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英语语法:动词

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:39:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  5. 动词
          1) 表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。
          2) 根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词、系动词、助动词、情态动词。
          说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词。例如:
          We are having a meeting.  我们正在开会。(have是实义动词。)
          He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。(have是助动词。)
          3) 动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词、不及物动词,英语缩写形式分别为vt. 和vi.。
          说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如:
          She can dance and sing. 她能唱歌又能跳舞。(sing在此用作不及物动词。)
          She can sing many English songs. 她能唱好多首英文歌曲。(sing用作及物动词。)
          4) 动词根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制,可分两类,分别是:限定动词、非限定动词例如:
          She sings very well. 她唱得很好。(sing受主语she的限制,故用第三人称单数形式sings。)
          She wants to learn English well. 她想学好英语。(to learn不受主语she的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。)
          说明:英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:动词不定式、动名词、分词。
          5) 根据动词的组成形式,可分为三类,分别是:单字词、短语动词、动词短语例如:
          The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases. 英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。(contains是单字动词。)
          Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries. 学生们学会查字典。(look up是短语动词。)
          The young ought to take care of the old. 年轻人应照料老人。(take care of是动词短语。)
          6) 动词有五种形态,分别是:原形、第三人称单数形式、过去式、过去分词、现在分词。
          5.1 系动词
          系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。说明:有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语。例如:
          He fell ill yesterday.  他昨天病了。(fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。)
          He fell off the ladder.  他从梯子上摔下来。fell是实义动词,单独作谓语。
          1)状态系动词
          用来表示主语状态,只有be一词。例如:
          He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)
          2)持续系动词
          用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand。例如:
          He always kept silent at meeting.  他开会时总保持沉默。
          This matter rests a mystery.  此事仍是一个谜。
          3)表像系动词
          用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look。例如:
          He looks tired.  他看起来很累。
          He seems (to be) very sad.  他看起来很伤心。
          4)感官系动词
          感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste。 例如:
          This kind of cloth feels very soft.  这种布手感很软。
          This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。
          5)变化系动词
          这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。例如:
          He became mad after that.  自那之后,他疯了。
          She grew rich within a short time.  她没多长时间就富了。
          6)终止系动词
          表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意。例如:
          The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。
          The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。
          His plan turned out a success.  他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)
          5.2 助动词
          1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词的词叫助动词。被协助的动词称作主要动词。助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用。例如:
          He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。
          (doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义)
          2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:
          a. 表示时态。例如:
          He is singing. 他在唱歌。
          He has got married. 他已结婚。
          b. 表示语态。例如:
          He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
          c. 构成疑问句。例如:
          Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?
          Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗?
          d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句。例如:
          I don't like him.  我不喜欢他。
          e. 加强语气。例如:
          Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。
          He did know that.  他的确知道那件事。
          3) 最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would等。
          5.3 助动词be的用法
          1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态。例如:
          They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。
          English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。
          2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态。例如:
          The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。
          English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。
          3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容:
          a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排。例如:
          He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。
          We are to teach the freshmen. 我们要教新生。
          说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。
          b. 表示命令。例如:
          You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。
          He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。
          c. 征求意见。例如:
          How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他?
          Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢?
          d. 表示相约、商定。例如:
          We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。
          5.4 助动词have的用法
          1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态。例如:
          He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。
          By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work.  上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。
          2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时。例如:
          I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。
          3)have +been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态。例如:
          English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。
          5.5 助动词do 的用法
          1)构成一般疑问句。例如:
          Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?
          Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗?
          2)do + not 构成否定句。例如:
          I do not want to be criticized.  我不想挨批评。
          He doesn't like to study.  他不想学习。
          In the past, many students did not know the importance of English.
          过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。
          3) 构成否定祈使句。例如:
          Don't go there. 不要去那里。
          Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。
          说明: 构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。
          4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气。例如:
          Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。
          I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。
          I do miss you. 我确实想你。
          5)用于倒装句。例如:
          Never did I hear of such a thing.  我从未听说过这样的事情。
          Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 进了大学以后,我们才认识到英语的重要性。
          说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。
          6)用作代动词。例如:
          ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?
          ---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)
          He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车,对吧?
          5.6 助动词shall和will的用法
          shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时。例如:
          I shall study harder at English.  我将更加努力地学习英语。
          He will go to Shanghai.  他要去上海。
          说明:在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:
          He shall come. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)
          He will come. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)
          5.7 助动词should, would的用法
          1)should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称。例如:
          I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。
          比较:"What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么?"我问道。
          可以说,shall变成间接引语时,变成了should。
          2) would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称。例如:
          He said he would come.  他说他要来。
          比较:"I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"变成间接引语,就成了He said he would come。原来的will变成would,go变成了come.。
          5.8 短语动词
          动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词。例如:
          Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)
          短语动词的构成基本有下列几种:
          1)动词+副词,如:black out;
          2)动词+介词,如:look into;
          3)动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词。
          5.9 非谓语动词
          在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。
          1)不定式
            
            
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发表于 2016-7-9 17:55:28 | 显示全部楼层

          时态语态
          主动
          被动
          一般式
          to do
          to be done
          完成式
          to have done
          to have been done
          2)动名词
          时态语态
          主动
          被动
          一般式
          doing
          being done
          完成式
          having done
          having been done
          3)分词
          时态语态
          主动
          被动
          一般式
          doing
          being done
          完成式
          having done
          having been done
          否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词
          5.10 助动词练习
          1.If it is fine tomorrow, we ______ a football match.
          a. have b. will have c. has d. shall has
          2.When he was at school, he ______ early and take a walk before breakfast.
          a. will rise b. shall rise b. should rise would rise
          3.In the past 30 years China ______ great advances in the socialist revolution and socialist construction.
          a. has made b. have made c. had made d. having made
          4.I ______ go to bed until I ______ finished my work.
          a. don’t/had b. didn’t/have c. didn’t/had d. don’t/have
          5.______ you think he ______ back by dinner time?
          a. Do/have come b. Did/will have come c. Does/will come d. Do/will have come
          6.He said that he dropped his bag when he ______ for the bus.
          a. was runing b. was running c. were running d. is running
          7.No sooner ______ he arrived home than he ______ to start on another journey.
          a. has/was asked b. have/were asked c. had/is asked d. had/was asked
          8.“______ you give me a room for the night?” I asked on arriving at the hotel.
          a. Should b. Can c. Might d. May
          9.There are nine of them, so ______ get into the car at the same time.
          a. they may not at all b. all they may not c. they can’t all d. all they can’t
          10.“We didn’t see him at the lecture yesterday.” “He ______ it.”
          a. mustn’t attend b. cannot have attended
          c. would have not attended d. needn’t have attended
          11.“You realize that you were driving at 100 mph, don’t you?”
          “No, officer. I ______. This car can’t do more than 80.”
          a. didn’t need to be b. may not have been c. couldn’t have been d. needn’t have been
          12.he was a good runner so he ______ escape from the police.
          a. might b. succeeded to c. would d. was able to
          13.If they ______, our plan will fall flat.
          a. are co-operating b. had not co-operated c. won’t co-operate d. didn’t co-operate
          14.I hoped ______ my letter.
          a. her to answer b. that she would answer c. that she answers d. her answering
          15.He ______ live in the country than in the city.
          a. prefers b. likes to c. had better d. would rather
          16.______ to see a film with us today?
          a. Did you like b. Would you like c. Will you like d. Have you liked
          17.I’m sorry, but I had no alternative. I simply ______ what I did.
          a. must do b. had to do c. ought to have done d. have to do
          18.“Time is running out,______?”
          a. hadn’t we better got start b. hadn’t we better get start
          b. hadn’t we better get started d. hadn’t we better not started
          19.No one ______ that to his face.
          a. dares say b. dares saying c. dare say d. dare to say
          20.The students in the classroom ______ not to make so much noise.
          a. need b. ought c. must d. dare
          21.You ______ last week if you were really serious about your work.
          a. ought to come b. ought to be coming c. ought have come d. ought to have come
          22.The elephants ought ______ hours ago by the keepers.
          a. to be fed b. to feed c. to being fed d. to have been fed
          23.“I wonder why they’re late.” “They ______ the train.”
          a. can have missed b. could miss c. may have missed d. might miss
          24.“Tom graduated from college at a very young age.”
          “He ______ have been an outstanding student.”
          a. must b. could c. should d. might
          25.You ______ the examination again since you had already passed it.
          a. needn’t have taken b. didn’t need to take c. needn’t take d. mustn’t take
          26.He is really incompetent! The letter ______ yesterday.
          a. should be finished typing b. must be finished typing
          b. must have finished typing c. should have been finished typing
          27.The boy told his father that he would rather ______ an astronaut.
          a. become b. to become c. becoming d. became
          28.When we reached the station, the train had still not arrived; so we ______.
          a. needed not to hurry b. needn’t have hurried
          b. need not to have hurried d. didn’t need to hurry
          29.Since your roommate is visiting her family this weekend,_____ you like to have dinner with us tonight?
          a. will b. won’t c. wouldn’t d. do
          30.He was afraid what he had done ______ a disastrous effect on his career.
          a. might have b. could be c. have been d. shall be
          31.He ______ hardly say anything more, since you know about it.
          a. don’t need to b. needn’t c. needs d. need
          32.You ______ the look on his face when he won the prize.
          a. would have seen b. should have seen c. must see d. can be seeing
          33.Some people think the stock market will crash, but ______.
          a. I wonder if it happens b. I doubt if it will happen
          c. I am afraid it wouldn’t happen d. I doubt if it does happen
          34.“Whatever has happened to George?” “I don’t know. He ______ lost.”
          a. can have got b. may have got c. might get d. could get
          35.He has no idea what the book is about. He ______read the book.
          a. couldn’t b. couldn’t have c. mightn’t have d. shouldn’t have
          36.New studies show that two of Saturn’s rings ______ longer than the 4.5 billion years since the birth of the Solar System.
          a. could have lasted b. should have lasted c. would have lasted d. must be lasting
          37.Take the telescope with you in case you ______ it in your expedition.
          a. will need b. would need c. should need d. could need
          38.Need he come at once? Yes, he ______.
          a. must b. must not c. need d. may
          39.Please answer the phone. It ______ be by your father. If it is, would you tell that I want to see him?
          a. will b. should c. would d. could
          40.We’ll never give in whatever they ______ say or do.
          a. may b. will c. shall d. should
          41.With all this work on hand, he ______ to the cinema last night.
          a. mustn’t go b. wouldn’t go c. oughtn’t go d. shouldn’t have gone
          42.Everyone ______ the cake because there wasn’t even a small piece left.
          a. must like b. must have liked c. must have been liking d. had liked
          43.I wish to recollect where I met her, ______?
          a. would I b. may I c. may not I d. can I
            
            
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          44.I ______ think he will ______ dare the risk.
          a. not/ .. b. do/not c. ../not d. don’t/..
          45.If reading is to accomplish anything more than passing time, it ______ be active.
          a. may not b. must c. might d. is not
          46.You ______ your seats today if you want to go to the game.
          a. had better to reserve b. had better reserve
          c. had to better reserve d. had to reserve better
          47.I ______ the operation unless it is absolutely necessary.
          a. would rather not have b. would not rather had
          b. rather would not have d. rather not would have
          48.Many scientists ______ their own eyes and ears than the theories of the ancients.
          a. would rather to believe b. would rather believe
          c. rather would believe d. will rather believe
          49.To travel from England to Scotland you ______ a passport.
          a. haven’t got b. mustn’t have c. needn’t d. don’t need
          50.One of the statements ______ to be untrue.
          a. is turned out b. has turned out c. have been turned out d. have turned out
          51.I don’t know whether it will rain or not, but if it ______ rain, I shall stay at home.
          a. will b. did c. does d. shall
          52.“You’d like some tea,______?”
          a. wouldn’t you b. shouldn’t you c. hadn’t you d. didn’t you
          53.“May we take the books out?”
          a. No, you may not b. No, you can not c. No, you can’t d. Please don’t
          54.“I would have come sooner, but I ______ that you were waiting.”
          a. didn’t know b. hasn’t known c. hadn’t know d. haven’t known
          55.If you don’t want to, you ______ to get there with us.
          a. mustn’t b. can’t c. don’t have d. have not
          56.I would go to visit them but I ______ think they are anxious to see me.
          a. haven’t b. don’t c. doesn’t d. didn’t
          57.Whatever you can do,______.
          a. I can do so as well b. I can do this as well
          b. I can do it as well d. I can do as well
          58._____- I realized the consequences I would never have contemplated getting involved.
          a. Had b. Have c. Having d. Has
          59.“Perhaps she is working for John.” “Yes, she ______ for him.”
          a. need have been working b. may be working
          b. ought have been working d. ought be working
          60.“I know she was in because I heard her radio, but she didn’t open the door.” “She ______ the bell.”
          a. may not be hearing b. may not have heard
          b. must not have heard d. must not be hearing
          61. “He was smoking.” “Then he ______ .”
          a. ought to have been not smoking b. ought to have not been smoking
          b. ought not to have been smoking d. ought to not have been smoking
          62.You ______ out yesterday without a coat. No wonder you caught cold.
          a. oughtn’t have gone b. shouldn’t have gone c. mustn’t have gone d. can’t have gone
          63.“Paul was riding a bicycle along the motorway when he was hit by the trailer of a lorry.”
          “He _____ a bicycle along the motorway; bicycles are not allowed.”
          a. shouldn’t have been riding b. couldn’t have been riding
          c. oughtn’t have been riding d. can’t have been riding
          64.I am listening. But you ______.
          a. need be listening b. should be listening c. need have been listening d. ought be listening
          65.He ______ with us last night.
          a. would have liked to go b. should like to be going
          b. should be liked to go d. would like to go
          66.I ______ his face when he opened the letter.
          a. should like you to see b. would have liked you to be seen
          b. should like you to have seen d. would like you to see
          67.You say you ______ do it, but I say you ______ do it.
          a. ought not/could b. will not/shall c. could not/need d. shall not/ought
          68.We ______ put the meeting off for a week.
          a. can as well b. will as well c. shall as well d. may as well
          69.______ wind your watch every day?
          a. Do you need b. Must you have to c. Have you to d. Do you have to
          70.______ give him a chance to try?
          a. Oughtn’t to we b. Oughtn’t we to c. Ought to we not d. Oughtn’t we
          71.“Did you blame him for his mistakes?” “______”
          a. I’d rather not do b. I’d not rather do c. I’d better not do d. I’d rather not doing
          72.You had better ______ your hair cut.
          a. had b. have c. to get d. to have
          73.My sister didn’t go to the party last night because she ______ the baby for her friend until 9:30.
          a. must have looked after b. would have to look after
          b. had to look after d. should have looked after
          74.Mary is very late, she ______.
          a. may miss her train b. may have missed her train
          c. must miss her train d. could miss her train
          75.No matter what you may say, he ______ to his own views.
          a. would always stick b. will always stick c. should always stick d. must always stick to
          76.It’s wonderful that you ______ have achieved so much in these years.
          a. may b. can c. should d. would
          77.The students asked whether he ______ take the books out of the reading-room.
          a. could b. might c. should d. would
          78.He ______ still be thinking about the question you raised.
          a. may b. might c. must d. should
          79.I’d be glad if you______ give me an account of the fact.
          a. shall b. should c. would d. may
          80.He ______ accomplish the task in time.
          a. did b. has c. is d. do
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