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英语语法:have sth done的一道语法难题

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发表于 2016-7-9 17:37:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  有这样一道题:
          Mrs Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had _________ went wrong again.
          A. it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired
          这是一道上海高考英语题,答案选C,许多考生因不能正确分析句子结构,不知如何下笔。现分析如下:句中to see 后的基本结构是:the washing machine went wrong again.(洗衣机又出毛病了),其中 (that) she had had repaired 套用的句型是“have + 名词或代词 + 过去分词”,即 have the washing machine repaired;另外,从时间上看,“请人修洗衣机”应在“出故障”之前,故 have the washing machine repaired 用了过去完成时态,即用 had had the washing machine repaired;从修饰角度看,题目中she had had repaired 为修饰名词 the washing machine 的定语从句(意为“她曾请人修理过的洗衣机”),引导该定语从句的关系代词为 that,因其用作宾语被省略,也正因为如此,题目中的 she had had repaired 的第二个had 后既不能用 the washing machine 或 it,这也就是为什么不能选B的原因。如果有的同学还明白,我们可以从反面来分析一下:假若选B,则有 (that) she had had it repaired,而它作为修饰 the washing machine 的定语从句是有问题的,为什么有问题呢?那是因为 she had had it repaired 这个句子的结构(或成分)是完整的,它有主语、有谓语、有宾语,这样一来,引导这个定语从句的关系代词 that 就没有着落了,因为关系代词 that 要么作主语(不可省略),要么作宾语(可以省略),而 she had had it repaired 这个定语从句既不缺主语,也不缺宾语,所以错了。假若去掉其中的 it,即改选C,则对了,因为这样一来,that 可用作动词 repaired 的宾语。现在我们将此题改编一下,将其改为:
          Mrs Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had _________ went wrong again.
          A. it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired
          答案应选哪个呢?选B还是C?仍然要选C,但是意思变了,即“她自己修理过的洗衣机又出故障了”,因为此时修饰 the washing machine 的定语从句变成了 she had repaired。不能选B,道理同上。
          请比较下面一题:
          A computer does only what thinking people _________.
          A. have it do B. have it done C. have done it D. having it done
          答案选A,选项中的 it 指的是 the computer,而不是指 the work 之类的。其中的 what 用作动词 do 的宾语。句意为“人们要计算机做什么,它就做什么”。
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