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语法学习:被动语态学习

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:40:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  一、被动语态的基本形式
          1. 被动语态的基本时态变化
          被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由be+过去分词构成,be随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:
          1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时
          Visitors ___________(request) not to touch the exhibits.
          2)was/were done 一般过去时
          I ___________(give) ten minutes to decide which I should choose.
          3)has /have been done 现在完成时
          All the preparations ___________ (complete).
          4)had been done 过去完成时
          By the end of last year, another new gym ___________ (complete) in Beijing.
          5)am/is /are being done 现在进行时
          A new cinema ___________ (build) here.
          6)was/were being done 过去进行时
          A meeting ___________ (hold) when I was there.
          7)shall/will be done 一般将来时
          Hundreds of jobs ___________ (lose) if the factory closes.
          8)should/would be done 过去将来时
          The news ___________ (send) to the soldier’s mother.
          9)shall/will have been done 将来完成时
          The project ___________ (complete) before July.
          10) should/would have been done 过去将来完成时
          He told me that his new clothes ___________ (make) very soon.
          2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式
          1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。
          The baby should ___________ (take) good care of by the baby-sitter.
          2) 在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear,等后面不定式作宾
          语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。
          Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 
          3. 非谓语动词的被动语态: v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态。
          I don’t like ___________ (laugh) at in the public.
          I don’t want ___________ (laugh) at in the public.
          4. It is said that+从句及其他类似句型
          一些表示“据说”的动词如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用于句型“It+is/was+过去分词+that从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有:It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道,It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望,It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认为,It is suggested that…据建议。It is said that the boy has passed the exam./ The boy is said to have passed the exam.
          二、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义
          1. 英语中有很多动词如lock,open,sell,read,write,wash等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表达被动意义,主语通常是物。
          This kind of cloth washes well.
          注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。
          试比较:The door won’t lock. (指门本身有毛病)
          The door won’t be locked.(指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因)
          2. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词feel, sound, taste, look,smell常以主动形式表示被动意义。
          Your reason sounds reasonable.
          三、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义
          1. 在need,want,require等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。
          The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房子需要修理。
          2. 形容词worth后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但不能跟动词不定式;而worthy后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。
          The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)
          3. 在too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。
          This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.
          Exercises:
          1. It is said that a new robot ____by him in a few days.
          A) designed B) has been designed
          C) will be designed  D) will have been designed
          2. She will stop showing off if no notice____ of her.
          A) is taken B) takes C) will be taken D) has taken
          3. Diamond ____in Brazil in 1971.
          A) is found B) has been found C) was found  D) had been found
          4. “Have you moved into the new flat?” “Not yet. The room____.”
          A) has been painted B) is painted C) paints D) is being painted
          5. My pictures ____until next Friday.
          A) won’t develop B) aren’t developed
          C) don’t develop D) won’ t be developed
          6. Tim ____since he lost his job three weeks ago.
          A) had been unemployed B) was unemployed
          C) has been unemployed D) has unemployed
          7. I’ll push the car to the side of the road because we ____if we leave it here.
          A) would be fined B) will be fined
          C) will being fined D) will have been fined
          8. I found a bottle ____dropped on the floor of David’s room.
          A) was B) had C) had been D) is
          9. You ought to have put the milk in the refrigerator. Now ____ sour.
          A) I smell B) it is smelt  C) it smells D) it is smelling
          10. I think much attention ____your pronunciation.
          A) must be paid to B) ought to be paid
          C) must pay to D) should paid to
          11. I don’t remember ____the chance to try this method.
          A) having been given B) to have been given
          C) having given D) to have given
          12. The construction of the lab ____by the end of next month.
          A) must be completing B) must have been completed
          C) will be completing D) will have been completed
          13. As we approached the work site, the workers were seen ____the new house.
          A) building B) build C) built D) to build
          14. The composition ____ any more.
          A) need not to be corrected B) doesn’t need to be corrected
          C) doesn’t need be corrected D) need not correct
          Keys:
          CACDD/CBCCA/ADAB
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