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王逢鑫教授:“恶性竞争”的 英文表达

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发表于 2016-7-9 22:26:15 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  句子:最近,这两家公司一直在搞恶性竞争,而不是良性竞争。
          误译:Recently, the two companies have been carrying on a malignant competition, instead of a virtuous one。
          正译:
          1) Recently, the two companies have been carrying on a malignant competition, instead of a benign one。
          2)Recently, the two companies have been carrying on a vicious competition, instead of a virtuous one。
          解释:malignant 的反义词是benign,如“恶性肿瘤”是malignant tumour,而“良性肿瘤”是benign tumour。vicious 的反义词是 virtuous,如“恶性循环”是vicious circle,而“良性循环”是
          virtuous circle。表示“恶性竞争”和“良性竞争”时,要用malignant competition和benign competition,或 vicious competition和 virtuous competition,不可混淆。
          “恶性”的意思是“能产生严重或危险后果的”。英语可以译为vicious, malignant, pernicious, grave, cutthroat。例如:
          1. 圈地的后果是将贫穷农民陷入贫困的恶性循环。The effect of the land enclosure was to leave the poor peasants in a vicious circle of poverty。
          2. 中药治疗恶性肿瘤有其独特的优势。The treatment of malignant tumour with traditional Chinese medicine has its unique advantage。
          3. 大学生毕业后面临着恶性竞争。University students are confronted with cutthroat competition after graduation。
          “恶性通货膨胀”可译为 galloping inflation, runaway inflation, rampant inflation, malignant inflation, vicious inflation, virulent inflation, boiling inflation, hyperinflation。
          例如:
          4. 政府已采取有效措施遏制恶性通货膨胀。The government has taken effective measures to curb/check/halt/curtail the galloping inflation。
          5. 这次加息的目的是为了防止恶性通货膨胀。The increase in interest rates this time is for the purpose of preventing malignant inflation.
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