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语法学习:存在句Existential Sentences

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:40:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  一、there be的基本用法
          1)There be句型表示“某地(或某时)有某人(或某物)”,这里there是引导词,没有词义,be是谓语动词,代词或名词(短语)是主语。be要与主语保持人称和数的一致。否定句是在be后加not;一般疑问句是将be放在句首;
          There is a desk and two chairs in the room.
          Is there anything wrong with your ears?(Yes,there is./No,there isn’t.)
          be动词的单复数形式取决于以下两种情况:(1)该句式中只有一个主语,主语为单数时,be动词用单数;主语若为复数,be动词也用复数。(2)该句式中有几个并列主语,则按就近原则处理,即与靠近be动词的第一个主语保持一致。
          1. There is room for improvement.
          2. There are three apples on the table.
          3. There was only a textbook, a dictionary and two pens on the desk. 4. There were two pens,a textbook, and a dictionary on the desk.
          2)如果作主语的是一个短语,则常常考查短语中的修饰语。可数名词的复数形式前可以用any,some,few,a few,m any或用数词 +hundred/thousand/million,hundreds/ thousands/millions of,no等修饰;不可数名词可以受any,some,no,little,a little,much等词的修饰。
          1. There is _____ water.You needn’t get some more.
          A.few B.little C.much
          2. There were _____ students in our school.
          A.hundreds B.eight hundred C.eight hundreds of
          3)除此之外,还有一个重要句式“有某人在做某事”,要用“There be +sb.+doing sth.+地点/时间状语”。There are several children swimming in the river.
          4)存在句各种时态
          现在时 话语前后有某事物存在 There are many cars on the street everyday. 有很多车在街上.
          过去时 话语前有某事物存在 There were many cars on the street in the past.
          将来时 话语后有某事物存在There will be many cars on the street in the rush hour.会有…
          完成时 话语之前就有某事物存在 There have been many cars on the street so far.一直有…
          过去完成时 过去话语之前早已有某事物存在 There had been many cars on the street by the end of last month. 到上个月月底前曾一直有…
          5)在there be的 be 前还可以加上各种情态词,如:
          There must be something wrong.一定有问题。
          There ought not to be so many people.不应该有这么多的人。
          There might still be hope .可能还有点希望。
          二、“There be +主语+不定式”中,不定式可以有主动和被动两种形式,不过在口语中主动形式更为常见。
          There is a letter to type/be typed today.
          三、There be句式中的be也可以用其它意义的动词或词组取代。它们通常是:lie, live, stand等表示存在或位置的动词;come, go, run, walk等表示运动或方向的动词以及certain to be, sure to be, appear to be, happen to be等词组。这种there存在句的谓语动词的人称、数的形式与主语须保持一致。例如:
          1. There lies a river behind the house.
          2. In front of the village there flows a stream.
          3. There is sure to be a friend of mine in the hotel.
          4. There doesn’t seem to be anything wrong with the radio.
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