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英语语法:名词

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:39:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  1. 名词
          名词可以分为专有名词和普通名词,专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如Beijing,China等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:
          1)个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。
          2)集体名词:表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。
          3)物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。
          4)抽象名词:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work。
          个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词,物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词。归纳一下,名词的分类可以下图表示:
          名词
          专有名词
          不可数名词
          普通名词
          物质名词
          抽象名词
          集体名词
          可数名词
          个体名词
          返回名词目录
          1.1 名词复数的规则变化
          情况
          构成方法
          读音
          例词
          一般情况
          加 -s
          清辅音后读/s/
          map-maps
          浊辅音和元音后读 /z/
          bag-bags /car-cars
          以s, sh, ch, x等结尾
          加 -es
          读 /iz/
          bus-buses/ watch-watches
          以ce, se, ze,等结尾
          加 -s
          读 /iz/
          license-licenses
          以辅音字母+y结尾
          变y 为i再加es
          读 /z/
          baby---babies
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 18:26:56 | 显示全部楼层

          返回名词目录
          1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化
          1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数。例如:
          two Marys     the Henrys
          monkey---monkeys  holiday---holidays
          2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:
          a. 加s,如: photo---photos   piano---pianos
          radio---radios   zoo---zoos;
          b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes  tomato--tomatoes
          c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如zero---zeros / zeroes。
          3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:
          a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs  roof---roofs
          safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;
          b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves
          knife---knives leaf---leaves  wolf---wolves
          wife---wives  life---lives  thief---thieves;
          c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。
          1.3 名词复数的不规则变化
          1) child---children  foot---feet  tooth---teeth
          mouse---mice    man---men  woman---women
          注意:由一个词加 man 或 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women,如an Englishman,two Englishmen。但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。
          2) 单复同形,如deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。
          3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如:
          people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,如The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。
          4) 以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:
          a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。
          b. news 为不可数名词。
          c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。
          The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。
          d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如:
          "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。
          5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes等,若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers等。
          6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼。
          1.4 不可数名词量的表示
          1)物质名词
          a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。
          比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)
          These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)
          b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如:
          This factory produces steel. (不可数)
          We need various steels. (可数)
          c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如:
          Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。
          Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。
          2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如:
          four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化
          物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。
          5. 定语名词的复数
          名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
          1) 用复数作定语。例如:
          sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室
          talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系
          2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如:
          men workers  women teachers  gentlemen officials
          3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。例如:
          goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产
          customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷
          4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:
          two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋  a ten-mile walk 十英里路
          two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划
          1.6 不同国籍人的单复数
          国籍
          总称(谓语用复数)
          单数
          复数
          中国人
          the Chinese
          a Chinese
          two Chinese
          瑞士人
          the Swiss
          a Swiss
          two Swiss
          澳大利亚人
          the Australians
          an Australian
          two Australians
          俄国人
          the Russians
          a Russian
          two Russians
          意大利人
          the Italians
          an Italian
          two Italians
          希腊人
          the Greek
          a Greek
          two Greeks
          法国人
          the French
          a Frenchman
          two Frenchmen
          日本人
          the Japanese
          a Japanese
          two Japanese
          美国人
          the Americans
          an American
          two Americans
          印度人
          the Indians
          an Indian
          two Indians
          加拿大人
          the Canadians
          a Canadian
          two Canadians
          德国人
          the Germans
          a Germans
          two Germans
          英国人
          the English
          an Englishman
          two Englishmen
          瑞典人
          the Swedish
          a Swede
          two Swedes
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 19:02:06 | 显示全部楼层

          1.7 名词的格
          英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
          1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。
          2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
          3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。
          4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。
          5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如:
          John's and Mary's rooms(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)
          6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence
          1.8 练习
          1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.
          a. little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages
          2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.
          a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes
          3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.
          a. many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation
          4.Painting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.
          a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil
          5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.
          a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many
          6.The large houses are being painted, but ______.
          a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense
          7.The room was small and contained far too ______.
          a.much new furniture c. much new furnitures
          b.many new furniture d. many new furnitures
          8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.
          a. rooms number b. room number c. room’s numbers d. room numbers
          9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself.
          a great many…many c. much…a great deal
          b. a great deal of…much d. many…a great many
          10.She didn’t know _____ he had been given.
          a. how many information c. how many informations
          b. the number of information d. how much information
          11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.
          a. comrade-in-arms c. comrades-in-arm
          b. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm
          12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.
          a. women doctors c. woman doctors
          b. women doctor d. woman doctor
          13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.
          a. growns-ups c. growns-up
          b. grown-up d. grown-ups
          14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.
          a. stander-by c. standers-by
          b. stander-bys d. standers-bys
          15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.
          a.prisoner-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war
          b.prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war
          16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.
          a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels
          17.Mary’s dress is similar in appearance to her ______.
          a. elder sister b. elder sister’s c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress
          18.All the people at the conference are ______.
          a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher
          b.mathematics teachers d. mathematic’s teachers
          19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance.
          a. some property c. properties
          b. some properties d. property
          20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.
          a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are
          21.He has written several books, but his last works _____ well known among his friends.
          a. have b. have been c. is d. are
          22.After he checked up my ______ heart, the doctor advised him to rest for a few days.
          a. father-in-law’s c. father’s-in-law
          b. father-in-law d. father’s-in-law’s
          23.He told me _____ would come to his birthday party.
          a. many Jack friends c. many Jack’s friend
          b. Jack’s many friends d. many friends of Jack’s
          24.I had my hair cut at the _____ around the corner.
          a.barber b. barbers c. barber’s d. barbers’
          25.Yesterday evening we had a lovely evening at ______.
          a. Peter and Helen’s c. Peter and Helen
          b. Peter and Helens d. Peter’s and Helen’s
          26.______ receives only a small portion of the total amount of the sun’s energy.
          a. The earth’s surface c. The surface of earth
          b. The surface earth d. The earth surface
          27.Numerous materials are available to ______.
          a. today of designers c. today’s of designers
          b. today’s designers d. today designers
          28.Why did you speak to Peter that way? Don’t you know he is an old friend of ______?
          a. my brother b. my brothers c. my brother’s d. my brother’s friend
          29.______ is a well-informed man. He can tell you anything you want to know.
          a. This John’s old friend c. That’s Jahn’s old friend
          b. This old friend of John d. This old friend of John’s
          30.______ is too much for a little boy to carry.
          a.A bike’s weight c. The weight of a bike
          b.The weights of a bike d. Bile’s weight
          31.Generally there are ______ television programs for children on Saturday.
          a. little b. much c. a large number of d. a large amount of
          32.When they got to the lecture-room, there were ______ left.
          a. only few seats b. a very few seats c. only a few seats d. so a few seats
          33.______ travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.
          a. A little mail b. A piece of mail c. A mail d. A small mail
          34.The Department purchased ______ to improve the working conditions there.
          a. a new equipment c. new equipments
          b. a new piece of equipment d. new pieces of equipments
          35.The boy tried hard but there has been ______ in his work.
          a. little improvement c. many improvements
          b. a little improvement d. few improvements
          36.Today’s modern TV cameras require ______ light as compared with the earlier models.
          a. only a few b. only few c. only a little d. only little
          37.No country can afford to neglect ______.
          a. an education b. educations c. education d. the education
          38.Please write the answers to the questions at the end of ______.
          a. eighth chapter b. chapter eight c. eight chapter d. chapter the eight
          39.______ is only surpassed by that of monkeys’ and apes’.
          a. The intelligent dog c. The intelligence of dogs
          b. The dogs whose intelligence d. The dogs being intelligent
          40.All ______ must take the graduate Management Admission Test.
          a. business student b. business’s students c. business students d. business’s student
          41.______ anywhere in the United States costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself.
          a. Three minutes call c. A three-minutes call
          b. Three-minute call d. A three-minute call
          42.The ______ about nuclear energy revolves around the waste problem.
          a. public’s chief concern c. chief public concern
          b. public chief concern d. chief concern of public’s
          43.______ the first and largest ethnic group to work on the construction of the transcontinental railroad.
          a. Chinese were b. The Chinese was c. Chinese was d. The Chinese were
          44.______ can get a better view of the game than the participants.
          a. Looker-on b. Lookers-on c. Looker-ons c. Lookers-ons
          45.A group of spectators was dispersed by the police who ______ at the scene of the accidents within minutes.
          a. were b. have been c. was d. has been
          46.Our livestock ______ not as numerous as they used to be.
          a. is b. are c. be d. been
          47.One of the most surprising things is that ______ may come from petroleum.
          a. much of tomorrow food c. many of tomorrow’s food
          b. much of the food of tomorrow d. much of tomorrow’s food
          48.Scott is an orphan but he received ______.
          a. very good education c. a very good education
          b. very good educations d. many good educations
          49.After several day’s hardworking, we have made ______ on the design.
          a. much improvement c. many improvement
          b. several improvements d. some improvement
          50.The boy was very happy that his mother bought him a new pair of shoes at a ______ yesterday.
          a. shoes shop b. shoe shop c. shoes’s shop d. shoe’s
            
            
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          51.Eggs, though nourishing, have ______ of fat content.
          a. large number b. a large number c. a high amount d. the high amount
          52.He has done some ______ on that subject from various angles over the past ten years.
          a. research b. a research c. researches d. the researches
          53.Recently, he has lost all his ______.
          a. wage and saving at card c. wages and saving at card
          b. wages and savings at card d. wages and savings at cards
          54.The country’s wealth comes chiefly from its many ______.
          a. herd of cattle b. heard of cattles c. herds of cattle d. herds of cattles
          55.In Britain the ______ are all painted red.
          a. letter boxes b. letters box c. letters boxes d. letters’s box
          56.Ten years had passed. I found she had ______.
          a. a little white hair c. a few white hair
          b. some white hair d. much white hair
          57.All his ______ far from satisfaction
          a. conduct is b. conduct are c. conducts is d. conducts will be
          58.Although the town had been attacked by the storm several times, ______ was done.
          a. a few damages b. few damages c. little damage d. a little damage
          59.He was ______ what to do.
          a. at his wit end b. at his wits end c. at his wit’s end d. at his wits’s end
          60.Would you like to have a cup of tea and ______ with me?
          a two toasts b. two pieces of toast c. two piece of toasts d. tow pieces of toasts
          61.Accurate ______ covering the fact are not obtainable.
          a. datum b. datums c. data d. datas
          62.On Monday morning some teachers exchanged a few ______.
          a. how-are-yous c. how-are-you’s
          b. of how-are-you’s d. of how are you
          63.Albert said he met the girl ______
          a. at his uncle’s Smith room c. at his uncle Smith’s room
          b. at Smith’s his uncle’s room d. at the room of his uncle’s Smith’s
          64.It is four months since I last saw Keats ______.
          a. at Mrt Smith’s ,the book seller c. at my aunt’s, a book seller
          b. at my aunt’s, Mrs Palmer’s d. at Mrs Palmer’s, the book seller’s
          65.This room is ______.
          a. the editor’s-in-chief’s office c. the editor-in-chief’s office
          b. the editor-in-chief office d. the editor’s-in-chief office
          66.My old classmate, Comrade Sun ,works at ______.
          a. a teacher college c. a teacher’s college
          b. a teachers’s college d. a college of a teacher’s
          67.The policemen put the criminal ______.
          a. in a iron b. into a iron c. in irons d. into a pair of iron
          68.Our teacher gave me ______.
          a. an advice b. the advice c. many advice d. much advice
          69.My mother cut the cloth with ______ scissors.
          a. a b. two c. a couple of d. a pair of
          70.My house is within ______ from the railway station.
          a. a stone’s throw b. a throw of a stone c. stone’s throw d. the stone’s throw
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          1. She is such an irritating woman, I don’t know how you can ______ her.
          a. put up b. stand up to c. stand with d. put up with
          2. To get my traveler’s check I had to ______ a special check to the bank for the total amount.
          a. make for b. make out c. make off d. make up
          3. Little boys are easily ______.
          a. taken in b. taken away c. taken out d. taken over
          4. The company is going to hand ______ the free samples tomorrow.
          a. up b. out c. on d. down
          5. It was purely ______ chance that the mistake was discovered.
          a. in b. for c. by d. from
          6. The magician picked several persons ______ from the audience and asked them to help him with the performance.
          a. by accident b. on occasion c. on average d. at random
          7. I left for the office earlier than usual this morning ______ traffic jam.
          a. in case of b. in line with c. for the sake of d. at the risk of
          8. Some areas, _______ their severe weather conditions, are hardly populated.
          a. but for b. in spite of c. due to d. with regard to
          9. Visitors are asked to comply ______ the regulations.
          a. at b. in c. with d. on
          10. He ______ so much work that he couldn’t really do it efficiently.
          a. put on b. took on c. brought on d. turned on
          11. In order to save time, I ______ my shopping to once a week.
          a. cut off b. cut out c. cut up d. cut down
          12. The idea has ______ that science cannot be wrong.
          a. piled up b. picked up c. grown up d. put up
          13. he did everything he could to prevent if from ______ into fighting.
          a. breaking off b. breaking up c. breaking out d. breaking of
          14. The construction of the new building will cost ______ 1,000,000 dollars, and it’s not easy to get so much money.
          a. at last b. at most c. at least d. at large
          15. The thief ran away as fast as he could ______ the policeman.
          a. in sight b. within the sight of c. within sight d. at the sight of
          16. For too long, European can makers have fought to ______ old ways and old privileges.
          a. hang on to b. have access to c. refer to d. see to
          17. Whoever ______ a full night’s sleep will be more than rewarded in heightened productivity, creativity and focus.
          a. invests at b. invests in c. invests by d. invests with
          18. Prior ______ his departure, he wrote a letter to his mother.
          a. of b. from c. to d. in
          19. The company is very famous ______ the high quality of its products.
          a. in b. for c. by d. with
          20. Once he was given a chance to improve his position in the firm, he seized it ______ both hands and is now on his way to the top.
          a. on b. at c. in d. with
          21. These misfortunes almost deprived him ______ his future career.
          a. with b. of c. from d. beyond
          22. I don’t ______ the expense; I want the party to be a real success.
          a. care for b. care about c. be in care of d. take care of
          23. We must get the roof mended before the wet weather sets ______.
          a. about b. on c. up d. in
          24. The car pulled ______ beside me and the driver asked me to way to the Great Wall.
          a. down b. off c. up d. out
          25. After the war, many warships were laid ______ as they were not needed any longer.
          a. up b. aside c. down d. over
          26. When the rebellion died ______ things quickly returned to normal.
          a. out b. away c. down d. through
          27. I’ll pick you ______ at your college gate and take you straight to the station.
          a. on b. off c. out d. up
          28. Will you please see ______ our luggage when I am away?
          a. to b. in c. with d. for
          29. ______ they reached the small village before dusk.
          a. Towards the end b. By the end c. In the end d. At the end
          30. Mary has left the book on the table ______ purpose so that you can read it.
          a. with b. on c. in d. out of
          31. That noise is getting louder because the engineers are ______ the engine to see if the plane is ready to fly.
          a. doing with b. running up c. turning in d. trying for
          32. The government is looking ______ new methods of raising money without increasing taxes.
          a. down on b. upon c. out for d. around
          33. Man is superior to the animals ______ he sues language to convey his thoughts.
          a. and that b. in that c. so that d. in order that
          34. Not long ago, a person who I know every well was ______ an accident.
          a. related to b. included in c. involved in d. subject to
          35. I ______ to him for the error.
          a. excused b. pardoned c. forgave d. apologized
          36. Though we have no interests ______ common, we are good friends.
          a. on b. in c. for d. at
          37. The purse has returned to the original owner ______.
          a. in a long time b. in a long run c. in no time d. at no time
          38. We can’t hope to catch up with that car ______ us.
          a. in advance of b. in the front of c. at the frontier of d. ahead of
          39. Some animals will modify their behavior to ______ their environment.
          a. adapt to b. adopt to c. suit to d. conform to
          40. Don't ______ going abroad this summer, we may not have enough money.
          a. count on b. come on c. attend upon d. frown upon
          41. Don’t suspect your daughter ______ dishonesty.
          a. of b. for c. with d. to
          42. At the head of the valley we turned right and ______ the summit.
          a. set up b. took up c. made for d. went for
          43. Her type of women can ______ life much more easily.
          a. cope with b. take advantage of c. take care of d. look after
          44. The manager accused one of the hotel servants ______ stealing the money.
          a. for b. with c. of d. about
          45. It is difficult to _____ the implication between the lines.
          a. get to b. get into c. get over d. get at
          46. While living there, she ______ the local accent.
          a. picked on b. picked at c. picked up d. picked out
          47. We adopted the new method _____ raising our efficiency.
          a. in the event of b. on account of c. with a view of d. with regard to
          48. ______ the light of what you have told me, I will say that it is he who came here yesterday.
          a. By b. In c. Of d. Under
          49. They will place China in the front ranks of countries of the world ______ the output of major industrial products.
          a. in support of b. in connection with c. in terms of d. by means of
          50. When they had finished playing, the children were made to ______ all the toys they had taken out.
          a. put off b. put away c. put up d. put out
          51. He failed to supply the facts relevant ______ the case in question.
          a. for b. with c. of d. to
          52. In Britain, and on the Continent too, the Japanese are viewed _______ a threat to domestic industries.
          a. like b. as c. with d. for
          53. When Jack was eighteen he ______ going around with a strange set of people and staying out very late.
          a. took up b. took for c. took to d. took on
          54. While in London, we paid a visit to the hospital founded ______ the nurse Florence Nightingale.
          a. in line with b. in favor of c. in place d. in honor of
          55. A poor man has to ______ many thing which a rich man regards as almost necessaries in life.
          a. go through b. go without c. go over d. go about
          56. Digital computers are practical ______ their high speed of operation.
          a. instead of b. because of c. regardless of d. in spite of
          57. _____ the many hours of study that he devoted to the subject, he still found the subject matter difficult.
          a. After b. Due to c. Despite d. As for
          58. The early part of the concert ______ comparatively satisfactorily.
          a. went after b. went down c. went off d. went up
          59. Mary is _______ her face ready for the party.
          a. clearing up b. holding up c. keeping up d. making up
          60. _______ a prolonged spell of fine weather, they were able to complete the film within the month.
          a. As to b. Thanks to c. In relation to d. With respect to
          61. One day people will be able to go to the moon _____ holiday.
          a. on b. during c. for d. in
          62. How did it come _____ that you made a lot of mistakes in your homework?
          a. about b. after c. with d. to
          63. Whatever the rule is, you may be sure he will keep _____ it.
          a. on b. in c. off d. to
          64. In one firm alone over three hundred people were laid _____ during the last month.
          a. in b. out c. on d. off
          65. The safety of shops ______ sea depends much on the warnings given by lighthouses.
          a. in b. across c. on d. at
          66. The mass of an object is multiplied by the speed of light squared, _____ other words , the speed of light is multiplied by itself.
          a. by b. for c. in d. with
          67. The new system encourages companies to compete with each other ______ equal terms.
          a. on b. in c. with d. for
          68. You should stick _____ the point in debate.
          a. to b. at c. in d. for
          69. Tom has been sad recently, for his plan to go to college _____ at the last moment.
          a. fell out b. fell behind c. fell in d. fell through
          70. David likes country life and has decided to ______ farming.
          a. go in for b. go into c. go through d. go after
          71. The police haven’t caught the murder alive yet, but they are convinced that the really important facts of the case will soon ________ .
          a. come into force b. come into contact c. come into light d. come down to earth
          72. The teacher expects us to do all the exercises, to study the spelling list and to get our paper ______ time.
          a. in b. on c. at d. by
          73. Having been told bad weather was on the way, the climbers decided to ______ their attempt on Mount Tai until the following week.
          a. give up b. deny to c. put off d. refuse to
          74. Bill did not hear the telephone because he was completely ______ his reading.
          a. absorbed for b. absorbed by c. absorbed on d. absorbed in
          75. Unwanted tickets can be given ______ at the theatre office window up to half an hour before the performance.
          a. in b. out c. off d. over
          76. Science was ______ regarded as a part of philosophy.
          a. at time b. at all time c. at a time d. at one time
          77. The newly designed machines are high ______ quality.
          a. on b. in c. for d. with
          78. Some quite artistic, yet inexpensive fabrics are now being _____ from British mills.
          a. turned over b. turned out c. turned up d. turned off
          79. The mother scolded the boy ______ not cleaning up his room.
          a. to b. with c. at d. for
          80. ______ my car is being made ready for a long journey.
          a. In the moment b. For the moment c. At the moment d. By the moment
          81. I’m bad ______ remembering faces.
          a. at b. in c. with d. on
          82. Oil drilling in that area has now stopped because the company has ______ money.
          a. come out of b. come off c. run out of d. run down
          83. The doctor was always ______ the poor and the sick, often giving them free medical services.
          a. reminded of b. absorbed in c. tended by d. concerned about
          84. The company will send a representative to ______ their business in that region.
          a. attend to b. attempt at c. associate with d. approve of
          85. Milk is ______ memories of home and mother so people away from home drink more milk.
          a. bound to b. kept to c. referred to d. tied to
          86. Despite the traffic lights ahead, the car continued ______ full speed.
          a. with b. in on d. at
          87. Something strange seems to be _____ me since I have been taking this drug.
          a. running into b. coming across c. happening to d. falling on
          88. The shopkeeper was ______ inside his own shop, and all the day’s money was stolen.
          a. held over b. held up c. held out d. held off
          89. Earth-like planets are extremely common in the Universe, ______ the latest computer simulation of the formation of the Solar System.
          a. according to b. in addition to c. in regard to d. thanks to
          90. In Brazil, spending on science and technology ______ just 0.6 percent of gross national product.
          a. makes for b. makes up for c. accounts for d. stands for
          91. ______, wherever he lives, a man belongs to some society.
          a. For short b. In short c. Of short d. On short
          92. A man who could ______ such treatment was a man of remarkable physical courage and moral strength.
          a. bear upon b. insist on c. stand up to d. persist in
          93. Is his action consistent ______ his principles?
          a. with b. in c. of d. by
          94. He is by far the best player ______ the team.
          a. for b. on c. in d. to
          95. A foreign firm has bought more than half of the shares in his company and ______.
          a. got over it b. overtaken it c. taken it over d. overcome it
          96. After a heated bargaining they agreed ______ the price for the car.
          a. to b. with c. on d. in
          97. _______ all the difficulties and discomforts, they went on working at the design.
          a. Because of b. In proportion with c. As a result of d. In spite of
          98. all questions left ______ by history must be settled one by one.
          a. alone b. off c. out d. over
          99. It is just three o’clock p.m. The plane just _____ five minutes ago.
          a. took off b. took up c. took out d. took in
          100. The government warned the people living in the forest to be ______ fire.
          a. with regard to b. on guard c. on guard against d. in regard to
          101. During sleep blood pressure is normally ______ its lowest.
          a. in b. for c. at d. by
          102. The parents and the children will have to leave the country ______ good.
          a. with c. over c. on d. for
          103. Neither their parents nor their friends have approved ______ their marriage yet.
          a. for b. of c. to d. with
          104. Classroom testing, if well done, most certainly ______ a stimulus to study and real learning.
          a. acts for b. acts on c. acts as d. acts to
          105. In the experiment we kept a watchful eye ______ the developments and recorded every detail.
          a. in b. at c. for d. on
          106. The French pianist who had been praised very highly ______ to be a great disappointment.
          a. turned up b. turned in c. turned out d. turned down
          107. In the advanced course students must take performance tests ______ monthly intervals.
          a. in b. over c. at d. between
          108. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are ______.
          a. out of work b. out of reach c. out of practice d. out of stock
          109. In the United States professors have many other duties ______ teaching, such as administrative or research work.
          a. besides b. except c. but d. with
          110. he attempted ______ to set up a company of his own.
          a. with vain b. on vain c. in vain d. of vain
          111. On hearing the news that her father died, she ______ tears.
          a. burst out b. burst in c. burst into d. burst forth
          112. She was annoyed at his comment, thinking that he visitor _____ her.
          a. looked down b. looked highly of c. looked low at d. looked down upon
          113. ______ comparison to my boyhood, my undergraduate years in Oklahoma were paradise.
          a. In b. With c. By d. For
          114. The United States is a major consumer of coffee, yet it does not have the climate to grow any ______ its own.
          a. on b. for c. of d. to
          115. The accounts have always been handled ______ the banks policies.
          a. in accordance with c. in connection with
          c. in contrast with d. in line with
          116. His inability to learn foreign languages was an obstacle ______ his career.
          a. of b. to c. for d. as
          117. The purpose of the official inquiry is to ______ the true facts leading to the loss of the ship at sea.
          a. come at b. come for c. come into d. come over
          118. Business picked up in the stores during December, but ______ again after Christmas.
          a. dropped off b. dropped out c. dropped over d. dropped on
          119. Many words associated with life in the West are Spanish ______ origin.
          a. on b. in c. at d. from
          120. The custom of visiting friends, relatives and neighbors on New Year’s Day is one the Old World traditions that has ______ a new form in the United States.
          a. taken up b. taken on c. taken over d. taken off
          121. Some workers fear the loss of social identity that can ______ not having a job.
          a. result in b. result from c. bring up d. bring on
          122. Most of the leading food shops have promised to ______ prices until after the new year.
          a. keep off b. keep down c. keep out d. keep back
          123. ______ classical music, which follows formal European traditions, jazz is a spontaneous and free form.
          a. In comparison with b. In connection with c. In contrast to d. In regard to
          124. Alice ______ when a crowd from a train rushed through the gate.
          a. looked after b. looked in c. looked over d. looked up
          125. The news of important events is broadcast often _______ over television.
          a. on the average b. on the contrary c. on the spot d. on the whole
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