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2010年英语专业八级考试听力真题

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发表于 2016-7-9 22:40:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Section A Mini-lecture
          Paralinguistic features of languages
          Good morning, everyone. Today we'll continue our discussion on describing
language. Last week we examined such features of language as grammar,
vocabulary, the sounds of language, etc. In this lecture, we'll look at another
important aspect of language. Perhaps some of you may wonder what is this
important aspect of language. Let me tell you.It refers to features of
communication that takes place without the use of grammar and vocabulary.They
are called ‘paralinguistic features of language'.These features fall into two
broad categories:those that involve voice and those that involve the body.
          Now, the first category, is what we call vocal paralinguistic
features.Vocal features are actually tones of voice. While they are, perhaps,
not central to meaning in communication in the same way as grammar or
vocabulary, they may, nevertheless, convey attitude or intention in some way.
Let me give you some examples. The first iswhispering, which indicatesthe needs
for secrecy. The second isbreathiness. This is to showdeep emotion. The third
ishuskiness, which is to showunimportants. The fourth isnasality. This is to
indicate anxiety. The last isextra lip-rounding, which expressesgreater
intimacy, expecially with babies, for example. So we can see that there are a
number of ways of altering our tone of voice. And when we do this consciously,
we do it to create different effects in communication.
          Now, let's come tothe second category, physical paralinguistic features,
which involves the body. In addition to convey meanings with tone of voice, we
can also express our intentions through the ways in which we use our bodies. You
may ask: what are the ways, then? Let me sight some brief examples. The
expression on our face, the gestures we make and even proximity or way we sit,
are some of the ways we send powerful messages. About how we feel, or what we
mean. Let me explain some of these in more detail. First,facial expression.
Facial expression is a powerful conveyer of meaning. We all knowsmilingis an
almost universal signal ofpleasure or welcome. But there are other facial
expressions that may not be so common. For instance,raising eye-brows- suggest
that you aresurprised or interested in something. Other facial actions, such
asbiting your lip, which indicates that you aredeep in thinking, or
areuncertainabout something;compressing the lips, which show that you aremaking
decisions; and a visibleclenching of the teeth, to show that you areangry, are
all powerful conveyers of meaning, too. The second in this category is gesture.
You see, we usegestureto indicate a wide range of meanings. Though I have to
emphasize that the actual gestures we use may be specific to particular
cultures. That is to say different cultures have their own favorite gestures in
conveying meaning. Here, a few examples may show you how powerful gestures can
be. In British English behavior,shrugging shouldersmay indicate an attitude of
‘I don't care', or ‘I don't know'.Crossing your armsmay indicaterelaxation. But
it can also powerfully show you arebored.Wavingcan meanwelcome and farewell.
Whilescratching your headmay indicate that you areat a loss. In other
cultures,placing your hand upon your heartis to indicate that you aretelling the
truth.Pointing your finger at your nosemeansit's a secret. That's why we say
thatgestures are culture bound. The third isproximity, posture and echoing.
Proximityrefers tothe physical distance between speakers.This can indicate a
number of things and can also be used to consciously send messages about
intent.Closeness, for example, indicatesintimacy or threatto many speakers. But
distance may showformality, orlack of interest. Once again, I'd like to
say,proximity is also both a matter of personal style, and is often culture
bound. So, what may seem normal to a speaker from one culture may appear
unnecessarily close or distant to a speaker from another. And standing close to
someone may be quite appropriate in some situations such as an informal party,
but completely out of place in other situations, such as a meeting with a
superior. Next, posture.Posture means the way in which someone holds his or her
body,especially the back, shoulders and head, when standing, walking or sitting.
A few examples.Hunched shoulders and a hanging headgive a powerful indication of
whether the person ishappy or not.A lowered headwhen speaking to a superior,with
or without eye contact can convey the appropriate relationshipin some cultures.
On the other hand,direct level eye contact, changes the nature of interaction,
and can been seen as eitheropen or challenging. Last, echoing. Now, what is
echoing? Let me start with an example. Some of you may have noticed this
phenomenon in your experience. When two people are keen to agree each other,
they would likely, though unconsciously adopt the same posture, as if an
imitation of each other. They sit or stand in the same manor. When used in this
way,echoing appears to complement the verbal communication. Of course, when such
imitation is carried out consciously, it often indicates that someone is marking
at another speaker.
          Ok, in today's lecture,we looked at some paralinguistic features, such as
tone of voice, gesture and posture. These features, together with linguistic
features of language, like grammar, or vocabulary, are all part of the way we
communicate with each other in face to face encounters. In our next lecture,
we'll watch some video material, and see how people actually use paralinguistic
means in communication to express their intention or desire or mood.
          笔记:
          I. Vocal Paralinguistic Features
          1. whispering- the needs for secrecy
          2. breathiness- deep emotion
          3. huskiness- unimportants
          4. nasality- anxiety
          5. extra lip-rounding- greater intimacy
          II. physical paralinguistic features
          1. facial expression- powerful conveyer of meaning.
          --e.g.1 smiling: pleasure or welcome
          --e.g.2 raising eye-brows: surprised or interested in something
          --e.g.3 biting your lip:deep in thinking/ uncertain about something
          --e.g.4 compressing the lips: making decisions
          --e.g.5 clenching of the teeth: angry
          2. gesture- culture bound
          --e.g.1 shrugging shoulders: 'I don't care', or 'I don't know'
          --e.g.2 crossing your arms: relaxation/ bored
          --e.g.3 waving: welcome and farewell
          --e.g.4 scratching your head: at a loss
          --e.g.5 placing your hand upon your heart: telling the truth
          --e.g.6 pointing your finger at your nose: it's a secret
          3. proximity, posture and echoing
          1). proximity: personal style & culture bound
          --e.g.1 closeness: intimacy, threat
          --e.g.2 distance: fomality, lack of interest
          2). posture: the way in which someone holds his or her body
          --e.g.1 Hunched shoulders and a hanging head: happy or not
          --e.g.2 A lowered head, eye contact: the appropriate relationship
          --e.g.3 direct level eye contact: open or challenging
          3). echoing: to complement the verbal communication
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