he joined in voluntary labour on a project.
          Although not yet six months old, she was able to walk without support.
          If not well managed, irrigation can be harmful.
          Though reduced in numbers, they gained in fighting capacity.
          This viewpoint, however understandable, is wrong.
          Enemies, once discovered, were tightly encircled and completely wiped
out.
          She hurriedly left the room as though/if angry.
          She worked extremely hard though still rather poor in health.
          Fill in the application as instructed.
          Whenever known, such facts should be reported.
          The documents will be returned as soon as signed.
          He said that no acrobat could ever perform those daring feats unless
trained very young.
          Once having made a promise, you should keep it.
          b) If necessary I’ll have the letter duplicated.
          Fill in the blanks with articles where(ver) necessary.
          If possible, I should like to have two copies of it.
          As scheduled, they met on January 20 at the Chinese Embassy.
          2) 在以than a) 或 as b) 引起的从句中,常会有一些成分省略.
          a) He told me not to use more material than (it is) necessary.
          We should think more of the collective than of ourselves.
          b) They worked with as much enthusiasm as young people (did).
          He is now a vice-manager, but still often works in the kitchen as
before.
          Their training is free, as is all education.
          We will, as always, stand on your side.
          3) 错误的省略
          His life is as fully committed to books as anyone I know.
          While standing there in her nightgown, two bullets struck the wall beside
her.
          4. 一致
          1) 如果主语是单数,尽管后面跟有with, together with, as well as, as much as, no less than,
more than等引导的短语,谓语动词仍旧用单数形式.
          Terry, along with her friend, goes skating every Saturday.
          An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this
work.
          The captain, as well as the coaches, was disappointed in the team.
          2) 代词作主语时的一致
          a) each, either, neither和由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词,都作单数看待.
          Each of us has something to say.
          Is everybody ready?
          Somebody is using the phone.
          Neither of us has gone through regular training.
          Has either of them told you?
          b) some, few, both, many 等作复数
          c) some 可后接复数,也可接单数,表示某一.
          none作复数看待时较多,但也有时作单数看待,主要看说话人脑中联系想到的是复数还是单数概念, 但none 在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数:
          None of the books are easy enough for us
          None of us seem to have thought of it.
          None (= not a single one) of us has got a camera.
          None (= nobody) has felt it more keenly than she did.
          None of this worries me.
          all 和most 可后接复数,也可接不可数名词 (all of the…, most of the …), 动词用单数.
          3) 由and 或 both… and 连接名词词组时, 后用复数; 由not only…but (also), either…or,
neither…nor或 or 连接的并列主语, 谓语通常和最邻近的主语一致.
          Not only the switches but also the old writing has been changed.
          My sister or my brother is likely to be at home.
          Either you or Mr Yang is to do the work.
          Neither my wife nor I myself am able to persuade my daughter to change her
mind.
          如果一个句子是由there 或here引导, 而主语又不止一个, 谓语通常也和最邻近的那个主语一致.
          There was carved in the board a dragon and a phoenix.
          Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.
          4) people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽), militia (民兵) 等通常都用作复数.
          Cattle are grazing on the pasture.
          The police are looking for him.
          有些集体名词有时作单数看待, 有时作复数看待, 主要根据意思来决定.
          His family isn’t very large.
          His family are all music lovers.
          The committee meets twice a month.
          The committee are divided in opinion.
          The audience was enormous.
          The audience were greatly moved at the words.
          有些名词单复数同形, 可根据意思决定谓语动词的数:
          This new series is beginning next month.
          These new series are beginning next month.
          This species is now extinct.
          These species are now extinct.
          5) 表示时间, 重量, 长度, 价值等的名词, 尽管仍是复数形式, 如果作整体看待, 动词也可用单数形式 (当然用复数动词也是可以的):
          Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
          One hundred li was covered in a single night.
          6) 其他问题
          a) 书名, 国家名用单数:
          Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb.
          b) 学科名, 如mathematics, economics用单数.
          c) many a 或more than one 所修饰的词作主语时, 谓语动词多用单数形式:
          Many a person has had that kind of experience.
          More than one person has involved in the case.
          a number of 后接复数, the number of后接单数:
          A number of books have been published on the subject.
          The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing.
          d) one of those 后用单数. 在“one of + 复数名词
+关系分句”结构中,关系分句中谓语动词的单复数形式在一般情况下有两形式,一是根据先行词采用复数形式:
          Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.
          当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式:
          He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another
assignment.
          Ⅱ 非谓语动词
          1. 不定式
          1) 形式
          主动形式 被动形式
          一般式 to do to be done
          完成式 to have done to have been done
          进行式 to be doing
          完成进行式 to have been doing
          a) 完成式: 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作, 通常与主要谓语表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生, 或是在它之后发生. 假如不定式所表示的动作,
在谓语所表示的动作(状态)之前发生, 就要用不定式的完成式.
          I am glad to have seen your mother (= I am glad I have seen your
mother).
          (比较: I am glad to see you.)
          He is said to have written a new book about workers.
          He pretended not to have seen me.
          b) 进行式: 如果主要谓语表示的动作(状态)发生时, 不定式表示的动作正在进行, 这时要用不定式的进行式.
          You are not supposed to be working. You haven’t quite recovered yet.
          We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here.
          He pretended to be listening attentively.
          c) 完成进行式: 在谓语所表示的时间之前一直进行的动作, 就要用不定式的完成进行式.
          The struggle was known to have been going for twenty years.
          We are happy to have been working with you.
          d) 被动式: 当不定式的逻辑上的主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被动形式.
          It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here.
          She hated to be flattered.
          He wanted the letter to be typed at once.
          This is bound to be found out.
          There are a lot of things to be done.
          She was too young to be assigned such work.
          2) 功用: 不定式可以作主语 (a), 宾语 (b), 表语 (c), 定语 (d) 或是状语 (e).
          a. To scold her would not be just.
          b. We are planning to build a reservoir here.
          c. One of our main tasks now is to mechanize agriculture.
          d. Do you have anything to declare?
          e. We have come to learn from you.
          3) 不带to 的不定式:
          a) 在“动词+ 宾语+不定式”结构中, 如果动词是表示感觉意义的see, hear, watch, smell, feel, notice等,
或是表示“致使”意义的 have, make, let等, 其后的不定式结构不带to.
          John made her tell him everything.
          这类结构转换为被动语态时, 后面的不带to 的不定式一般还原为带to 的不定式.
          She was made to tell him everything.
          b) 在 had better, had best, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon,
might (just) as well, cannot but 等搭配之后, 动词不定式也不带to.
          I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.
          They cannot but accept his term.
          c) 在make do, make believe, let drop, let fall, let fly, let slip, let
drive, let go of, let there be, hear say, hear tell, leave go of等固定搭配中,
用不带to的动词不定式.
          John let fly a torrent of abuse at me.
          I’ve heard tell of him.
          d) 在动词help(或help +宾语)之后可用不带to的不定式, 也可用带to的不定式.
          Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?
          e) 在介词except, but 之后, 如果其前有动词do的某种形式, 不定式一般不带to, 反之带to.
          There is nothing to do except wait till it stops raining.
          Smith will do anything but work on a farm.
          There’s no choice but to wait till it stops raining.
          f) 连词 rather than, sooner than 置于句首时, 其后的不定式不带to.
          Rather than push the book back as he wanted to do, he forced himself to
pick it up.
          出现在句中其他位置时, 其后的不定式有时带to, 有时不带to.
          He decided to write rather than telephone.
          The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than
to increase wages.
          g) 用作补语的动词不定式, 如果主语是由“all + 关系分句”,“thing +关系分句”,“what分句”或“thing
+不定式结构”等构成,并带有do的某种形式,这时,作为主语补语的不定式可以省to,也可以不省.
          What he will do is (to) spoil the whole thing.
          All you do now is complete the form
          The only thing I can do now is go on by myself.
          The thing to do now is clear up this mess.
          The least I can do is drive everybody else closer to the issue.
          4) 不定式的其他用法
          a) too…to 结构通常表示否定意义:
          She was too young to understand all that.
          enough…to结构则表示肯定意义:
          She was not old enough to understand all that.
          not too, but too, all too, only too等和不定式连用时,不定式一般不表示否定意义:
          He’s only too pleased to help her.
          so…as (to)这种结构也可用不定式作状语:
          Be so kind as to drop in some time when you are free.
          b) 如果要说明不定是表示的动作是谁做的, 可以在不定式前加一个for引起的短语:
          It is not hard for one to do a bit of good.
          It is a great honour for us to be present at this rally.
          在以某些形容词(如 kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, silly, wrong, right,
foolish, stupid, careless, considerate, rude, naughty, impolite等)作表语时,
不定式前可加一个of引起的短语, 来说明不定式指的是谁的情况:
          It’s kind of you to think so much of us.
          (It is) Awfully good of you to come and meet us.
          It’s very nice of you to be so considerate.
          It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal.
          2. V+ing形式(现在分词及动名词)
          1) 形式
          a) 完成式: 如果要表示动名词代表的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生, 通常用动名词的完成形式.
          He didn’t mention having met me.
          I regret not having taken her advice.
          在某些动词后(或成语中), 常用(或可以用)动名词的一般形式, 尽管动作是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生的.
          Excuse me for coming late.
          I don’t remember ever seeing him anywhere.
          现在分词的完成式主要用在状语中, 表示这动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生.
          Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.
          Having found the cause, they were able to propose a remedy.
          另外, 独立结构也可用现在分词的完成形式.
          The guests having left, they resumed their discussion.
          The children, having eating their fill, were allowed to leave the
table.
          b) 被动式: 当一个动名词逻辑上的主语所表示的是这动作的对象时, 动名词一般要用被动形式.
          His being neglected by the host added to his uneasiness.
          He couldn’t bear being made fun of like that.
          但要注意, 在want, need, deserve, require 等动词后, 尽管表示的是被动的意思, 却用动名词的主动形式.
          My pen needs filling.
          The point deserves mentioning.
          This problem requires studying with great care.
          在worth这个形容词后情形也是这样.
          Her method is worth trying.
          现在分词的被动式可以用来作定语, 宾语补足语, 状语及用于独立结构中.
          This is one of the experiments being carried on in our laboratory.
          You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere.
          Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse.
          These are sold at reduced prices, the defects always being pointed out to
the customers.
          c) 完成被动式: 如果表示的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生, 有时需要用动名词的完成被动式.
          I don’t remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.
          但在多数情况下都避免使用这一形式, 而用一般被动形式代替, 以免句子显得累赘.
          现在分词的完成被动式一般用来作状语或用于独立结构中.
          Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away?
          The decision having been made, the next problem was how to make a good
plan.
          All the compositions having been written and collected, the teacher sent
the students home.
          2) 句法功用
          a) 作主语:
          Walking is good exercise.
          It’s nice talking to you.
          There is no denying the fact that the new method has greatly raised labour
productivity.
          b) 作宾语:
          Your shoes need polishing.
          You mustn’t delay sending the tractors over.
          He avoided giving us a definite answer.
          c) 作介词宾语: 动名词作介词宾语用的时候最多. 它常可以用在某些成语后面, 常见的有: insist on, persist in, think
of, dream of, object to, suspect…of, accuse…of, charge…with, hear of, approve
of, prevent…from, keep…from, stop…from, refrain from, be engaged in, look
forward to, opposed to, depend on, thank…for, feel like, excuse…for, aim at,
devote…to, set about, spend…in, get (be) used to, be fond of, be capable of, be
afraid of, be tired of, be sick of, succeed in, be interested in, feel (be)
ashamed of, be proud of, be keen on, be responsible for.
          d) 作表语:
          The real problem is getting to know the needs of the people.
          动名词和不定式都可以作主语或表语. 一般说来, 在表示抽象的一般的行为时多用动名词; 在表示具体某词动作, 特别是将来的动作时, 多用不定式.
          e) 作宾语补足语: 分词可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, find, keep, get,
have等动词后作宾语补足语.
          The words immediately set us all laughing.
          Once we caught him dozing off in class.
          His remark left me wondering what he was driving at.
          在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等动词后, 及可用现在分词, 也可用不定式构成宾语补足语. 用现在分词时,
表示动作正在发生, 用不定式时表示动作发生了.
          Do you hear someone knocking at the door?
          Yes, I did. I heard him knock three times.
          f) 作状语: 现在分词作状语时, 通常都表示主语正在进行的另一动作, 来对谓语表示的主要动作加以修饰或作为陪衬.
          I ran out of the house shouting.
          I got home, feeling very tired.
          Driving to Chicago that night, I was struck by a sudden thought.
          现在分词短语有时可以用作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句.
          Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.
          Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note.
          Having already seen the film twice, she didn’t want to go to the
cinema.
          现在分词短语有时可用作时间状语, 相当于when引起的从句:
          Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those memorable days
they spent together.
          如果两个动作是完全同时发生的, 多用when 或while加分词这种结构.
          Be careful when crossing the street.
          When leaving the airport, they waved again and again to us.
          She got to know them while attending a conference in Beijing.
          3) 前面带有代词或名词的动名词结构: 一个动名词前面可以加一个物主代词(或名词的所有格结构), 来表示这个动名词逻辑上的主语.
          Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.
          Our sole worry is your relying too much on yourself.
          Do you mind my reading your paper?
          They insisted on my staying there for supper.
          如果不是在句子开头, 这个结构常常可以用名词的普通格(或人称代词宾格), 这比用所有格更自然一些.
          I don’t mind him going.
          She hates people losing their temper.
          4) 只能用动名词作宾语的动词: suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind, admit,
enjoy, leave off, require, postpone, put off, delay, practise, fancy, excuse,
pardon, advise, consider, deny, endure, escape, miss
          5) 既可用动名词, 也可用不定式作宾语的动词: love, like, hate, dislike, begin, start, continue,
intend, attempt, can’t bear, propose, want, need, remember, forget, regret,
neglect, try, deserve, can’t afford等.
          有时两种结构之间意义差别不大, 有时却有不同的意思. 在remember, regret, want, try等词后差别是比较明显的.
          I remember seeing her once somewhere.
          I must remember to take my notebooks with me.
          I regret not having accepted your advice.
          I regret to say I haven’t given you enough help.
          She doesn’t want (need) to come.
          The house wants (needs) cleaning.
          We must try to get everything done in time.
          Let’s try doing the work some other way.
          6) 悬垂修饰: 分词作状语时, 表示的必须是主语的一个动作或状态.
          Walking through the park, we saw a lot of flowers. (walking是we的动作, 正确)
          Walking through the park, the flowers looked very beautiful. (错误)
          Standing on the tower, we could see the whole city. (正确)
          Standing on the tower, the whole village could be seen. (错误)
          3. 分词
          1) 意义: 过去分词通常来自及物动词, 带有被动意义和完成意义; 而现在分词有的来自及物动词, 有的来自不及物动词,
通常带有主动意义和未完成意义.
          frozen food a freezing wind
          a bored traveller a boring journey
          a lost cause a losing battle
          a conquered army a conquering army
          a finished article the last finishing touch
          the spoken word a speaking bird
          a closed shop the closing hour
          a recorded talk a recording machine
          来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语, 能作这样用的仅限于下面几个词, 仅表示完成意义, 不表示被动意义.
          the risen sun, fallen leaves, faded/withered flowers, returned students,
retired workers, departed friends, escaped prisoners, the vanished jewels,
newly-arrived visitors
          用作后置修饰语的过去分词一般都带有修饰语或其他成分, 在意义上相当于关系分句.
          Most of the people invited to the reception were old friends.
          2) 句法作用
          a) 作定语: distinguished guest 贵宾, unknown heroes 无名英雄, armed forces武装部队,
canned food罐头食品, boiled water开水, steamed bread馒头, stricken area灾区
          分词还可构成合成词作定语: simply-furnished room陈设简单的房间, clear-cut answer明确的答复,
highly-developed industry高度发展的工业, heartfelt thanks衷心的感谢, hand-made goods手工制品,
man-made satellite人造卫星
          b) 作补足语: 可以带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有:
          see, hear, feel, find, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词.
          I saw the students assembled in the hall.
          We found her greatly changed.
          make, get, have, keep等表示”致使”意义的动词:
          I have my hair cut every ten days.
          She got her bad tooth pulled out.
          Please keep us informed of the latest developments.
          like, want, wish, order等表示希望, 要求, 命令等意义的动词:
          I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal.
          He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting.
          c) 过去分词短语常用作状语, 修饰谓语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况.
          Guided by these principles, they went on with the work,
          Delighted with her work, they made her the general manager.
          过去分词短语也可作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句.
          Influenced by his example, they performed countless good deeds.
          有时也可说明动作发生的时间, 相当于一个表示时间的状语从句.
          This method, tried in areas near Shanghai, resulted in a marked rise in
total production.
          间或也可表示一个假设的情况, 相当于一个条件从句.
          Given closer analysis, we can see this is totally wrong.
          偶尔也可用来代替一个“让步”状语从句.
          Picked 20 years a year, it grows tired only after 40 or 50 years.
          d) 独立结构: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一.致. 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为独立结构,
一般表示一种伴随的动作或情况.
          He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.
          有时可以表示时间:
          Late that autumn, his work finished, he prepared to return to his
institute.
          表示原因:
          Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see him enter.
          条件:
          All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.
          Ⅲ 虚拟语气
          1. that从居中:
          1) wish, would rather (sooner), had better:
          I wish I were as strong as you.
          I wish I had paid more attention to our pronunciation.
          I wish I remembered the address.
          I would rather they came tomorrow (you had gone there too).
          I had rather (that) you told him than I did.
          2) suggest, order, demand, propose, command, request, desire, insist
等动词后的宾语从句:
          The commander ordered that all civilians (should) be evacuated.
          He asked that he be given an opportunity to try.
          She urged that he write and accept the post.
          3) it is desired, it is suggested, it is requested, it was ordered, it was
proposed, it is necessary, it is important, it has been decided 等结构后的主语从句中.
          It was arranged that they leave the following week
          It will be better that we meet some other time.
          4) suggestion, motion, proposal, order, recommendations, plan,
idea等后面的表语从句和同位语从句:
          His sole requirement is (was) that thy system be adjusted.
          2. 在某些句型中
          1) it is time that
          It is time that we went (或should go) to bed.
          It is high time we (should) put an end to this controversy.
          2) as if (though) 引起的从句:
          They talked (are talking) as if they had been friends for years.
          It seems as if it was (were) spring today.
          He acts (acted) as if (though) he were (was) an expert.
          3) 以lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句(这时谓语多用 should +动词原形):
          He took his raincoat with him lest it should rain.
          He put his coat over the child for fear that (或lest) he should catch
cold.
          I’ll keep a seat for you in case you should need it.
          4) 以whatever, whoever, no matter what这类代词或词组引起的从句(这时, 谓语多用may加动词原形构成):
          Whatever defects he may have, he is an honest man.
          Come what may, we will go ahead. 不管发生什么情况, 我们都要干下去.
          I accept that he is old and frail; be that as it may, he’s still a good
politician.
          我承认他年老体衰, 然而尽管如此, 它仍是优秀的政治家.
          3. 条件句
          1) 虚拟条件句主要有下面两类:
          a) 表示现在及将来情况(表示纯然假设或实现的可能性不大的情况):
          谓语主要形式如下(be多用were这个形式):
          从句 主句
          过去式 would + 动词原形
          If I were you, I wouldn’t lose heart.
          How nice it would be if you could stay a bit longer.
          b) 表示过去情况的虚拟条件句(与事实完全相反的假设情况), 谓语主要形式如下:
          从句 主句
          had + 过去分词 would have + 过去分词
          She would have come if we had invited her.
          If I hadn’t taken your advice, I would have made a bad mistake,
          You wouldn’t have caught cold if you had put on more clothes.
          2) 有时候, 条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作, 发生的时间是不一致的(如一个是过去发生的, 一个是现在发生的). 这时,
动词的形式要根据表示的时间来调整. 这种句子可以称为错综时间条件句.
          If he had received six more votes, he would be our chairman now.
          If we hadn’t got everything ready by now, we should be having a terrible
time tomorrow.
          3) 有时假设的情况并不以条件从句表示, 而是通过一个介词短语来表示.
          Without music, the world would be a dull place.
          We could have done better under more favorable conditions.
          That would have been considered miraculous in the past.
          But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier.
          4) 如果条件句从句中包含有 were, had, should 或could, 有时可把if省略掉, 并把were, had,
should或could放在主语前面.
          Had we made adequate preparation, we might have succeeded.
          Should there be a flood, what should we do?
          Were it not for their assistance, we would be in serious difficulty.
          Ⅳ 介词
          1. 合成介词和复杂介词
          1) 合成介词: inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon within,
without
          2) 复杂介词: according to, along with, apart from, as for, as to, because of,
by means of, in front of, in spite of, instead of, in accordance with, on
account of, on behalf of, owing to, due to, together with, up to, with regard
to, prior to等
          2. 介词在句末:
          This is what he is interested in.
          Does everyone has a seat to sit on?
          3. 名词加介词 ( n + prep)
          1) 某些名词之后要求用某些介词: solution to, faith in, glance at, need for
          2) 某些名词之前要求用某些介词: on one’s guard, at one’s request, in all probability, to
my delight
          4. 动词加介词
          1) Vi + prep: prevail on, appeal to, fall into, apply for, touch upon
          2) Vt + O + prep: lay emphasis on, take advantage of等
          3) Vi + adv + prep:
          I don’t wish to break in on your thoughts.
          The family came up against fresh problems.
          You’re not telling me the whole story. You’re holding out on me.
          She got off with him soon after she began to work at the institution.
          4) Vt + O + adv +prep:
          You shouldn’t take your resentment out on me.
          We shouldn’t put the shortage down to bad planning.
          5. 形容词加介词
          about --- anxious, careful, careless, certain, considerate, enthusiastic,
guilty, happy, mad, particular, sad, sure, timid, unhappy, etc
          at --- awkward, bad, clever, disappointed, disgusted, good, marvellous,
quick, skilful, skilled, useless, weak, etc
          for --- convenient, eligible, grateful, homesick, hungry, necessary, noted,
perfect, responsible, etc
          from --- evident, exempt, inseparable, safe, tired, etc
          in --- deficient, expert, liberal, quick, rich, successful, weak, etc
          of --- apprehensive, characteristic, critical, destructive, envious, hard,
inconsiderate, impatient, dependent, jealous, positive, scared, sensible, short,
sick, suspicious, typical, worthy, etc
          on --- dependent, keen, intent, etc
          to --- acceptable, accessible, agreeable, alive, attentive, blind,
comparable, courteous, deaf, destructive, essential, favourable, hostile,
indifferent, married, obedient, parallel, preferable, related, responsible,
sensitive, suitable, unjust, etc
          with --- awkward, bored, careful, disappointed, generous, identical, ill,
impatient, popular, sick, wrong, etc
          Ⅴ 连词
          1. 并列连词
          1) 表示意义的引申: and, both…and, not only…but(also), as well as, and …as well,
neither…nor
          2) 表示选择: or, either…or
          3) 表示转折: but, while, whereas, yet, however/nevertheless(也可认为是副词)
          4) 表示因果: for, so, therefore, hence
          2. 从属连词
          1) 表示时间: when, while, as, after, before, since, until(till), as soon as,
once
          2) 表示原因: because, as, since, now that, seeing that
          3) 表示条件: if, unless, in case, provided(that), suppose, as long as, on
condition (that),
          4) 表示其他关系: (al)though, than, as/so…as, lest, in order that, so…that
          Ⅵ 定语从句
          1. 限制和非限制性定语从句: 限制性定语从句是名词词组不可缺少的一个组成部分, 去掉了会造成病句或意义不明确; 非限制性定语从句属于补充说明性质,
去掉了不会影响主要意义, 通常用逗号与它的先行词分开.
          The boys who wanted to play football were disappointed when it rained.
          The boys, who wanted to play football, were disappointed when it
rained.
          如果定语从句的先行词是专有名词, 或是带有形容词性物主代词(my, his, etc)或形容词性指示代词(this, that, etc)作限定词,
其后的定语从句通常都是非限制性的:
          Mary Smith, who is in the corner, wants to meet you.
          Her mother, who had long suffered form arthritis, died last night.
          All these books, which have been donated by visiting professors, are to be
used by the postgraduates.
          在非限制性定语从句中只能用who/whom指人, 用which指物,通常不用that替代.
          My father, who had been on a visit to America, returned yesterday.
          All the books, which had pictures in them, were sent to the little
girl.
          2. 定语从句的引导词
          1) that, who, whom: 非限制性定语从句, 如果修饰人, 一般用who, 有时用that (作主语时用who较多).
如果关系代词在从句中作宾语, 就应当用宾格 whom 或that, 但在大多数情况下都可以省略掉, 在口语中可用who代替whom.
          Here is the man (whom) you’ve been looking for.
          He is a man (that) you can safely depend on.
          The people (who/that) you were talking to were Swedes.
          There are some people here who I want you to meet.
          但在介词后只能用whom:
          This is the man to whom I referred.
          但在口语中一般都把介词放到句子后面去, 这时可用that, 但省略时更多一些.
          Have you met the person about whom he was speaking?
          Have you met the person (that) he was speaking about
          The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin.
          The girl (who/that) I spoke to is my cousin.
          2) 限制性定语从句如果修饰“物”, 用关系代词that的时候较多, 也有时用which.. 当这个代词在从句中是用作宾语时,
在绝大多数情况下都是省略的, 特别是口语中(尤其是当被修饰的词是all, everything等词时):
          Have you everything you need?
          (Is there) anything I can do for you?
          All you have to do is to press the button.
          在介词后只能用which, 在口语中一般都把介词放到从句后部去, 这时可以用that, 但省略的时候更多一些:
          The tool with which he is working is called a wrench.
          The tool (that) he is working with is called a wrench.
          This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion.
          This is the question (that) we’ve had so much discussion about.
          定语从句一般是修饰名词或代词的, 但间或也可以修饰整个句子a), 或是句子的一部分 b), 引导词用which:
          a) They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of
them.
          The activity was postponed, which was exactly what we wanted
          b) When deeply absorbed in work, which he often was, he would forget all
about eating and sleeping.
          She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom
was.
          3) whose: 在表示“...的”这个概念时, 可用所有格 whose; whose 用于指物, 有时可与of which交替使用, 通常的词序是
名词词组 + of which:
          Is there anyone in your class whose family is in the northeast?
          We had a meeting whose purpose was completely unclear. (…the purpose of
which was…)
          He’s written a book the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (…whose
name I’ve…)
          of which前的名词词组也可以由some, any, none, all, both, several, enough, many, most,
few以及基数词担任; 这些词也能用在 of whom之前.
          The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry
crowd.
          It’s a family of eight children, all of whom are studying music.
          4) 关系副词 when, where, why: 它们的含义相当于 at which, in which, for which,
因此它们之间有交替使用的可能.
          The day when he was born…
          on which he was born…
          which he was born on…
          The office where he works…
          at which he works…
          which he works at…
          有时可用that替代关系副词, 在口语中that 可省略.
          Every time (that) the telephone rings, he gets nervous.
          This was the first time I had serious trouble with my boss.
          Do you know anywhere (that) I can get a drink?
          This is the place (where) we met yesterday.
          That is the reason (why) he did it.
          在the way 后也可用that 替代in which, 在口语中that也可省略.
          This is the way (that/in which) he did it.
          That’s the way I look at it.
          3. 如果定语从句中谓语为 there is, 作主语的关系代词也常可省掉:
          I must make full use of the time there is left to me and do as much as I
can for the people.
          This is the fastest train (that) there is to Nanjing.
          4. 定语从句的简化: 定语从句与不定式结构, -ing分词结构, -ed分词结构以及无动词分句等有着转换关系.
          He was the only one to realize the danger (= who realized the danger).
          The woman driving the car (= who was driving the car) indicated that she
was going to turn left.
          The man injured by the bullet (= who was injured by the bullet) was taken
to hospital.
          All the women present (= who were present) looked up in alarm.
          Ⅶ 倒装
          1. 全部倒装和部分倒装: 如果谓语在主语前面, 就是倒装语序. 倒装语序又分为全部倒装和部分倒装. 在全部倒装的句子中,
整个谓语都放在主语的前面:
          Here are some registered letters for you.
          In came a man with a white beard.
          在部分倒装的句子中只是谓语中的一部分(如助动词, 情态动词, 或系动词be等)放在主语前面, 其余部分仍在主语后面:
          Under no circumstances must a soldier leave his post.
          I couldn’t answer the question. Nor could anyone else in our class.
          Only in this way is it possible to accomplish the above-mentioned glorious
task.
          2. 以neither, nor, so等开始的句子: 由so引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(肯定句), 由neither,
nor引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(否定句), 助动词或be置于主语前.
          “We must start for the work-site now”. “ So must we.”
          I am quite willing to help and so are the others.
          He didn’t drop any hint. Nor (Neither) did his secretary.
          “I won’t do such a thing.” “Nor (Neither) will I.”
          如果一个句子只是重复前面一句话的意思, 尽管是用so开头, 语序也不要颠倒.
          “It was cold yesterday.” “So it was.”
          “Tomorrow will be Monday.” “So it will.”
          3. 当句首状语为 never, little, not only, not until, hardly,
scarcely等否定词或有否定意义的词语时, 一般引起部分倒装.
          No longer are they staying with us.
          No sooner had he arrived there than he fell ill.
          Under no circumstances could I agree to such a principle.
          4. 表示位置或方向的副词提前, 谓语动词为 go, come等表示位置转移的动作动词而主语又较长时, 通常用全部倒装:
          There was a sudden gust of wind and away went his hat.
          The door burst open and I rushed the crowd.
          There comes the bus!
          Now comes your turn.
          如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序:
          There comes your turn.
          有here引起, 谓语为be的句子, 也要倒装:
          Here is China’s largest tropical forest.
          Here are some picture-books.
          如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序:
          Here we are. This is the new railway station.
          “Give me some paper.” “Here you are.”
          5. 表语和系动词提前:
          a) 介词短语: On the other side was northern Xinjiang.
          Near the southern end of the village was a large pear orchard.
          b) 形容词: Very important in the farmer’s life is the radio weather
report.
          Worst of all were the humiliations he suffered.
          c) 副词: Below is a restaurant.
          Southwest of the reservoir were 2,000 acres of sandy wasteland.
          d) 分词: Housed in the Cultural Palace are a library, an auditorium and
recreation rooms.
          Hidden underground is a wealth of gold, silver, copper, lead and zink.
          Lying on the floor was a boy aged about 17.
          Standing beside the table was an interpreter.
          6) 句首状语若由 only + 副词, only + 介词词组, only + 状语从句构成, 引起局部倒装:
          Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing.
          Only through sheer luck did he manage to get some tickets.
          Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in
the end.
          有not only开头的句子或分句, 往往引起局部倒装:
          Not only did he complain about the food, he also refused to pay for it.
          Not only did the garage overcharge me, but they hadn’t done a very good
repair job either.
          Ⅷ 比较级和最高级
          1. 无比较级和最高级的形容词及副词: complete, perfect, utter, etc
          2. 比较从句
          1) as…as, almost/just/nearly as…as, not so/as …as:
          We’ll give you as much help as we can.
          I haven’t made as much progress as I should.
          We’ve produced twice as much cotton this year as we did ten years ago.
          My command of English is not half so (as) good as yours.
          2) than, so much/a lot more than, no more… than, not more…than, less
than
          more…than, less…than可表示“与其说…不如说…”:
          He is more good than bad.
          He was less hurt than frightened.
          The present crisis in capitalist countries is much more a political than an
economic crisis.
          “no + 形容词或副词比较级 + than”所表示的可以是该形容词或副词的相反的含义:
          no rich than = as poor as
          no bigger than = as small as
          no later than = as early as
          John is no better than Tom.
          I have taken no more than six courses this semester.
          3) the more… the more (越是…就越…)
          Actually, the busier he is, the happier he feels.
          The more they talked, the more encouraged they felt.
          4) more of a, as much of a, less of a, etc: 当as much of a…as, more/less of
a …than等结构与单数可数名词搭配时, 名词只能置于比较结构中间.
          He is more of a sportsman than his brother.
          Ⅸ 名词性从句: 名词性从句包括主语从句, 宾语从句, 表语从句, 同位语从句.
          1. 主语从句有三类:
          a) 由what等代词引导的主语从句: what表示“…所…的(东西)”, 在结构上等于一个名词加一个定语从句; whatever表示“所…的一切”;
whoever表示“一切…的人”.
          What you need is more practice
          What is hard is to do good all one’s life and never do anything bad.
          Whatever was said here must be kept secret.
          Whatever I have is at your service.
          Whoever comes will be welcome.
          Whoever fails to see this will make a big blunder.
          b) 由连词that引起的主语从句: 这类主语从句在大多数情况下都放到句子后部去, 而用代词it做形式上的主语:
          That we need more equipment is quite obvious.
          It is impossible that I may not able to come.
          It doesn’t seem likely that she will be here.
          在口语中连词that有时可以省略掉:
          It’s good you’re so considerate.
          It’s a pity you missed such a fine talk.
          c) 由连接代词或连接副词(或whether)引起的主语从句: 这类主语从句, 也可以放到句子后部去, 前面用it做形式上的主语.
          When we shall have our sports meet is still a question.
          It is still a question when we shall have our sports meet.
          Whether he will join us won’t make too much difference.
          It won’t make too much difference whether he will join us.
          2宾语从句: 和主语从句及表语从句一样, 宾语从句也有以上三类.
          a) 连接代词或副词引导的从句只是在某些动词后能用作宾语.
          Tell me what you want.
          I just can’t imagine how he could have done such a thing.
          Have you decided whom you are to nominate as your candidate.
          能跟这类宾语从句的常见动词有: see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, find out,
imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, show, discover, discuss, understand, inform,
advise等. 这种动词后也常用whether或if引导的从与作宾语:
          I don’t know whether these figure are accurate.
          I’m wondering if the letter is overweight.
          这种从句有时前面可以有另一个宾语:
          Has she informed you when they are to hold the meeting?
          Please advise me which book I should read first.
          有时这种从句也可用作及词的宾语:
          Whether that is a good solution depends on how you look at it.
          He was not conscious of what an important discovery he had made.
          I was curious as to what he would say next.
          b) 用that引导的从句作宾语的情形最为普遍, 在很多动词如boast, say, think, insist, wish, hope,
suppose, see, believe, agree, acknowledge, admit, deny, expect, explain,
confess, order, command, suspect, dream, suggest, propose, know, mean, notice,
prefer, request, require, report, urge, 以及doubt的否定和疑问式后面都可以用它.
          Ⅹ 情态动词:
          1. may/might表示允许和可能:
          a) 允许: 询问或说明一件事可不可以做.
          May I trouble you with a question?
          You may take this seat if you like.
          He asked if he might glance through my album.
          You might as well speak your mind. (比may…显得婉转一些)
          b) 可能: 表示一件事或许发生(或是某种情况可能会存在).
          You may walk ten miles without seeing a house.
          She was afraid they might not like the idea.
          A bad thing might be turned to good account.
          c) might 表示请求:
          Might I ask for a photograph of your baby? (比May I …更客气一些)
          2. can’t, couldn’t表示否定的推测:
          She can’t be serious.
          A more suitable book can’t be found. (It is not possible to find a more
suitable book.)
          He couldn’t (can’t) be over fifty.
          3. should, ought to: 表示应该做的事, ought to比should口气稍重一些.
          You should (ought to) do as he says.
          You shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) talk like that.
          但这两者间也有一些差别, 在表示责任, 义务等该做的事情时, 常用ought to, 在表示某件事宜于做时, 多用should,
在下面的句子中这两个词就不宜换用:
          You are his father. You ought to take care of him.
          We should not use too many big words in our everyday speech.
          4. will, would
          5. shall, should表示意愿
          6. 情态动词后接进行式, 完成式和完成进行式:
          a) 情态动词可以和动词的进行式构成谓语, 表示”应该正在…”, “想必正在…”这类意思:
          Why should we be sitting here doing nothing?
          This isn’t what I ought to be doing.
          She might still be thinking about the question you raised.
          They must (may) be waiting for us, let’s hurry up.
          They can’t be using the room now.
          b) 情态动词有时和动词的完成形式构成谓语, 表示”应当已经…”, “想必已经…”这类意思:
          I should have thought of that.
          They shouldn’t have left so soon.
          She must have arrived by now.
          You needn’t have told them that.
          Where can (could) he have gone?
          He can’t have finished the work so soon.
          He may not have achieved all his aims. But his effort is praise-
          worthy.
          We ought to have give you more help.
          c) 情态动词间或也可以和一个动词的完成进行式构成谓语,表示”应当一直在…”, “想必一直在…”这类意思:
          They are sweating all over. They must have been working in the fields.
          They may have been discussing the problem this morning.
          You should have been waiting for us. Why haven’t you?
          She couldn’t have been swimming all day.
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